Docstoc

Organic Molecules Organic molecules are molecules found in all

Document Sample
Organic Molecules Organic molecules are molecules found in all Powered By Docstoc
					Goal 2.01 Compare/contrast the structure and function of the organic molecules: CARBOHYDRATES,
proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Include starch, cellulose, insulin, glycogen, and glucose.
Distinguish between mono- and polysaccharides.

Organic Molecules

    Organic molecules are molecules found in all living things.
    Organic molecules always contain the elements carbon
     and hydrogen.
    The four organic molecules found in living things include carbohydrates,
     proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates (sugars and starches)

Structure of Carbohydrates:

    Carbohydrates are organic molecules that contain the elements carbon,
     hydrogen, and oxygen (C, H, and O).
    In carbohydrates the ratio of C, H, and O is always 1:2:1. This means
     that for every carbon and oxygen atom there are 2x (twice) as many
     hydrogen atoms. For example C11H22O11
    Carbohydrates are also called saccharides…and can be described based
     on the number of sugars present in the carbohydrate: monosaccharides
     and polysaccharides (polymers of monosaccharides).

Functions of Carbohydrates

    Carbohydrates are the MAJOR SOURCE OF ENERGY for the body.
    Carbohydrates are also used as structural elements of organisms: for
     example, shells of crabs and stems of plants.
    Without carbohydrates, organisms would not function properly.

Monosaccharides(simple sugars)

    Monosaccharides are carbohydrates composed of ONE sugar; the sugar
     glucose is a monosaccharide and is used to build some of the more
     complex sugars.
Goal 2.01 Compare/contrast the structure and function of the organic molecules: CARBOHYDRATES,
proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Include starch, cellulose, insulin, glycogen, and glucose.
Distinguish between mono- and polysaccharides.

    Monosaccharides are simple sugars and can be found in fruits and dairy
     products. Some examples are: glucose, fructose (fruit), sucrose (table
     sugar), galactose (milk), lactose (dairy products).
    Monosaccharides can also be found in candy and non-diet sodas, but
     have little nutritional value in these products.
    Glucose is the most important simple sugar that is created by plants in
     photosynthesis and used in cellular respiration by animals that eat plants.

Polysaccharides (complex sugars/starches)

    Polysaccharides are carbohydrates composed of MANY or MULTIPLE
     sugars joined together; some of the more important polysaccharides
     include starch in plants and glycogen in animals.




    Polysaccharides are polymers/chains of the simple sugars and can be
     found in foods like pasta, potatoes, vegetables, and whole grain breads.
    Polysaccharides take longer to be digested because they have to be
     broken down into glucose (a simple sugar).
Goal 2.01 Compare/contrast the structure and function of the organic molecules: CARBOHYDRATES,
proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Include starch, cellulose, insulin, glycogen, and glucose.
Distinguish between mono- and polysaccharides.

Important Polysaccharides

   a. Cellulose: a polymer of glucose
          Found in plants-wood, cell walls of plants
          Used for support
   b. Glycogen: a polymer used to STORE glucose
          Found in humans and other animals
          If the body produces too much glucose it’s stored in the
            liver/muscle cells as glycogen
          Used for short bursts of energy/exercise
   c. Starch: polysaccharide in plants, used to store glucose
          Found in vegetables, pastas, whole grain products
          Takes longer to digest, more prolonged source of energy

Digestion of Carbohydrates/Insulin

    Your liver breaks carbohydrates into glucose which is used for energy.
    Insulin is a hormone (protein) that is responsible for allowing the
     absorption of glucose by cells.
    Insulin responds to the amount of sugar in the blood.

    Diabetes 1: deficiency of insulin-blood sugar can be too high
    Diabetes 2: Insulin resistance: the body has a poor response to insulin
     and does not get the energy it needs to perform vital functions.
Goal 2.01 Compare/contrast the structure and function of the organic molecules: CARBOHYDRATES,
proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Include starch, cellulose, insulin, glycogen, and glucose.
Distinguish between mono- and polysaccharides.

                                   Common Carbohydrates
          Name                           Derivation of name and Source
                                     Monosaccharides
        Glucose          From Greek word for sweet wine; grape sugar, blood sugar, dextrose.
                         Greek word for milk--"galact", found as a component of lactose in
       Galactose
                         milk.
                         Latin word for fruit--"fructus", also known as levulose,
        Fructose
                         found in fruits and honey; sweetest sugar.
                        Ribose and Deoxyribose are found in the backbone structure of RNA
         Ribose
                        and DNA, respectively.
                        Disaccharides - contain two monosaccharides
                        French word for sugar--"sucre", a disaccharide containing glucose and
         Sucrose
                        fructose; table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar.
                        Latin word for milk--"lact"; a disaccharide found in milk containing
         Lactose
                        glucose and galactose.
                        French word for "malt"; a disaccharide containing two units of
        Maltose
                        glucose; found in germinating grains, used to make beer.
                                    Common Polysaccharides
          Name                                              Source
                         Plants store glucose as the polysaccharide starch. The cereal grains
         Starch          (wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley) as well as tubers such as potatoes are
                         rich in starch.
                         The major component in the rigid cell walls in plants is cellulose and is
       Cellulose         a linear polysaccharide polymer with many glucose monosaccharide
                         units.
                         This is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is
        Glycogen         analogous to the starch in plants. Glycogen is synthesized and stored
                         mainly in the liver and the muscles.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:47
posted:6/6/2012
language:English
pages:4