MANGOSTEEN THRIPS COLLECTION_ IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL by leader6

VIEWS: 29 PAGES: 15

									Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research              Vol. 17/(2) 2009: 219-233




            MANGOSTEEN THRIPS: COLLECTION,
             IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL
                        Affandi and Deni Emilda

        Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute, PO Box 5 Solok 27301
                            West Sumatra, INDONESIA
                         e-mail: Affandi1970@yahoo.com

               (Received November 17, 2008/Accepted May 4, 2009)

                                 AB ST R ACT


     The mangosteen international standard for export requires fruit free from scar.
This was the most constraining issue for the Indonesian export of mangosteen. Thrips
are pests which cause scars on mangosteen fruits. Hence, there is an inevitable need to
control the thrips population. This research was aimed at identifying the thrips pest
that causes scars on the mangosteen fruit. This project was also aimed at stud ying the
effects of using yellow fluorescent sticky trap (YST), and the combination treatment:
YST and intensive orchard care (YST+IOC) on the percentage and intensity of fruit
scars caused by thrips. The research was conducted at a farm with a polycultured
mangosteen orchard in Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra, Indonesia. It was conducted
during the two fruit seasons from September 2006 to February 2007, and from
October 2007 to February 2008. The results showed that there were two species of
thrips pests that are associated with the mangosteen: Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) and
Selenothrips rubrocintus Giard. All of the treatments gave significant differences in
decreasing the percentage and intensity of scars. These differences were significantly
different compared to the control group in the first year as well as in second year. The
combined treatment of YST+IOC proved to have the best results in reducing the
percentage (41.19% and 43.96%) and intensity of scars (32.14% and 15.81%) in the
first year as well as in the second year, respectively.

Key words: mangosteen, thrips, identification, control

         INTRODUCT ION                       The plants are widely grown throughout
                                             the country; hence, it is expected to
   Mangosteen in Indonesia has a very        become a major Indonesian fruit
good possibility for being used for both     export. Indonesia is one of the main
domestic market and overseas export.         mangosteen producing countries in
Affandi and D. Emilda

the world as well as Thailand and         discoloration, elongated and patchy
Malaysia (Poerwanto, 2000). Mango-        scars or hardened scars, and
steen juice is rich in the super anti-    “alligator skin”-like scars that may
oxidants called xanthones. Xanthones      cover the entire fruit surface. Heavily
have been known to kill or stop the       scarred skin can sometimes prevent
spread of viruses, fungi, bacteria, and   normal fruit growth.
free radicals which are strongly               Methods of controlling thrips on
associated with cancer. Medical science   mangosteen fruit are not yet available.
reveals that xanthones inhibit the        However, several control methods of
oxidation of low density lipoprotein      thrips on others fruit can be adopted
(LDL) one of the causes of arterios-      such as applying botanical pesticides as
clerosis (hardening of the arteries)      “Sabadilla” derived from the seeds of
and heart attacks (Dench, 2008).          Schoenocaulon officinale, as well as
Furthermore, mangosteen juice has         biopesticides such as abamectin and
been proven to promote healing of         spinosad (Hoddle et al., 1998; Wee et
such medical conditions as diabetes,      al., 1999; Faber et al., 2000; Astridge
premature aging and arthritis (Dench,     and Fay, 2006). Other cultural control
2008).                                    techniques which could be used to
    Indonesian mangosteen fruit           reduce thrips population are: composted
export in 2000 reached 7 182 tons         organic yard waste, composted mulch
worth US $ 5 885 035 and contri-          applied under plant canopy, and
buted to 45% of the total fruit           augmentation of predatory thrips
exports value (Winarno, 2002). After      Franklinothrips orizabensis, F. vespi-
2000, Indonesian mangosteen export        formis and Leptothrips mc-cornnelli
value declined. One of the problems       (Hoddle et al., 1998; 2002; Wee
in exporting mangosteen fruit is the      et al., 1999). University of California
high percentage of visible fruit scar.    Statewide Integrated Pest Management
From 2001 till 2006, only 4.9-13.1%       Program (2006) suggested integrated
of total Indonesian mangosteen            pest management (IPM) for controlling
production fulfiled international         thrips. Such a plan would include:
standard export quality (Indonesian       optimal use of natural enemies,
Department of Agriculture, 2007).         removing all weeds under the canopy
Preliminary studies show that it is the   to eradicate its alternative hosts,
thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae)         regular pruning of infected trees, use
infestation that caused the scars on      of a fluorescent yellow sticky trap,
the mangosteen fruit. The pest is also    and application of reflective mulch to
known to cause scars on other fruit       disturb host plant orientation of the
such as apples (Childs, 1927; Jacob,      thrips. Chemical insecticide should
1995), grapes (McNally et al., 1985),     be used only as a last alternative. Use
and avocados (Dennill and Erasmus,        of fluoresent yellow sticky traps is
1992b; Hoddle and Morse, 1997).           limited for monitoring the population
Typical symptoms include: silvering       of thrips due to the cost of adhesive
of fruit skin, pale yellow/brown          glues such as the one called tanglefoot

220                                       J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233
                                     Mangosteen thrips: collection, identification and control

(Chu et al., 2006). Therefore, it is                  fruit intensity in the orchard was high
necessary to modify the application of                (may even 100%) and endemic.
sticky traps not only for monitoring but
                                                      Collection and identification of
also for controlling thrips population.
                                                      mangosteen thrips
     Methods of controlling thrips on
mangosteen need to be introduced to                        When the mangosteen trees
farmers because they do not realize                   entered the fruiting stage, four man-
how serious the problem of thrips                     gosteen fruits per tree were randomly
infestation is on the quality of the                  cut off for thrips trap purposes. The
mangosteen. Recently, the price of                    samples were immediately put into
mangosteens at the farmers` level has                 zip-lock plastic bags, properly labelled
been determined based on the quality                  and brought to the laboratory for the
of the fruit. Those fruit which were                  next stage. In the laboratory, samples
free of scars significantly determined                were immediately put in the Berlese-
the price.                                            -Tullgren funnel, a device for extracting
     This research was aimed at deter-                thrips. Extraction took place for at least
mining the species of thrips which                    24 hours using a 40-watt bulb to
cause scars on mangosteen fruit and                   create a step gradient of temperature
at evaluating the effects of using                    and moisture. The extracted thrips
Yellow Fluorescent Sticky Trap (YST)                  were trapped into a small wide-
and combination treatment of YST and                  mouthed jar with 70% ethyl alcohol.
intensive orchard care (YST+IOC) on                   The trapped thrips were separated
the percentage and intensity of fruit                 from accompanying bits of debris
scars caused by thrips during two                     under a dissecting microscope. The
years of a three-year research project.               thrips were then made ready for
                                                      mounting on glass slides. The reason
 MATERIAL AND M ETHODS                                for mounting the specimen was to
                                                      identify the thrips species associated
     The research was conducted at                    with the mangosteen fruit.
a mangosteen orchard in Lima Puluh                         To prepare the thrips specimen
Kota, West Sumatra, from September                    for sorting and identification, all
2006 to February 2007, and from                       thrips taken from all samples were
October 2007 to February 2008. The                    mounted on glass slides using
mangosteen trees were planted in                      Hoyer’s medium. However, before
a polyculture planting system along                   the mounting process, the specimen
with cacao and coconut trees. The                     had to be macerated to remove the
planting distance among mangosteen                    body for detail of the dorsal and
trees was 8-9 x 9 m. The cacao and                    ventral surface sculpture, and the
coconut trees were planted sporad-                    presence of small setae for
ically in the orchard. The mangosteen                 identification purposes. The method
trees were 10-15 years-old. They were                 of Palmer et al. (1989) was used,
approximately 4-7 meters high. Scar                   including a combination of the


J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233                                         221
Affandi and D. Emilda

Krantz (1978) and Henderson (2001)          replaced with a new one every two
methods for thrips slide mounting.          weeks.
    All of the mounted thrips in each           Intensive orchard care was ap-
sample were sorted and identified by        plied by removing all weeds under
species under a dissecting microscope,      the canopy of a mangosteen tree,
using the Thrips ID program produced        followed with tilling the surface of
by Lucid Australia (Moritz et al., 2001).   the soil and fogging, which was done
                                            by burning coconut husks. Burning
Intensive orchard care and sticky           of coconut husks was done when
trap                                        there was no wind. These orchard
     Mangosteen trees were sampled          practices were repeated monthly until
                                            harvest. The combination treatment
and used for the experiment as
a sampling unit. The experiment was         of intensive orchard care and sticky
done in a completely randomized             trap (IOC+YST) was performed by
                                            combining both procedures as men-
design with three treatments, and six
replications in the first year and four     tioned above.
replications in the second year due to
                                            Parameters observed
the limit of fruiting trees. Three
treatments were used in this study.         The following data were gathered:
They were: 1) application of yellow         a. Percentage and intensity of the
fluorescent sticky trap (YST), 2)              fruit scars. Percentage of scars was
combination of IOC+YST and 3) the              defined as number of scarred fruits
control.                                       divided by total number of
     The yellow fluorescent sticky             observed fruits and expressed in
trap tube (YST) was made of alumin-            percents. Modification of the
ium that formed a tube which was 10            Mahfud et al. (1994) method was
cm in diameter. The tube was nailed on         used to count the intensity of
a 3-meter-long wooden stick.                   scarring that was defined as the
Transparent “Ultra Super” glue com-            value of scars (1-100) divided by
monly used to trap rats/mice was               the highest value of scars. The
smeared on one side of the surface of          estimation of scar intensity value
a transparent    overhead      projection      was made easier by dividing the
(OHP) plastic “Yashica” (21 cm x               mangosteen fruits into eight parts
33 cm). The plastic, with the glue             of the same proportion. This was
part facing outward, was then put on           done by standing the mangosteen
the YST tube (Fig. 1). Four wooden             fruit upright. The upper part is
sticks with YST tubes were put at four         then divided into four parts and
opposite points about 30 cm from the           the lower part into four parts. This
outer side of the canopy. The trapped          means that each part contained
insects stuck onto the glued surface.          12.5% mangosteen fruit. All
The sticky trap plastic was removed and        of     the     treatments      were



222                                         J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233
                                     Mangosteen thrips: collection, identification and control




                           Figure 1. The yellow fluorescent sticky trap


observed six to nine times during the                 b. The number of thrips caught by
early fruit growth stage until harvest.                  the sticky trap (21 cm x 30 cm)
The complete formula of percentage                       was also checked six to nine times
and intensity of scar is shown as                        during the fruit growth stage.
follows,                                              c. Average daily rainfall, rainy days,
     n                                                   temperature and relative humidity.
P=      x 100%,                                           Experimental data were analyzed
     N                                                by ANOVA and the Least Signifi-
where:                                                cant Difference (LSD) test was used
P = percentage of scars                               for the estimation of significant
n = number of scarred fruits                          differences between the treatments.
N = total number of observed fruits
                                                       RESULT AND DISCUSSION

                                                      Identity of mangosteen thrips
       V
I=       x 100%,                                           The result showed that there were
      Z                                               two species of phytophagous thrips
where:                                                associated with mangosteen fruits,
I = intensity of scars                                namely the Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood)
V = value of scarring                                 and the Selenothrips rubrocintus Giard
Z = highest value of scarring                         that are characterized as follows:

J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233                                       223
Affandi and D. Emilda

                                               Character of body part
 No.       Body part
                                    S. dorsalis                     S. rubrocintus
1.     Body colour      Body colour mainly yellow,           Dark blackish brown body.
                        antecostal ridges of tergites and
                        sternites dark brown with a
                        small associated brown area.
2.     Antenna          Antennae 8-segmented, III and        Antennae 8-segmented,
                        IV with constricted apical neck, antennal segment II and III
                        sense cone forked and stout.         shape more or less
                        Antennal segment I white, II         symmetric, segments III and
                        and III grey, V – VIII brown.        IV with constricted neck at
                                                             base and apex, sense cone
                                                             long and forked.
                                                             Antennal segments III and
                                                             V yellow in basal half, IV
                                                             yellow at base and apex.
3.     Satae            Setae on abdominal tergite X         Setae on abdominal tergite
                        slender, minute and scarcely         X slender, minute and
                        visible. Major setae not dark.       scarcely visible.
4.     Forewing         Uniformly light brown, weakly        Uniformly dark brown with
                        shaded.                              2 rows of black setae.
                        Forewing first vein with 3 setae     Forewing with costal cilia
                        on distal half, second vein with     longer than costal setae;
                        2 widely spaced setae; posterior posteromarginal cilia wavy;
                        fringe cilia straight; clavus with   both veins with a complete
                        4 veinal setae.                      row of widely spaced setae.
5.     Head             Head shape not prolonged in          Head shape not prolonged
                        front of compound eye. Head          in front of compound eye.
                        wider than long, postocular          Head with cheeks
                        region and ocellar triangle with     constricted to basal neck, no
                        closely spaced transverse lines      transverse ridge dorsally;
                        of sculpture; 3 pairs of ocellar     1 pair of long ocellar setae.
                        setae present, pair III close
                        together between median points
                        of hind ocelli; 2 pairs of major
                        postocular setae present.
6.     Pronotum         Pronotum with closely spaced         Pronotum short, surface
                        transverse lines of sculpture;       with transverse lines of
                        posterior margin with 4 pairs of     sculpture, 1 pair of long
                        setae, B2 about 30 microns           anteromarginal setae.
                        long.
7.     Mesonotum        Mesonotum with pair of setae         Mesonotum without median
                        arising medially.                    division.
8.     Metanotum        Metanotum with parallel              Metanotum with clearly
                        longitudinal lines of sculpture      defined triangle medially
                        on posterior half, campaniform       enclosing transverse
                        sensilla absent, median setae        reticulation, with 1 pair of
                        arise behind anterior margin.        setae medially and 1 pair of
                                                             campaniform sensilla.
9.     Metathoracid     Metathoracid endofurca               Metathoracid endofurca
       endofurca        transverse, sometimes with           elongate and Y-shaped
                        simple median spinula.


224                                        J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233
                                     Mangosteen thrips: collection, identification and control

 10.       Tergites               Tergites III – VI with median        Abdominal tergites
                                  setae small but close together; II   reticulate on lateral areas,
                                  – VIII with lateral thirds           these areas bearing long
                                  covered in closely spaced rows       setae; III-VIII with 1 pair of
                                  of fine microtrichia.                long setae medially; VIII
                                                                       with complete comb of long
                                                                       microtrichia; X without
                                                                       longitudinal division.
 11.       Sternites              Sternites without discal setae,      Sternal marginal setae
                                  covered with rows of                 almost half as long as
                                  microtrichia except                  sternites.
                                  anteromedially; posterior
                                  margins without comb of
                                  microtrichia; median setae on
                                  VII arising at margin.
 12.       Microtrichia           The microtrichial fields had 3
                                  discal setae and posterior
                                  margins with fine comb; VIII
                                  with comb complete across
                                  posterior margin, lateral discal
                                  microtrichia extending across
                                  middle of tergite; IX with
                                  several rows of discal
                                  microtrichia.
 13.       Figure                 2A                                   2B
 14.       Source                 Moritz et al., 2001                  Moritz et al., 2001




       A                                              B

  Figure 2. Thrips associate with mangosteen, S. dorsalis (Hood) (A) and S. rubrocintus
  Giard (B)



    Species S. dorsalis is known as the                   Thailand (Pankeaw, 2006). Mean-
pest that caused scar on mangosteen in                    while, species S. rubrocintus is also

J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233                                               225
Affandi and D. Emilda

known as a pest that caused scar on       habitat, food and as a place to seek
mangosteen in Australia (Astridge         refugee by the thrips (Rethwisch et
and Fay, 2006), and on avocados,          al., 1998; Kuepper, 2004). Meanwhile,
cashews and cacao fruit worldwide         application of YST effectively re-
(Dennill and Erasmus, 1992 a).            duced the remaining population of
                                          adult thrips. First the thrips were
                                          reduced using the intensive orchard
Effect of intensive orchard care          care but then remaining thrips
and yellow fluorescent sticky trap        emerged as adults. The adults were
     The result showed that all of the    then consequently trapped using
treatments gave significant differen-     YST. A similar result reported that
                                          use of the yellow sticky trap was
ces in decreasing the percentage and
intensity of scars compared to the        effective in controlling thrips on
control group, in the first year of       avocado (Hoddle dan Morse, 2003)
                                          and citrus (Hasyim et al., 2003). The
research as well as in the second
year. Application of YST reduced the      combination treatment of intensive
percentage of scar as much as             orchard care and applying yellow
                                          fluorescent sticky trap (IOC+YST)
21.65% and 35.44% compared to the
control in the first and second year,     showed an ability to reduce scarring
                                          intensity (32.14% and 15.81%) at the
respectively. Meanwhile, intensity of
scar decreased by 26.28% and 10.82%       end of the observation in the first and
compared to the control group in the      second year, compared to the control
                                          group. However, the combination
first and second year, respectively.
However, the combination treatment        treatment of IOC+YST was not
of IOC+YST showed the best results        significantly different compared to
                                          only the YST treatment, in reducing
in reducing percentage (41.81% and
43.96%) and intensity of scar value       intensity of scar in the first year as
(32.14% and 15.81%) in the first          well as in the second year.
year as well as in the second year,
respectively. A complete data of          Fluctuation in the population of
percentage and intensity of scarring      mangosteen thrips
at the end of the observation is              A high number of thrips occurred
presented in Table 1.                     in the first and second observation.
     Surprisingly, the treatments which   Tsai et al. (1996) and Funderburk et
we used in the orchard had a positive     al. (2002) stated that population
side effect, i.e. decreasing the          fluctuation of flower thrips would be
percentage and intensity of scar on       a function of flower density. Since
the whole untreated mangosteen trees      then, the number of thrips was
and expressed in control treatment.       relatively low and far from being on
Intensive orchard care by removing        the economic threshold (the third to
weeds effectively reduced thrips          the ninth observation). Hasyim et al.
infestation. Various weeds are used       (2003) said that the economic injury
as alternative hosts for breeding         level of thrips on citrus would

226                                       J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233
                                     Mangosteen thrips: collection, identification and control

T a b l e 1 . Percentage and intensity of scars on mangosteen fruits from different
treatments in the first and second year of the research (at the end of observation)
                                 First year                                Second year
                        percentage of                              percentage of
   Treatment                              intensity of                              intensity of
                          scarring                                   scarring
                                            scarring                                  scarring
                             [%]                                       [%]
 Control                  100.00 a*              41.93 a              76.79 a         21.80 a
 YST                        78.37 b              15.65 b               41.35 b             10.98 ab

 IOC + YST                  58.19 c               9.79 b               32.83 c               5.99 b

*Mean values in each column with the same letter are not significantly different (p = 0.05) based on Least
 Significant Difference (LSD)


happen if there were 5 thrips per                      average volume of rainfall including
yellow fluorescent sticky trap. In                     rainfall days based on biweekly
fact, treatment of YST and the                         observation are presented in
combination treatment of IOC+YST                       Figure 4.
were effective at decreasing the                           In the first and second year,
number of thrips in the third to the                   population fluctuation of mangosteen
fifth observation. Nevertheless, the                   thrips captured by yellow fluorescent
varying number of thrips captured by                   sticky trap (Fig. 5) was mostly
yellow sticky trap was influenced by                   influenced by climatic factors ,
many factors such as trap attractiveness               especially days with rainfall (Fig. 6).
relative to the surrounding vegetation,                The correlation analysis of climatic
host plant composition, thrips                         factors showed that volume of
population size and proportion of the                  rainfall, rainfall days, temperatures
population that is dispersing, and                     and relative humidity negatively
thrips behaviour and agricultural                      correlated with the average number
practices. Long term weather                           of thrips trapped in yellow
variables such as temperature and                      fluorescent sticky traps. However,
precipitation are responsible for the                  rainfall days and relative humidity
majority of the variation in the thrips                were the most significantly cor-
captured (Morsello et al., 2008). In                   related factors counting towards
addition, rainfall tends to negatively                 population fluctuation of thrips
affect the population of thrips                        caught by yellow florescent sticky
(Bailey, 1933; 1934) because heavy                     traps, as expressed by regression
precipitation events can kill larvae                   equation: y = 394.17 – 1.06 x 1* +
(Kirk, 1997) and suppress dispersal                    0.012 x 2 – 1.38 x3 * – 10.32 x 4 and R 2
(Lewis, 1963). The average number                      = 0.9979 (x 1 = rainfall days, x 2 =
of thrips caught by YST and the                        average volume of rainfall (mm), x 3
combination treatment of IOC+YST                       = relative humidity and x4 =
are presented in Figure 3, and the                     temperature).

J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233                                                   227
Affandi and D. Emilda

                                    120,00


      Aver age num ber of thr ips
                                                                                                                                              YST
                                    100,00
                                                                                                                                              IOC + YST
                                     80,00
                /trap
                                     60,00

                                     40,00

                                     20,00

                                      0,00
                                                     00
                                                       6         06          06              00
                                                                                               6             06           00
                                                                                                                            7        /07      /07       /07
                                                               0/          1/                             2/                      /1        /1        /2
                                                 1/2        6/1        3/1               1/2           4/1            2/ 2      17         30       20
                                          1   0/1          2          1
                                                                                  1   2/0             1
                                                                                                                  01/0
                                                                                             Date of observation

      Figure 3. Average number of thrips caught on yellow fluorescent sticky traps in
      combination where only traps ere employed (YST) and in combined treatment of intensive
      orchard care and yellow fluorescent sticky traps (IOC+YST) during the years 2006-2007




                                     30
                                                             Rainf all day s (day )
                                     25
                                                             Av erage v olume of
                                     20                      rainf all (mm)
                   Rain fa ll




                                     15

                                     10

                                      5

                                      0
                                              Oct-1 Oct-2 Nov-1 Nov-2 Des-1 Des-2 Jan-1 Jan-2 Feb-1 Feb-2
                                                                                      Biw eekly observation


      Figure 4. Average volume of rainfall and number of rainfall days during the years
      2006- 2007




228                                                                                                J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233
                                                                  Mangosteen thrips: collection, identification and control

                                              25,0

                                                              YST
        Av erag e po pul ati on o f thri ps   20,0            IOC + YST

                                              15,0
                    / trap




                                              10,0



                                               5,0



                                               0,0
                                                     06/11/2007   20/11/2007    05/12/2007   20/12/2007      07/01/2008       22/1/2008

                                                                                  Date of observation


       Figure 5. Average number of thrips caught on yellow fluorescent sticky traps in
       combination where only traps ere employed (YST) and in combined treatment of
       intensive orchard care and yellow fluorescent sticky traps (IOC+YST) during the years
       2007-2008




                                              80
                                                                                                        Rainfall days (day)
                                              70
                                                                                                        Average volume of rainfall
                                              60
                                                                                                        (mm)
                                              50
                   Ra in fa ll




                                              40
                                              30

                                              20
                                              10

                                              0
                                                     Nov-1        Nov-2         Des-1         Des-2           Jan-1           Jan-2

                                                                               Biw eekly observation

       Figure 6. Average volume number of rainfall and rainfall days during the observation
       years 2007-2008




J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233                                                                                   229
Affandi and D. Emilda

    It suggests that during low rainfall   now lowered to the point that they no
days and low relative humidity             longer posed a threat to the
periods, farmers should pay extra          mangosteen fruit quality.
attention to intensive orchard care.
A similar result was reported for dry      A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t : My deepest
weather favouring thrips population        thanks go to the following research-
growth (Bailey, 1933; 1934; 1944;          ers for their help during this study: Ir.
Fennah, 1965). Franssen and                Nurhadi, M.Sc., Director of the
Huisman (1958), and Kirk (1997)            Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research
added that infestation of Thrips           Institute, for generously permitting me
angusticeps Uzel during the rainy          to use all the facilities of Indonesian
and cool season was significantly          Tropical Fruits Research Institute, and
lower than infestations during the dry     for his support during the study. I also
and hot season. This is presumably         wish to thank Mr. Rahimi and Mr.
because of high larval mortality and       Rahimun for allowing us to use their
slower population growth rate.             mangosteen orchards for research
Hence, even though population size         purposes. This study was financed by
and proportion of the population that      The Indonesian Agency for Agricultural
is dispersing thrips is relatively high,   Research and Development in the years
due to effective catches by the YST,       of 2006-2007.
it still resulted in a low percentage
and intensity of scar in the second                     REFERENCES
year of the research.
                                           Astridge D., Fay H 2006. Red-banded
          CONCLUSION                           thrips         in     rare       fruit.
                                               http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/horticult
    There were two species of phyto-           ure/5064.html. 3 p. Accessed on:
                                               January 6 th , 2006.
phagous thrips associated with
                                           Bailey S.F. 1933. The biology of bean
mangosteen fruit, namely Scirtothrips
                                               thrips. HILGARDIA 7: 467-522.
dorsalis (Hood) and Selenothrips           Bailey S.F. 1934. A winter study of
rubrocintus Giard.                             onion thrips in California. CADA
    The combination treatment of               BULL. 23: 149-152.
IOC+YST showed the best result in          Bailey S.F. 1944. The pear thrips in
reducing percentage (41.81% and                California. University Of California,
43.96%) and intensity of scars                 College Of Agriculture, Agri-
(32.14% and 15.81%) in the first               cultural. Exp. Station. Bull. 687 p.
year as well as in the second year,        Chu C.C., Ciompelik M., Chang M.A.,
respectively.                                  Richards N., Henneberry M. 2006.
                                               Developing and evaluating traps for
    Application of intensive orchard
                                               monitoring Scirtothrips dorsalis
care and yellow fluorescent sticky             (Thysanoptera : Thripidae). FLA.
trap also drastically decreased the            ENT. 89(1): 47-55.
population of thrips in the orchard;       Childs L. 1927. Two species of thrips
hence, the population of thrips was            injurious to apples in the pacific

230                                        J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233
                                     Mangosteen thrips: collection, identification and control

    North-West. J. ECON. ENT. 20:                         sp.) pada tanaman jeruk. J.
    805-808.                                              FARMING 3: 33-38.
Dench B. 2008. The Secrets of                         Henderson R.C. 2001. Technique for
    Mangosteen. (http://www.medical-                      positional slide mounting of Acari.
    point.com.au/the-secrets-of-mango-                    SYS. AND APPL. ACAROL.
                                       th
    steen. -asp. Accessed on: July 27 ,                   (SPEC. PUB.) 7: 1-4.
    2006, 3 p.                                        Hoddle M.S., Morse J.G. 1997. Avocado
Dennill G.B., Erasmus M.J. 1992a. The                     thrips: A serious new pest of
    insect pests of avocado fruits –                      avocados in California. CALIF.
    increasing pest complex and changing                  AVO. SOC. YEARBOOK. 81: 81-
    pest status. J. ENTOMOL. SOC.                         90.
    SOUTHERN AFRICA 55(1): 51-57.                     Hoddle M.S., Morse J.G., Philliph P.A.,
Dennill G.B., Erasmus M.J. 1992b. Basis                   Faber B. 1998. Progress on the
    for a practical technique for                         management of avocado thrips.
    monitoring thrips in avocado                          CALIF. AVO. SOC. YEARBOOK.
    orchards. CROP PROTEC. 11(2):                         82: 87-100.
    89-91.                                            Hoddle M.S., Morse J.G., Philliph P.A.,
Faber B.A., Wee L.Y., Phillips P.A.                       Faber B., Jetter K.M.             2002.
    2000. Effect of Abactin treatment for                 Avocado thrips: New challenge for
    avocado thrips on population of                       growers. CALIF. AGRIC. 56(3):
    Persea and avocado bud mite and                       103-105.
    their associated damage to leaves                 Hoddle M.S., Morse J.G. 2003. Avocado
    and fruit. CALIF. AVO. SOC.                           thrips,    biology      and     control.
    YEARBOOK. 84: 95-109.                                 AVORESEARCH. SPEC. ED. 8.
Fennah R.G. 1965. The influence of                    Indonesian Department of Agriculture.
    environmental stress on the cacao                        2007.        Agricultural Statistic.
    tree in predetermining the feeding                       Center For Statistical Data,
    sites of cacao thrips, Selenothrips                      Department Of Agriculture. 302 p.
    rubrocinctus (Giard), on leaves and               Jacob S. 1995. Thrips damage and
    pods. BULL. ENTOMOL. RES. 56:                         control      in     apple     orchards.
    333-349.                                              DECIDUOUS FRUIT GROWER
Franssen C.J.H., Huisman P. A. 1958.                      45(8): 323-330.
    The biology and control of Thrips                 Kuepper G. 2004. Thrips management
    angusticeps Uzel. VERSLAGEN                           alternative       in      the      field.
    LANDBOUWKUNDIGE                                       www.attra.ncat.org. Accessed on:
                                                                      st
    ONDERZOEKINGEN. 64: 1-104.                            January 21 , 2006, 6 p.
Funderburk J.E., Stavisky J., Tipping C.,             Kirk     W.D.J.      1997.     Distribution,
    Gorbet D., Momol T., Berger R.                        abundance and population dynamics.
    2002. Infection of Frankliniella                      In: Lewis T. (ed.), Thrips as crop
    fusca (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in                   pets. CAB, OXON, UNITED
    peanut by the parasitic nematode                      KINGDOM, pp. 217-257.
    Thripinema fuscum (Thylenchidae :                 Krantz G.W. 1978. A manual of acarology.
    Allantonematidae).        ENVIRON.                    2nd edition. Oregon University Book
    ENTOMOL. 31: 342-346.                                 Store, Inc., Corvallis, Oregon, USA,
Hasyim A., Syamsuwirman, Mu’minin                         509 p.
    K. 2003. Periode kritis dan ambang                Lewis T. 1963. The effect of weather on
    kendali hama thrips (Scirtothrips                     emergence and take-off of overwin-


J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233                                           231
Affandi and D. Emilda

    tering Limothrips cerealium Haliday        dan Teknologi Manggis. Kerjasama
    (Thysanoptera). ANN. APPL. BIOL.           Pusat Kajian Buah-Buahan Tropika
    51: 489-502.                               dengan Direktorat Jendral Horti-
Mahfud M.C., Rosmahani L., Sidik N.I.          kultura dan Aneka Tanaman, Depar-
    1994. Bionomi hama silphidae dan           temen Pertanian. Bogor. November
    penyakit bercak daun (Pestaliopsis         2000, p. 15-16.
    palmarum) pada salak. PENEL.           Rethwisch M.D., McDaniel C., Peralta
    HORT. 6(2): 29-39.                         M. 1998. Seasonal abundance and
McNally P.S., Fogg C., Flynn J.,               field testing of a citrus thrips
    Horenstein J. 1985. Effect of thrips       temperature development model in
    (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on shoot        Arizona citrus. College of Agri-
    growth and berry maturity of Chenin        culture, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson,
    Blanc grapes. J. ECON. ENT. 78:            Arizona, 13 p.
    69-72.                                 Tsai J.H., Yue B.S., Funderburk J.E.,
Moritz D., Morris D., Mound L. 2001.           Webb S.E. 1996. Effect of plant
    Thrips ID. Pest Thrips of the world.       pollen on growth and reproduction
    An interactive identification and          of Frankliniella bispinosa. ACTA
    information system. Csiro Publ.,           HORT. 431: 535-541.
    Canberra, Act.                         University of California Statewide Inte-
Morsello S.C., Groves R.L., Nault                grated Pest Management Program.
    A.B.A., Kennedy G.G. 2008.                   2006. Thrips: identification,
    Temperature and precipitation affect         life cycle, damage and manage-
    seasonal patterns of dispersing              ment.
    tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca,         http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PGM/
    and onion thrips Thrips tabaci               PESTNOTES/ pn7429.html. 8 pp.
                                                                      th
    (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) caught            Accessed on : July 27 , 2006
    on     sticky    trap.   ENVIRON.      Wee L.Y., Philliph P.A., Hoddle M.S.,
    ENTOMOL. 37(1): 79-86.                     Morse J.G. 1999. Further progress
Palmer J.M., Mound L.A., du Heaume             on avocado thrips biology and
    G.J. 1989. Thysanoptera. CABI              management. CALIF. AVO. SOC.
    Institute of Entomology. British           YEARBOOK. 83: 105-125.
    Mus. Nat. Hist. 73 p.                  Winarno M. 2002. Pengembangan usaha
Pankeaw K. 2006. Thrips outbreaks and          agribisnis manggis di Indonesia. Dis-
    damage on mangosteen in Southern           ampaikan pada seminar Agribisnis
    Thailand and control measures.             manggis. Bogor, 24 Juni 2002.
    Master Thesis., Department of Pest         Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi
    Management, Faculty of Natural             Hortikultura. Departemen Pertanian,
    Resources, Prince Songkla Univer-          12 hal.
    sity, 62 p.
Poerwanto R. 2000. Teknologi budidaya
    manggis. Diskusi Nasional Bisnis




232                                        J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233
                                     Mangosteen thrips: collection, identification and control


           WCIORNASTKI Ż     CE
                        ERUJĄ NA OWOCACH
           MANGOSTANU: ZBIÓR, IDENTYFIKACJA
                      I OCHRONA
                               Affandi i Deni Emilda


                                  ST RE S Z C ZE NI E


     Mię dzynarodowe standardy w eksporcie mangostanu dopuszczająjedynie owoce
bez uszkodzonej powierzchni. Owoce mangostanu w Indonezji uszkadzane sąprzez
                              do
wciornastki, co przyczynia się ograniczeńw handlu. Konieczna jest zatem kontrola
                                                                 a
populacji tych szkodników. Celem przeprowadzonych badań był identyfikacja
gatunków wciornastków ż cych na owocach mangostanu, jak równieżpoznanie
                          erują
wpł ywu stosowania fluoryzują   cych ż tych puł
                                      ół        apek lepowych oraz kombinacji
ż tych puł
  ół        apek lepowych i intensywnych zabiegów agrotechnicznych na procent
i intensywnoś  ćuszkodzeń owoców powodowanych przez te szkodniki. Badanie
przeprowadzono w sadzie zawierają  cym wiele odmian mangostanu, znajdującym się
w Lima Puluh Kota na Sumatrze Zachodniej, która jest jednąz prowincji Indonezji,
                                                nia
podczas dwóch sezonów owocowania – od wrześ 2006 do lutego 2007 oraz od
paź dziernika 2007 do lutego 2008 roku. Podczas badańwykazano, ż dwa gatunki
                                                                  e
wciornastków uszkadzająowoce mangostanu, a mianowicie: Scirthothrips dorsalis
(Hood) and Selenothrips rubrocintus Giard. Wszystkie przeprowadzone zabiegi
             y
spowodował znaczne zmniejszenie uszkodzeńowoców w porównaniu z owocami
                                                             .
w kontroli zarówno w pierwszym, jak i w drugim roku badań Najlepsze wyniki
uzyskano w kombinacji z zastosowaniem ż tych puł
                                           ół       apek lepowych poł  ączonych
z racjonalnąagrotechnikąstosowanąw sadzie, gdzie uzyskano zmniejszenie liczby
                                                         ci
uszkodzonych owoców 41,19% i 43,96% oraz intensywnoś uszkodzeńo 32,14%
i 15,81%, odpowiednio w pierwszym i drugim roku badań .

 owa
Sł kluczowe: mangostan, wciornastki, identyfikacja, ochrona




J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. vol. 17(2) 2009: 219-233                                       233

								
To top