MitoPedia - Oroboros.xls by tongxiamy

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   State
Entry MitoPedia                       Abbr. Definition             Last update 2010-08-17

A     A
      Additive effect of convergent   A α +β   ►Convergent electron flow simultaneously through ►CI+II into the ►Q-junction supports higher
      CI+II electron flow                      ►OXPHOS and ETS capacities than separate electron flow through either CI or CII. Physiological
                                               substrate combinations supporting convergent CI+II e-input are required for reconstitution of intracellular
                                               ►TCA cycle function. The convergent CI+II effect may be completely or partially additive, suggesting
                                               that conventional bioenergetic protocols with mt-preparations have underestimated cellular OXPHOS
                                               capacities.
      Adenine nucleotide              ANT      The adenine nucleotide translocator exchanges ADP for ATP in an electrogenic antiport across the inner
      translocator                             mt-membrane.
      ADP                             D        Adenosine 5’diphosphate, C10H15N5O10P2K, potassium salt; substrate of ►ANT and ►ATP synthase.

      Amytal                                   Inhibitor of ►CI; barbiturate drug.

      Anaplerotic reaction                     Anaplerotic reactions replenish the pool of TCA cycle intermediates.
      ANT                                      ►Adenine nucleotide translocator
      Antimycin A                     Ama      Inhibitor of CIII.

      Ascorbate                       As       Ascorbate sodium salt, C6H7O6Na

      ATP                             T        Adenosine 5’-triphosphate, C10H14N5O13P3Na2

      ATP synthase                    CV       ATP synthase (Complex V) catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in an exergonic process that is
                                               driven by proton translocation along the electrochemical proton gradient.
      Atractyloside                   Atr      Inhibitor of ►adenine nucleotide translocator.

      Azide                           Azd      Inhbitor of cytochrome c oxidase.

B     B
      Biochemical threshold effect             Due to threshold effects, even a large defect diminishing the velocity of an individual enzyme results in
                                               only minor changes of pathway flux.
      BIOPS                                    Biopsy preservation solution, for preparation of muscle fibres and permeabilization with ►saponin.
      Bovine serum albumine           BSA      Bovine serum albumine is a membane stabilizer, oxygen radical scavenger, and binds Ca 2+ and free
                                               fatty acids, hence the rather expensive essentially free fatty acid free BSA is required in mitochondrial
                                               isolation and respiration media. Sigma A 6003 fraction V.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                       Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

C     C
      Calibration, dynamic, of POS           Calibration of the sensor response time.

      Calibration, static, of POS            Two-point calibration of the polarographic oxygen sensor.
      Calibration, systemic, of              Evaluation of instrumental background oxygen flux.
      respirometry chamber
      Carboxyatractyloside            Cat    Inhibitor of ►ANT (10 µM).
      Cataplerosis                           Cataplerosis is the exit of TCA cycle intermediates from the mt-matrix space.
      Cell respiration                       Cell respiration channels metabolic fuels into the bioenergetic machinery of oxidative phosphorylation,
                                             regulating oxygen consumption and being regulated by molecular redox states, ion gradients,
                                             mitochondrial membrane potential, the phosphorylation state of the ATP system, and heat dissipation in
                                             response to intrinsic and extrinsic energy demands.
      Chemical background                    Correction of oxygen flux for the side reaction of autooxidation, as a function of oxygen concentration.
      correction of oxygen flux
      Chemical blank experiment for          Determination of the influence of different chemicals on the ISE signal.
      ISE
      Choline dehydrogenase                  Choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is bound to the inner mt-membrane, oxidizes choline in kidney
                                             and liver mitochondria, with FAD-linked electron transfer into the ►Q-junction, and is thus part of the
                                             ►ETS.
      Citrate synthase                CS     Condensation of oxaloacate with acetyl-CoA yields citrate as an entry into the TCA cycle, with CS
                                             located in the mt-matrix.
      Closed system                          A system with boundaries that allow external exchange of energy (heat and work), but do not allow
                                             exchange of matter. A limiting case is light and electrons which cross the system boundary when work
                                             is exchanged in the form of light or electric energy. If the surroundings are maintained at constant
                                             temperature, and heat exchange is rapid to prevent the generation of thermal gradients, then the closed
                                             system is isothermal. Changes of closed systems can be partitioned according to internal and external
                                             sources.
      Coenzyme Q                      Q,     Coenzyme Q, redox system (ubiquinol/ubiquinone) of the ETS.
                                      CoQ
      CI+II e-input                          Electron input though Complexes CI plus CII simultaneously into the Q-junction corresponds to TCA-
                                             cycle function in vivo. In mt-preparations, CI+II e-input requires addition not only of CI substrate
                                             (pyruvate+malate or glutamate+malate), but of succinate simultaneously, since metabolite depletion in
                                             the absence of succinate prevents a significant activity of CII.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                        Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

       Complex I                       CI     NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.5.3. CI is the segment of the electron transfer system
                                              (integral enzyme of the inner mt-membrane) responsible for electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone.
                                              CI is a proton pump. News: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v465/n7297/full/465428a.html

       Complex II                      CII    Complex II is the only membrane-bound enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is part of the ►ETS.
                                              The flavoprotein succinate dehydrogenase is the largest polypeptide of CII, located on the matrix face of
                                              the inner mt-membrane. Following succinate oxidation, the enzyme transfers electrons directly to the
                                              quinone pool.
       Complex III                     CIII
       Complex IV                      CIV    ►Cytochrome c oxidase.
       Convergent electron flow               Electron flow converges at the ►Q-junction from respiratory Complexes I and II (CI+II e-input),
                                              glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and electron-transferring flavoprotein. Convergent electron flow
                                              corresponds to the operation of the TCA cycle and mitochondrial substrate supply in vivo. Due to the
                                              ►additive effect of convergent CI+II electron flow on respiratory flux, respiration is increased up to 2-
                                              fold relative to flux supported only by Complex I substrates.
       Coupled respiration                    The coupled part of respiratory oxygen flux that pumps the fraction of protons across the inner mt-
                                              membrane that are utilized by the phosphorylation system to produce ATP from ADP and Pi.
    sx Coupled respiration in intact
       cells
    sx Coupled respiration in mt-
       preparations
       Coupling control ratio          CCR
       Cyanide, calium                 Kcn    KCN; inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase (CIV).

       Cyanohydroxycinnamate                  α-Cyanohydroxycinnamate is an inhibitor of pyruvate transport (0.65 mM).

       Cytochrome c                    c


       Cytochrome c oxidase            CIV    Cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV (CIV) is the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial ETS, reducing
                                              oxygen to water. CIV is frequently abbreviated as COX or CcO. It is the 'ferment' (Atmungsferment) of
                                              Otto Warburg, shown to be related to the cytochromes by David Keilin.
D      D




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                          Abbr. Definition            Last update 2010-08-17

       Dicarboxylate carrier                     The dicarboxylate carrier catalyses the electroneutral exchange of malate2- (or succinate2-) for HPO42-.

       Digitonin                         Dig     Digitonin is a mild detergent that ►permeabilizes plasma membranes completely and selectively due to
                                                 their high cholesterol content, whereas mt-membranes with lower cholesterol content are affected only
                                                 at higher concentrations. Optimum digitonin concentrations for complete plasma membrane
                                                 permeabilization of cultured cells can be determined directly in a respirometric protocol.

       Dilution effect                           Dilution of the concentration of a compound or sample in the experimental chamber by a titration of
                                                 another solution into the chamber.
       Dinitrophenol                     DNP     2,4-dinitrophenol; ►uncoupler.


    sx Dithionite                        Na2S2O Zero solution powder, Na2S2O4.
                                         4.

       Dyscoupled respiration                    In addition to intrinsic ►uncoupling, dyscoupling occurs under pathological and toxicological conditions.
                                                 Thus a distinction is made between physiological uncoupling and pathologically defective dyscoupling in
                                                 mitochondrial respiration.
E      E
       Electron flow                         Electron flow through the mitochondrial electron transfer system (ETS) is the scalar component of
                                             chemical reactions in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Electron flow is most conveniently
                                             measured as oxygen consumption, with four electrons being taken up when oxygen (O 2) is reduced to
                                             water.
       Electron transfer system         ETS  The mitochondrial ETS transfers electrons at steady state from externally supplied reduced substrates
                                             to oxygen. It consists of the membrane-bound ETS (►mETS) with enzyme complexes located in the
                                             inner mt-membrane, mt-matrix dehydrogenases generating NADH, and the transport systems involved
                                             in metabolite exchange across the mt-membranes.
       Electron-transferring            ETF  ETF is located on the matrix face of the inner mitochondrial membrane, supplies electrons from fatty
       flavoprotein                          acid β-oxidation to CoQ, and is thus an enzyme complex of the mitochondrial ►electron transfer
                                             system, ETS.
       Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid EGTA EGTA is general chelator for heavy metals, with high affinity for Ca2+ but low affinity for Mg2+. Sigma E
                                             4378.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                      Abbr. Definition            Last update 2010-08-17

      ETS capacity                          Respiratory electron transfer system capacity of mitochondria in the experimentally controlled non-
                                            coupled (fully uncoupled) state E, obtained in intact cells or mitochondrial preparations with defined
                                            substrates, by titration of an established uncoupler up to optimum concentration at maximum flux. Non-
                                            coupled respiration yields an estimate of ETS capacity. In this state E, the mt-membrane potential is
                                            collapsed, which provides a reference state for flux control ratios and for measurement of the mt-
                                            membrane potential.
      Extensive quantity                    Extensive quantities pertain to a total system, e.g. oxygen ►flow.

      External flow                         External flows across the system boundaries are formally reversible. Their irreversible facet is
                                            accounted for internally as part of a heterogenous system.
      External unspecific binding of        Unspecific binding of the probe molecule TPP+ outside of the inner mitochondrial membrane or on the
      TPP+                                  outer side of the inner mt-membrane.
F     F
      FCCP                           Fx     Carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl-hydrazone,
                                            C10H5F3N4O; ►uncoupler, added at concentration x

      Flux control ratio             FCR    Flux control ratios, FCR , are ratios of oxygen flux in different respiratory control states, normalized for
                                            maximum flux in a common reference state, to obtain theoretical lower and upper limits of 0.0 and 1.0
                                            (0% and 100%). FCR obtained from a single respirometric incubation (sequential protocol) provide an
                                            internal normalization, expressing respiratory control independent of mitochondrial content and thus
                                            independent of a marker for mitochondrial amount. FCR obtained from separate (parallel) protocols
                                            depend on determination of a common mitochondrial marker.
      Force                          F tr   A generalized force (intensive quantity) in thermodynamics or ergodynamics is the partial Gibbs
                                            (Helmholtz) energy change per advancement.
      Fumarase
      Fumarate                       F
G     G
      Gentle Science                 GS     Gentle Science recognizes the special responsibility of the scientific community, for the quality of
                                            science, the quality of life in science, and its mission. While the individual scientist contributes her/his
                                            share, the scientific community requires concerted actions to encourage Gentle Science on institutional,
                                            national and world-wide levels.
      Glutamate                      G      Glutamate as the sole substrate is transported by the electroneutral glutamate-/OH- exchanger (Fig. 4),
                                            and is oxidized via glutamate dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial matrix. Ammonia can pass freely
                                            through the mitochondrial membrane.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                      Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

      Glutamate-aspartate carrier

      Glycerophosphate               GpDH Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase is on the outer face of the inner mt-membrane and
      dehydrogenase                          oxidizes glycerophosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A flavin prosthesic group of GpDH donates
                                             its reducing equivalents to Q.
      Glycerophosphate shuttle       Gp      Makes cytoplasmic NADH available for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Cytoplasmic NADH
                                     shuttle reacts with dihydroxyacetone phosphate catalyzed by cytoplasmic glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.
                                             On the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial glycerophosphate
                                             dehydrogenase oxidizes glycerophosphate back to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a reaction not
                                             generating NADH but reducing a flavin prosthesic group. The reduced flavoprotein donates its reducing
                                             equivalents to the electron transfer system at the level of CoQ.
H     H
      High-resolution respirometry   HRR     High-resolution respirometry is based on the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k, combining chamber design,
                                             application of oxygen-tight materials, electrochemical sensors and electronics, Peltier-temperature
                                             control and software features (►DatLab) to obtain a unique level of quantitative resolution of oxygen
                                             concentration and oxygen flux, with a closed-chamber or open-chamber mode of operation (►TIP2k).
                                             Standardized two-point ►calibration of the polarographic oxygen sensor (static sensor calibration),
                                             calibration of the sensor response time (dynamic sensor calibration), and evaluation of ►instrumental
                                             background oxygen flux (systemic flux compensation) provide the experimental basis for high accuracy
                                             of quantitative results and quality control in HRR.
      HRR                                    ►High-resolution respirometry.

      Hydroxycinnamate               Hci     Inhibitor of the pyruvate carrier. Above 10 mM pyruvate, hydroxycinnamate cannot inhibit respiration
                                             from pyruvate.
I     I
      Inorganic phosphate            Pi      Pi concentration in mitochondrial respiration media should be saturating for measurement of OXPHOS
                                             capacity (10 mM in►MiR06).
      Instrumental background        J °O2   Instrumental background oxygen flux in a respirometer is due to oxygen consumption by the POS, and
      oxygen flux                            oxygen diffusion into or out of the aqueous medium in the O2k-chamber. It is measured in the range of
                                             experimental oxygen levels by a standardized instrumental background test, and is a property of the
                                             instrumental system. Instrumental background correction eliminates errors by systemic flux
                                             compensation, automatically performed by DatLab.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                        Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

      Intensive quantity                      Intensive quantities are partial derivatives of an extensive quantity by the advancement, dtrξ , of an
                                              energy transformation.
      Internal flow                           Within the system boundaries, irreversible internal flows of heat and matter along gradients contribute to
                                              the internal entropy production, diS .
      Internal unspecific binding of          Unspecific binding of the probe molecule TPP+ in the matrix phase of mitochondria.
      TPP+
      I O2                                    ►Oxygen flow.

      IOC                                     International Oxygraph Course, O2k-workshop

      Isocitrate dehydrogenase         IDH    2-oxoglutarate is formed from isocitrate in the TCA cycle.
      Isolated system                         The boundaries of isolated systems are impermeable for all forms of energy and matter. Changes of
                                              isolated systems have exclusively internal origins.
J     J
      J O2                                    Oxygen flux, respiration expressed per unit system size, e.g. per volume or per mg wet weight.
K     K
      KCN                              Kcn    KCN

      Ketoglutarate                    Og     ►2-oxoglutarate; α-ketoglutarate.

L     L
      L/E                                     The LEAK control ratio is an index of ►uncoupling or ►dyscoupling at constant ETS capacity. L/E
                                              increases with uncoupling from a theoretical minimum of 0.0 for a fully coupled system, to 1.0 for a fully
                                              uncoupled system.
      L/P                                     L/P control ratio = (L/E ) / (P/E ); 1/RCR.
      Lactate dehydrogenase            LDH    Glycolytic marker enzyme in the cytosol, regenerating NAD+ from NADH and pyruvate, forming lactate.

      LEAK control ratio               L/E    ►L/E .




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                     Abbr. Definition            Last update 2010-08-17

      LEAK respiration              L       LEAK oxygen flux, compensating for proton leak, slip and cation cycling, is measured as mitochondrial
                                            respiration in state L , in the presence of reducing substrate(s), but absence of inorganic phosphate or
                                            ADP, or after inhibition of the phosphorylation system. In this non-phosphorylating resting state, the
                                            electrochemical proton gradient is increased to a maximum, exerting feedback control by depressing
                                            oxygen flux to a level determined by the proton leak and the H+/O ratio. In this state of maximum
                                            protonmotive force, LEAK respiration is higher than the LEAK component in state P.

      LEAK state                    L       Non-phosphorylating resting state of intrinsic ►uncoupled or ►dyscoupled respiration when oxygen flux
                                            is maintained mainly to compensate for the proton leak when ATP synthase is not active.

      LEAK state with ATP           LT      State 4 where - in mt-preparations without ATPase activity - L T is obtained after ADP is fully
                                            phosphorylated to ATP (Chance and Williams 1955) or after addition of high ATP in the absence of ADP
                                            (Gnaiger et al. 2000).
      LEAK state with Omy           L Omy   LEAK state induced by inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin (L Omy; State 4o).
      LEAK state without adenylates L N     Respiration after addition of substrates, which decreases slowly to the LEAK state after oxidation of
                                            endogenous substrates with no adenylates (L N); State 2'. State 2 was re-defined as functionally the
                                            same as State 4 (Nicholls and Ferguson 2002), with reference to Chance and Williams (1956). State 2
                                            (Chance and Williams 1955, 1956), however, is substrate-limited residual oxygen consumption at high
                                            ADP (ROXD), whereas State 2’ (L N) and State 4 (L T) are LEAK states in the absence of adenylates (L N:
                                            no ADP, no ATP) or presence of ATP (L T).
M     M
      Malate                        M       Malate alone cannot support respiration of mt-preparations.

      Malate dehydrogenase          MDH     Malate dehydrogenase located in the mitochondrial matrix oxidizes malate to oxaloacetate.
      Malate transport                      The dicarboxylate carrier catalyses the electroneutral exchange of malate2- (or succinate2-) for HPO42-.
                                            The tricarboxylate carrier exchanges malate2- for citrate3- or isocitrate3- (with co-transport of H+). The
                                            2-oxoglutarate carrier exchanges malate2- for 2-oxoglutarate2-.
      Malonic acid                  Mna     Inhibitor of SDH (CII).




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                    Abbr. Definition          Last update 2010-08-17

      Membrane bound ETS           mETS The membrane-bound electron transfer system (►ETS) consists in mitochondria mainly of respiratory
                                        complexes CI, CII, electron transferring flavoprotein, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and choline
                                        dehydrogenase, with convergent electron supply at the Q-junction (Coenzyme Q), and the two
                                        downstream respiratory complexes connected by cytochrome c, CIII and CIV, with oxygen as the final
                                        electron acceptor.
      Mersalyl                          Mersalyl is an inhibitor of the Pi symporter.
      MiP society                         Mitochondiral Physiology Society - www.mitophysiology.org
      MiPArt Gallery                      The OROBOROS MiPArt Gallery forms a triangle connecting science, the scientific company
                                          OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS, and scientific art on the topic of mitochondrial physiology and links of
                                          science and art in general.
      MiPNet                              Mitochondrial physiology network, OROBOROS reference laboratories.
                                          See also ►MiPNet-Publications.
      MiPNet-Publications                 MiPNet is the abbreviation for the 'OROBOROS Journal 'Mitochondrial Physiol. Network ', including
                                          chapters of the O2k-Manual, protocols, application notes, O2k-workshops, and other announcements,
                                          starting with MiPNet 1 in 1996.
      MiR06                               Mitochondrial respiration medium 06, developed for oxygraph incubations of mitochondrial preparations;
                                          MiR05 plus catalase
      Mitochondria                        Greek mitos: thread; chondros: granule
      Mitochondria, isolated       Imt    Isolated mitochondria, separated from the cell by centrifugation steps after breaking the plasma
                                          membrane.
      mitochondrial                mt
      Mitochondrial preparations          mt-preparations are isolated mitochondria, mechanically or chemically permeabilized tissues and cells,
                                          or tissue homogenates with mechanically broken cell membranes.
      Mitochondrial respiration           Integrative measure of the dynamics of complex coupled metabolic pathways, including metabolite
                                          transport across the mt-membranes, TCA cycle function with electron transfer through dehydrogenases
                                          in the mt-matrix, membrane-bound electron transfer, the transmembrane proton circuit, and the
                                          phosphorylation system.
      Multiwell respirometer              Multiwell systems are developed as a tool for qualitative high-throughput screening, for pharmacologic
                                          testing of a large number of substances. Designed for high-throughput qualitative measurements, they
                                          should not be advertised for quantitative measurements. Reliable quantitative results cannot be
                                          obtained with the present technology offered and advertised.
      Myxothiazol                  Myx    Inhibitor of CIII (inhibits also CI; G. Lenaz).

N     N




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                  Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

      NADH                               Nicotinadeninedinucleotide (NADH) is not permeable through the inner mt-membrane. The NADH pool
                                         integrates the activity of the TCA cycle and various matrix dehydrogenases upstream of CI, and thus
                                         forms a junction or funnel of electron transfer to CI. Cytosolic NADH is effectively made available for
                                         mitochondrial respiration through the glutamate-aspartate shuttle or glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.

      natoms O                           0.5 nmol O2; in bioenergetics a variety of expressions is used for units of amount of half a nmol
                                         molecular oxygen (natoms oxygen; natoms O; ng.atom O; nmol O), with the identical meaning: 0.5 nmol
                                         O2.
      N-ethylmaleimide                   N-ethylmaleimide blocks endogenous Pi transport.
      netROUTINE control ratio   (R-     The netROUTINE control ratio, (R-L )/E , expresses phosphorylation-related respiration (corrected for
                                 L )/E   LEAK respiration) as a fraction of ETS capacity. (R-L )/E remains constant, if dyscoupling is fully
                                         compensated by an increase of ROUTINE respiration and a constant rate of oxidative phosphorylation is
                                         maintained
      Nigericin                          Nigericin catalyzes K+/H+ antiport
      Non-coupled respiration            ►Electron flow in an open-transmembrane proton circuit mode of operation; ►ETS capacity.
O     O
      O2k                                ►Oxygraph-2k

      O2k-Publications                   Publication list of applications of the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k and OROBOROS Oxygraph Paar.

      Octanic acid               Oca

      Octanoyl carnitine         Oct

      Oligomycin                 Omy     Inhibitor of ATP synthase.
      Open system                        A system with boundaries that allow external exchange of energy and matter; the surroundings are
                                         merely considered as a source or sink for quantities transferred across the system boundary.
      OroboroPedia                       Scientific terms, items and links for the O2k and instrumental aspects of OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS.

      OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS               OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS - a new Quality in Science
                                         Oxygraph-2k and O2k-MultiSensor MiPNetAnalyzer
                                         unique for high-resolution respirometry - HRR
                                         quantitative, non-plastic, scientific




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                       Abbr. Definition            Last update 2010-08-17

      Oxaloacetate                            Oxaloacetate is formed from malate by MDH, and cannot permeate the inner mitochondrial membrane.

      Oxoglutarate                    Og      2-Oxoglutarate is a product of isocitrate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle, and is converted by
                                              oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OgDH). The 2-oxoglutarate carrier exchanges malate 2- for 2-
                                              oxoglutarate2- as part of the malate-aspartate shuttle.
      OXPHOS                                  Oxidative phosphorylation is the reaction of oxidation of reduced substrates partially coupled to the
                                              phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
      OXPHOS capacity                 P       Respiration in state P : Respiratory capacity of mitochondria in the ADP-activated state of oxidative
                                              phosphorylation, at saturating concentrations of ADP, inorganic phosphate, oxygen, and defined
                                              reduced substrates; ►State 3. Since OXPHOS is partially coupled, intrinsic uncoupling and
                                              dyscoupling contribute to the control of flux in state P .
      OXPHOS control ratio                    ►P/E .
      Oxygen flow                     I O2    Oxygen consumption per total system, ►extensive quantity. Flow is advancement of a transformation in
                                              a system per time. Oxygen flow of a cell, or respiration per million cells, is distinguished from ►oxygen
                                              flux (e.g. per mg protein or wet weight).
      Oxygen flux                     J O2    Oxygen consumption per system size, ►specific quantity. Oxygen flux is oxygen flow divided by system
                                              size. Flux may be volume-specific (flow per volume), mass-specific (flow per mass), or marker-specific
                                              (e.g. flow per mtDNA). Oxygen flux (e.g. per body mass) is distinguished from ►oxygen flow (per
                                              subject).
      Oxygen kinetics                         The dependence of respiration of isolated mitochondria or cells on oxygen partial pressure. Frequently,
                                              a strictly hyperbolic kinetics is observed, with two parameters, the oxygen pressure at half-maximum
                                              flux, p 50, and maximum flux, J max. The p 50 is in the range of 0.2 to 0.8 kPa for cytochrome c oxidase,
                                              isolated mitochondria and small cells, strongly dependent on J max and coupling state.

      Oxygen pressure                 p O2    Partial pressure of oxygen [kPa], related to oxygen concentration in solution by the oxygen solubility,
                                              S O2 [µmol/kPa].
      Oxygen pressure, intracellular p O2,i   Physiological, intracellular oxygen levels are significantly lower than air saturation under normoxia,
                                              hence respiratory measurements carried out at air saturation are effectively hyperoxic for cultured cells
                                              and isolated mitochondria.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                       Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

      Oxygen solubility               S O2   The oxygen solubility [µM/kPa] expresses the oxygen concentration in solution in equilibrium with the
                                             oxygen pressure in a gas phase, as a function of temperature and composition of the solution. S O2 is
                                             10.56 µM/kPa in pure water at 37 °C. At standard barometric pressure (100 kPa), the oxygen
                                             concentration at air saturation is 207.3 µM at 37 °C (19.6 kPa partial oxygen pressure). In MiR06 and
                                             serum, the corresponding saturation concentrations are 191 and 184 µM.
      Oxygen solubility factor        FM     The oxygen solubility factor of the incubation medium, F M, expresses the effect of the salt concentration
                                             on oxygen solubility relative to pure water. In mitochondrial respiration medium MiR06, F M is 0.92
                                             determined at 30 and 37 °C, and F M is 0.89 in serum at 37 °C.
      Oxygraph-2k                     O2k    Two-chamber high-resolution respirometer for monitoring oxygen consumption with small amounts of
                                             biological material, developed by OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS in cooperation with WGT, produced in
                                             Austria by WGT, and distributed world-wide by OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS.
P     P
      P/E                                    The OXPHOS control ratio or OXPHOS/ETS capacity decreases with limitation by the phosphorylation
                                             system. P/E increases from the lower boundary set by L/E (zero capacity of the phosphorylation
                                             system), to the upper limit of 1.0, when there is no limitation of P by the phosphorylation system or the
                                             proton backpressure (capacity of the phosphorylation system fully matches the ETS capacity; or if the
                                             system is fully uncoupled). It is important to separate the effect of ADP limitation from limitation by
                                             enzymatic capacity at saturating ADP concentration.
      Palmitic acid                   Paa

      Palmitoyl carnitine             Pal

      Permeabilization of plasma             Plasma membrane permeabilization with ►digitonin or ►saponin yields effective wash-out of free
      membrane                               cytosolic molecules including adenylates, substrates, and cytosolic enzymes, making externally added
                                             compounds accessible to the mitochondria.
      Permeabilized tissue or cells   Ptic   Permeabilized tissue or cells are mitochondrial preparations obtained by selectively permeabilizing the
                                             plasma membrane mechanically or chemically, for the exchange of soluble molecules between the
                                             cytosolic phase and external medium, without damaging the mitochondrial membranes.
      Phenylsuccinate                        Phenylsuccinate is a competitive inhibitor of succinate transport (20 mM).
      Phosphorylation control         PCP
      protocol
      Phosphorylation system          PS     The phosphorylation system is a functional unit consisting of adenylate nucleotide translocase,
                                             phosphate carrier, and ATP synthase.




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MitoPedia                                                                   13/34




   State
Entry MitoPedia                     Abbr. Definition            Last update 2010-08-17

      Piericidine                          Piericidine is a competitive inhibitor of ►CI, ubiquinone structure; antibiotic.

      Polarographic oxygen sensor   POS    Electrochemical oxygen sensor, introduced by L Clark, with application of a polarization voltage (0.6 to
                                           0.8 V) and measurement of a current (amperometric), which is converted to a voltage.
      POS                                  ►Polarographic oxygen sensor; OROBoPOS.

      Power                         P      Power is external work per unit time, the product of internal flows and forces.

      Proton leak                          Flux of protons along the electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mt-membrane, contributing to
                                           ►LEAK respiration.
      Proton pump                          Mitochondrial proton pumps are large enzyme complexes (CI, CII, CIV, CV) spanning the inner mt-
                                           membrane, partially encoded by mtDNA. CI, CII and CIV are proton pumps that drive protons against
                                           the electrochemical proton motive force, driven by electron transfer from reduced substrates to oxygen.
                                           In contrast, CV is a proton pump that utilizes the energy of proton flow along the proton motive force to
                                           drive the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
      Pyruvate                      P

      Pyruvate carboxylase                 Pyruvate carboxylase synthesizes oxaloacetate from pyruvate as an ►anaplerotic reaction in the
                                           mitochondrial matrix.
      Pyruvate carrier                     The monocarboxylic acid pyruvate- is exchanged electroneutrally for OH- by the pyruvate carrier.
                                           H+/anion symport is equivalent to OH-/anion antiport.

      Pyruvate dehydrogenase        PDH    Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase in the mt-matrix, and
                                           yields acetyl-CoA.
Q     Q
      Q-junction                           Junction for convergent electron entry from CI, CII, glycerophosphate DH and ETF into the Q-cycle
                                           (ubiquinol/ubiquinone) and further to CIII.
R     R
      R/E                                  The ROUTINE control ratio is the ratio of (coupled) ROUTINE respiration and (non-coupled) ETS
                                           capacity. The R/E control ratio is an expression of how close ROUTINE respiration operates to ETS
                                           capacity.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                     Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

      RCR                                  The respiratory control ratio, RCR, is defined as State 3/State 4 (Chance and Williams 1955).
                                           Considering an index of uncoupling, RCR should be replaced by the ►L/E ratio, if P/E <1.0 (Gnaiger,
                                           2009). In intact cells, RCR has been used for the ratio State 3u/State 4o, i.e. for the inverse L/E ratio
                                           (Hütter et al., 2004)..
      Reactive oxygen species     ROS
      Residual oxygen consumption ROX      Respiration remaining after application of ETS inhibitors to mitochondrial preparations or cells, or
                                           incubation of mt-preparations without substrates (State 2).
      Respiratory control ratio     RCR    ►RCR.

      Reverse electron flow from CII       Reverse electron flow from CII to CI stimulates production of ROS when mitochondria are incubated
      to CI                                with succinate without rotenone.
      Rotenone                       Rot   Inhibitor of CI.

      ROUTINE control ratio         R/E    ►R/E .
      ROUTINE respiration           R      In the intact cell, ROUTINE respiration in the physiological coupling state, R , is controlled by
                                           physiological energy demands, energy turnover and the degree of coupling to phosphorylation (intrinsic
                                           uncoupling and pathological dyscoupling). R and growth of cells is supported by exogenous substrates
                                           in culture media, or endogenous substrates in media without energy substrates.

      ROX                                  ►Residual oxygen consumption
S     S
      Saponin                              Saponin is a mild detergent that ►permeabilizes plasma membranes completely and selectively due to
                                           their high cholesterol content, whereas mt-membranes with lower cholesterol content are affected only
                                           at higher concentrations. Applied for permeabilization of muscle fibres.
      Specific quantity                    Specific quantities are obtained when the ►extensive quantity is divided by system size, in contrast to
                                           ►intensive quantities.
      State 2                       ROXD   Substrate limited state of residual oxygen consumption, after addition of ADP (ROXD). Residual
                                           endogenous substrates are oxidized during a transient stimulation of oxygen flux by ADP; ADP
                                           concentration (D) remains high during ROXD.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                       Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

      State 3                         P      Whereas ►OXPHOS capacity is measured at saturating concentrations of ADP and Pi, State 3 is
                                             defined as ADP stimulated respiration in the presence of high ADP and Pi concentrations (Chance and
                                             Williams, 1955) which are not necessarily saturating. For instance, non-saturating ADP concentrations
                                             are applied in State 3 in pulse titrations to determine the P/O ratio in State 3→4 (D→T) transitions, when
                                             saturating ADP concentrations would deplete the oxygen concentration in the closed oxygraph chamber
                                             before State 4 is obtained (Gnaiger et al 2000; Puchowicz et al 2004).

      State 3u                        E      Non-coupled state of ►ETS capacity. State 3u (u for uncoupled) has been used frequently in
                                             bioenergetics, without sufficient emphasis (e.g. Villani et al 1998) on the fundamental difference
                                             between partially coupled ►OXPHOS capacity (State 3) and non-coupled ETS capacity (State 3u;
                                             Gnaiger et al 1998; Gnaiger 2009; Rasmussen and Rasmussen 2000).
      State 4                         LT     Respiratory state of isolated mitochondria obtained after complete phosphorylation of added ADP to
                                             ATP, which is LEAK respiration, L T, or an overestimation of LEAK respiration if ATPase activity prevents
                                             final accumulation of ATP and maintains a continuous stimulation of respiration by recycled ADP.

      State E                                ►ETS | capacity, E .
      State L                                ►LEAK | respiration, L .
      State P                                ►OXPHOS | capacity, P .
      State R                                ►ROUTINE | respiration, R .

      Substrate control                      Substrate control with electron entry separately through Complex I (pyruvate+malate or
                                             glutamate+malate) or Complex II (succinate+rotenone) restricts ETS capacity and artificially enhances
                                             flux control upstream of the Q-cycle, providing diagnostic information on specific branches of the ETS.
                                             Physiological combinations of Complex I+II substrates support maximum ETS and OXPHOS capacities,
                                             due to the additive effect of multiple electron supply pathways converging at the Q-junction.

      Substrates as electron donors          Mitochondrial respiration depends on a continuous flow of electron-supplying substrates across the
                                             mitochondrial membranes into the matrix space. Many substrates are strong anions that cannot
                                             permeate lipid membranes and hence require carriers.
      Substrates, cellular            Ce     Cellular substrates in vivo, endogenous
      Substrates, cellular            Cm     Cellular substrates in vivo, with exogenous substrate supply from culture medium or serum
      Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor   SUIT   Titration protocol used with mt-preparations to study respiratory control in a sequence of coupling and
      titration                              substrates states.




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                   Abbr. Definition            Last update 2010-08-17

       Succinate                  S       Succinate2- is formed in the TCA cycle, and is a substrate of CII, reacting to fumarate and feeding
                                          electrons into the Q-junction through flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2). Succinate supports electron
                                          flux exclusively through Complex II via FADH2.
       Succinate dehydrogenase    SDH    TCA cycle enzyme converting succinate to fumarate, largest component of the inner mt-membrane
                                         ►CII and thus part of the ETS.
       Succinate transport               The dicarboxylate carrier catalyses the electroneutral exchange of succinate2- for HPO 42-.
       Succinate+rotenone         S(Rot) Inhibition of Complex I by rotenone (Rot; or amytal, piericidine) prevents accumulation of oxaloacetate
                                         which is a potent inhibitor of SDH.
       SUIT protocol                     ►Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration.

T      T
       TMPD                       Tm      N,N,N’,N’ -Tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, C10H16N2.2HCl; applied as an artificial
                                          substrate for reducing cytochrome c in the respirometric assay for cytochrome c oxidase activity; is
                                          maintained in a reduced state by ascorbate; undergoes autooxidation as a function of oxygen pressure,
                                          ascrobate and cytochrome c concentration.
    sx TPP+ calibration
    sx TPP+ electrode
    sx TPP+ inhibitory effect
       Tricarboxylate carrier             The tricarboxylate carrier in the inner mt-membrane exchanges malate2- for citrate3- or isocitrate3-, with
                                          co-transport of H+.
       Tricarboxylic acid cycle   TCA     A system of enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix (and SDH in the inner mt-membrane) arranged in
                                  cycle   cyclic metabolic structure, including dehydrogenases that converge in the NADH pool and succinate for
                                          entry into the ETS. Citrate synthase is a marker enzyme of the TCA cycle, at the gateway into the cycle
                                          from pyruvate via acteyl-CoA. Sections of TCA cycle are required for β-oxidation. Anaplerotic reactions
                                          fuel the TCA cycle with other intermediary metabolites. In the cell, the TCA cycle serves biosynthetic
                                          functions by metabolite export from the matrix into the cytosol.

U      U




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   State
Entry MitoPedia                  Abbr. Definition           Last update 2010-08-17

      Uncoupled respiration             The uncoupled part of respiration in state P pumps protons to compensate for intrinsic uncoupling,
                                        which is a property of (a) the inner mt-membrane (proton leak), (b) the proton pumps (proton slip;
                                        decoupling), and (c) is regulated by molecular uncouplers (uncoupling protein, UCP1). Uncoupled and
                                        ►dyscoupled respiration are summarized as ►LEAK respiration. In contrast, ►non-coupled respiration
                                        is induced experimentally for evaluation of ETS capacity.
      Uncoupler                  u      Protonophore (FCCP, CCCP, DNP) which cycles across the inner mt-membrane with transport of
                                        protons and dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient.
      Uncoupler titration               ►Uncouplers are applied to uncouple mitochondrial electron transfer through Colmplexes CI and CII to
                                        CIV from phosphorylation (ATP synthase, ANT and phosphate transport), particularly with the aim to
                                        obtain the ►non-coupled state E at maximum oxygen flux.
      Uncoupling control ratio   UCR    The uncoupling control ratio, UCR, is the ratio of ETS/ROUTINE respiration in intact cells (Steinlechner
                                        et al., 1996). ►R/E control ratio (Gnaiger, 2008).
      Unspecific binding                Unspecific binding of a probe molecule by which the free concentration is reduced; for instance
                                        ►internal and ►external unspecific binding of TPP+.
V     V
      V , volume                        Volume of oxygraph chamber.
      Valinomycin                       Valinomycin catalyzes electrogenic K+ transport down the electrochemical transmembrane gradient (150
                                        ng∙mg-1 protein).
W     W
      Wet weight                 Ww     Wet weight of a tissue or biological sample, obtained after blotting the sample to remove an arbitrary
                                        amount of water adhering externally to the sample.

      Wiki.Oroboros                     OroboroPedia and MitoPedia were started by OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS on 2010-07-12 as a
                                        glossary and index to our website, in an attempt to help the users finding particular topics more quickly,
                                        and to provide short definitions of terms, abbreviations and symbols frequently used in the context of
                                        high-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial physiology. OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS aims at open
                                        access and high scientific quality of information. This can be achieved only with feedback and input by
                                        contributions to OroboroPedia and MitoPedia, by the experienced users of the OROBOROS-O2k. If you
                                        find this page useful, we appreciate if you refer to OroboroPedia in the spirit of ►Gentle Science.

X   X
Y   Y
Z   Z
New




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Link                                                    Link         Reference
                      .                   .
MiPNet12.12           Respiration A wo    7/17/2010                  Gnaiger 2009




                      Enzyme       A wo   7/13/2010

MiPNet03.02           Substrate    A wo   7/13/2010        MiPNet
                      PS                                   09.12
                      Inhibitor    A      7/31/2010   EG
                      ETS
                      Metabolism   A wo   8/13/2010   EG
                      Enzyme       A wo   7/13/2010
                      Inhibitor    A      7/13/2010        MiPNet
                      ETS                                  09.12
MiPNet03.02           Enzyme       A      7/13/2010        MiPNet
                                                           09.12
MiPNet03.02           Substrate    A      7/13/2010        MiPNet
                      PS                                   09.12
                      Enzyme       A      8/14/2010   EG

MiPNet03.02           Inhibitor PS A      7/13/2010        MiPNet
                                                           09.12
MiPNet03.02           Inhibitor    A      7/13/2010        MiPNet
                      ETS                                  09.12
                      .                   .
                      MiP          B      7/17/2010

MiPNet03.02           Chemicals    B      7/13/2010
Wikipedia             Chemicals    B      8/6/2010    AWMiPNet
                                                        14.13




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                       .                   .
                       Method       C #    7/23/2010

                       Method       C #    7/23/2010
                       Method       C #    7/23/2010

MiPNet03.02            Inhibitor PS C      7/31/2010
                       Metabolism C        8/13/2010   EG
                       Respiration C       7/17/2010



MiPNet06.06            Respiration C #     7/13/2010        MiPNet Gnaiger 2008
                                                            10.04
MiPNet14.05            HRR-MultiS

                       Enzyme       C      7/31/2010   EG             O'Donoghue
                                                                      et al., 2009

MiPNet08.14            Enzyme       C wo   7/18/2010        MiPNet
                                                            08.14
Gnaiger 1993           General      C      7/14/2010
PAC




MiPNet12.12            Substrate    C      8/16/2010                  Gnaiger 2009
                       ETS




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MiPNet08.15         Enzyme          C      7/18/2010     MiPNet
                                                         11.04


MiPNet11.09           Enzyme        C wo   7/13/2010            Cecchini
                                                                2003; Sun et
                                                                al 2005

                      Enzyme      C        7/18/2010
                      Enzyme      C wo     7/18/2010
MiPNet12.12           Respiration C wo     7/17/2010            Gnaiger 2009




MiPNet12.15           Respiration C        7/12/2010

                      Respiration C        7/13/2010            Gnaiger 2008

                      Respiration C        7/13/2010            Gnaiger 2009

MiPNet12.15           Respiration   C      7/13/2010            Gnaiger 2009
                      Inhibitor     C      7/13/2010
                      ETS
                      Inhibitor     C      7/31/2010   EG
                      ETS
MiPNet09.12           Substrate     C      7/13/2010            Gnaiger,
                      ETS                                       Kuznetsov
                                                                2002
                      Enzyme        C wo


                      .                    .




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MiPNet11.04

MiPNet09.12           Chemicals   D      7/13/2010




MiPNet14.05

                      Chemicals   D      7/13/2010               Steinlechner-
                                                                 Maran et al
                                                                 1996
                      Chemicals   D      7/21/2010

                      Respiration D      7/12/2010


                      .                  .
                      Respiration E wo   8/17/2010




MiPNet12.12           Respiration E wo   8/17/2010   EG



MiPNet11.09           Enzyme      E      7/13/2010


Wikipedia             Chemicals   E      8/6/2010    AWMiPNet
                                                       14.13




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Gnaiger 1993          General     E     7/13/2010
PAC
                      General     E     7/13/2010                  Gnaiger 1993
                                                                   PAC
MiPNet14.05

                      .                 .
MiPNet10.04           Chemicals   F     7/13/2010        MiPNet Steinlechner-
                                                         09.12 Maran et al
                                                                1996
MiPNet12.15           Respiration F     7/17/2010               Gnaiger 2009




                      General     F     7/13/2010                  Gnaiger 1993
                                                                   PAC
                      Enzyme      F     7/13/2010
MiPNet11.09           Substrate ETS
                                  F     7/13/2010
                      .                 .
http://www.or         General     G #   8/14/2010   EG
oboros.at/ind
ex.php?gentl
e-science
MiPNet11.04           Respiration G     7/13/2010        MiPNet
                                                         09.12




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                    ETS
MiPNet11.09         Enzyme        G wo    7/31/2010


MiPNet11.09           Enzyme      G       7/13/2010




                      .                   .
HRR                   Respiration H #     7/13/2010     MiPNet Gnaiger 2008
                                                        06.01




HRR                   Respiration H #     7/13/2010     MiPNet Gnaiger 2001
                                                        06.01
MiPNet11.04           Inhibitor   H       7/13/2010
                      ETS
                      .                   .
MiPNet14.13           Substrate   I       7/13/2010
                      PS
MiPNet14.06           Respiration I   #   7/17/2010             Gnaiger 2008




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                                                                  PAC
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                                                                  PAC
MiPNet14.05

                      General       I                             Gnaiger 1993
                                                                  PAC
IOC                   OROBORO I         #   7/13/2010
                      S
MiPNet11.04           Enzyme  I             7/13/2010
                      General I             7/13/2010             Gnaiger 1993
                                                                  PAC
                      .                     .
                      Respiration   J #     7/13/2010
                      .                     .
MiPNet09.12           Inhibitor     K       7/13/2010
                      ETS
                      Substrate     K       7/31/2010   EG
                      ETS
                      .                     .
MiPNet12.15           Respiration   L       7/13/2010             Gnaiger 2009


MiPNet12.15           Respiration L         7/13/2010             Gnaiger 2009
MiPNet08.18           Enzyme      L         7/18/2010

MiPNet12.15           Respiration L         7/12/2010             Gnaiger 2009




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MiPNet12.15           Respiration L   7/13/2010


MiPNet12.15           Respiration L   7/13/2010
MiPNet12.15           Respiration L   7/13/2010




                      .               .
MiPNet11.04           Respiration M   7/13/2010     MiPNet
                                                    09.12
MiPNet11.04           Enzyme      M   7/13/2010
MiPNet11.04           Enzyme      M   7/13/2010



MiPNet09.12           Inhibitor   M   7/13/2010
                      ETS




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MiPNet12.12         Respiration M       8/1/2010    EG




                      Inhibitor   M     7/31/2010   EG
MiP                   General     M #   7/13/2010
MiPArt                            M #   7/22/2010        Odra      Tempo Giusto
                                                         Noel

Net                   OROBORO M #       8/3/2010    EG
                      S
ref-mipnet            OROBORO M #       8/3/2010    EG
                      S

MiPNet14.13           Chemicals   M #   7/13/2010                  Gnaiger et al
                                                                   2000
                                  M
MiPNet11.05                       M     8/4/2010    AW

                      Respiration M     7/13/2010
                      Respiration M     7/13/2010

                                  M



HRR-FAQ               Respiration M #   7/13/2010                  Gnaiger 2008



                      Inhibitor   M     7/13/2010        MiPNet
                      ETS                                09.12
                      .                 .




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                       ETS



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                                      N      7/31/2010
MiPNet12.15            Respiration N         7/17/2010                  Gnaiger 2008




MiPNet12.15            Respiration N wo      7/13/2010
                       .                     .
O2k                    O2k         O #       7/13/2010        MiPNet
                                                              06.01
O2k-                   OROBORO        O #    8/3/2010    EG
publications           S
                       Substrate      O      7/13/2010
                       ETS
                       Substrate      O      7/13/2010
                       ETS
MiPNet09.12            Inhibitor PS   O      7/13/2010
Gnaiger 1993           General        O      7/13/2010
PAC
OroboroPedi                           O      7/22/2010
a
Oroboros                              O #    7/22/2010        Compa MiPArt
                                                              ny




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                      Respiration O wo   8/15/2010   EG

MiPNet12.15           Respiration O wo   7/13/2010             Gnaiger 2009



MiPNet12.15           Respiration O      7/13/2010             Gnaiger 2009
MiPNet10.05           Respiration O      8/13/2010   EG        Renner et al
                                                               2003

MiPNet10.05           Respiration O      8/13/2010   EG        Renner et al
                                                               2003


Oxygen                Respiration O      7/18/2010             Scandurra,
Kinetics                                                       Gnaiger 2010




MiPNet06.03           General    O #     7/17/2010             Gnaiger and
                                                               Forstner 1983
MiPNet06.03           MiP        O       7/17/2010             Gnaiger et al
                                                               2000 PNAS




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MiPNet06.03           General    O #     7/17/2010



O2k                   O2k        O #     7/13/2010             Gnaiger 2008


                      .                  .
MiPNet12.15           Respiration P      7/13/2010             Gnaiger 2009




                      Substrate   P      7/13/2010
                      ETS
                      Substrate   P      7/13/2010
                      ETS
                      Respiration P      7/23/2010             MiPNet14.14


MiPNet11.05                      P       8/4/2010    AW


                      Inhibitor   P      7/31/2010   EG
                      Respiration P      7/17/2010

                      Respiration P wo   7/13/2010             Gnaiger 2009




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                                                                    Forstner 1983
POS                   O2k         P #    7/13/2010                  Gnaiger and
                                                                    Forstner 1983
                      General     P      7/13/2010                  Gnaiger 1993
                                                                    PAC
MiPNet12.15           Respiration P      7/13/2010

                      Enzyme      P wo   8/15/2010   EG




MiPNet11.04           Respiration P      7/13/2010        MiPNet
                                                          09.12
                      Enzyme      P      8/13/2010   EG

MiPNet11.04           Enzyme      P      7/13/2010                  Hildyard and
                                                                    Halestrap
                                                                    (2003)
MiPNet11.04           Enzyme      P      7/13/2010

                      .                  .
MiPNet12.12           Respiration Q wo   7/13/2010                  Gnaiger 2009

                      .                  .
                      Respiration R      7/24/2010                  Gnaiger 2008




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                                                      12.11


                      General     R     7/13/2010
MiPNet12.15           Respiration R     7/13/2010                  Gnaiger 2009

MiPNet12.15           Respiration R     7/13/2010        MiPNet Gnaiger 2009
                                                         12.11
MiPNet11.09           Respiration R     7/13/2010

MiPNet11.09           Inhibitor   R     7/13/2010        MiPNet
                      ETS                                09.12
                      Respiration R     7/17/2010               Gnaiger 2008
MiPNet12.15           Respiration R     7/13/2010        MiPNet Gnaiger 2008
                                                         08.09



MiPNet12.15           Respiration R     7/13/2010
                      .                 .
                      Chemicals S       7/13/2010


Gnaiger 1993          General    S      8/13/2010   EG
PAC
MiPNet12.15           Respiration S     7/13/2010                  Chance and
                                                                   Williams 1955




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Web         Section Category    Filter  Update
                                    M&OPedia           Web
                                                     Name      Web
Link                                                   Link    Reference
MiPNet12.15         Respiration S wo 7/13/2010                 Chance and
                                                               Williams 1955




MiPNet12.15           Respiration S      7/13/2010



MiPNet12.15           Respiration S wo   7/13/2010             Chance and
                                                               Williams 1955


MiPNet12.15           Respiration   S    7/24/2010            Gnaiger 2009
MiPNet12.15           Respiration   S    7/24/2010            Gnaiger 2009
MiPNet12.15           Respiration   S    7/24/2010            Gnaiger 2009
MiPNet12.15           Respiration   S    7/24/2010     MiPNet Gnaiger 2008
                                                       08.09
MiPNet12.12           Respiration S      7/17/2010




                      Respiration S      7/17/2010


MiPNet12.15           Substrates S       8/4/2010    AW
MiPNet12.15           Substrates S       8/4/2010    AW
MiPNet12.12           Respiration S      7/13/2010     MiPNet Gnaiger 2009
                                                       09.12




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Web         Section Category    Filter  Update
                                    M&OPedia            Web
                                                      Name     Web
Link                                                    Link   Reference
MiPNet11.09         Respiration S       7/13/2010       MiPNet
                                                        12.11


MiPNet11.09           Enzyme        S     7/13/2010        MiPNet
                                                           09.12
MiPNet11.09           Enzyme        S     7/13/2010
MiPNet11.09           Substrate   S       7/13/2010        MiPNet
                      ETS                                  12.11
MiPNet12.12           Respiration S       7/13/2010        MiPNet Gnaiger 2009
                                                           09.12
                      .                   .
MiPNet06.06           Substrate     T     7/13/2010        MiPNet Gnaiger et al
                      ETS                                  03.02 1998


                      Chemicals     T #   7/13/2010
                      O2k           T #   7/13/2010
                      Respiration   T     7/13/2010
MiPNet11.04           Transport     T     7/31/2010   EG

MiPNet12.12           Respiration T wo    7/19/2010                  Krebs 1940




                      .                   .




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Web         Section Category    Filter  Update
                                    M&OPedia          Web
                                                    Name     Web
Link                                                  Link   Reference
MiPNet12.15         Respiration U       7/13/2010     MiPNet
                                                      10.04



                      Chemicals   U     7/13/2010

UncouplerTitr         Respiration U     7/18/2010            Steinlechner-
ations                                                       Maran et al
                                                             1996
                      Respiration U                          Gnaiger 2008

MiPNet14.05

                      .                 .
MiPNet09.01           General     V #   7/13/2010
                      Uncoupler   V     7/31/2010   EG

                      .                 .
MiPNet14.14           General     W     8/5/2010    EG       Gnaiger,
                                                             Bitterlich 1984

http://wiki.oro       General     W #   8/14/2010   EG
boros.at




                      .                 .
                      .                 .
                      .                 .




Last update: 2010-08-17                                     Refer to OROBOROS:   www.oroboros.at/index.php?mitopedia

								
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