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					        Exercise Physiology




•Driving force behind all types of work
•Conversion of stored energy to mechanical energy
 What Influences Athletic Ability?
• Genetics         • Environment
• Training            • Nutrition
   • Training         • Track/Arena
     methodology        Surfaces
                      • Shoes
                      • Jockey
                      • Etc.
                Hemoglobin
               concentration
Biomechanics                     Gas exchange



               ATHLETIC
                ABILITY

  Anaerobic
   capacity                      Heart size
               Skeletal muscle
                 properties
                  ENERGY
• Sources
  – Carbohydrates
  – Fats
• Effect on performance
  – ↓ energy = ↓ performance
  – Must meet energy requirement
  – Monitor body condition
     • ↓ body condition = negative energy balance
         Energy Metabolism
• Aerobic                • Anaerobic
  – With oxygen            – Without oxygen
  – Carbohydrate & fat     – Carbohydrate
  – CO2, H2O & ATP           (glycolysis)
                           – Lactate & ATP
              Synthesis of ATP from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

Muscle             Anaerobic             Pyruvate                   Lactate
Glycogen           Glycolysis
Blood Glucose




  Creatine
  Phosphate
                        Myokinase
                        and CPK
                                                                   ATP
                        Reactions




                      Lipolysis
                                        Oxidative               CO2and
Free-Fatty
                                        Metabolism              Water
Acids


                                           Oxygen
Muscular System
Types of Muscle Fiber

•   Type I                    •   Type II
•   – Slow contracting        •   – Fast contracting
•   – ↓ glycolytic activity   •   – Fatigue quickly
•   – Fatigue resistant       •   – ↑ Glycolytic activity
•   – Aerobic metabolism      •   – Quick energy bursts
•   – Long term/low stress    •   – Speed for longer
•   work                      •   distances
•   – Endurance               •   – Primarily anaerobic
          Breed Differences




Type I fibers            Type II fibers
 Energy For Muscle Contraction
• Walking
  – Slow contractions
  – Primarily type I
    fibers
  – Fat primary energy
    source (very
    efficient)
 Energy For Muscle Contraction
• Trot and Canter
   – Increased contractions
      • Increased contractions
        require more ATP
• Type II fibers
• Fat cannot be
  metabolized
  anaerobically
          Anaerobic Glycolysis
• Fastest way to
  produce ATP
• Less efficient than
  aerobic glycolysis
  –   Less ATP
  –   Lactic acid produced
  –   Decrease muscle pH
  –   Fatigue/tying up
  Horses that can generate a higher
proportion of energy aerobically will
   outperform horses with lower
          aerobic capacity
                Estimated Types Of
                   Energy Used
       Event      Preformed   Anaerobic   Aerobic
                   Energy
Racing QH           80%         18%         2%

Racing 1000 m       25%         70%         5%

Racing 1600 m       10%         80%        10%

Racing 2400 m        5%         70%        25%

Racing 3200 m        5%         55%        40%

Polo                 5%         50%        45%
                Estimated Types Of
                   Energy Used
     Event          Preformed   Anaerobic   Aerobic
                     Energy
Barrel Racing         99%          4%         1%

Cutting               88%         10%         2%

Show Jumping          15%         65%        20%

3 Day (Cross          10%         40%        50%
Country)
Endurance Rides        1%          5%        94%

Pleasure/Equitati      1%          2%        97%
on
       Cardiovascular System
• Delivers blood to
  body
  – O2 from lungs
  – Nutrients from
    GI tract
        Cardiovascular System
• Heart rate (HR)
   – Resting 30-45
   – Exercising – 240 bpm max
• Stroke Volume (SV)
   – Volume of blood pumped per
     beat
   – 800 – 900 mls
• HR X SV = Cardiac Output
   – Can pump > 250 li/min
   – Equivalent to 55 gal drum
 Affect of Exercise On
  The Cardiovascular
        System
• ↑ metabolic activity in limbs = ↑ blood flow
• Three ways to increase blood flow
   – Increase cardiac output
      • HR and CO proportional to running speed
      • Cannot ↑ HR beyond max
   – Increase O2 carried in blood
      • Splenic dumping can double O2 carrying capacity
   – Redistribute blood flow
      • ↑ to locomotive muscle
      • ↓ to kidneys and small intestines
                Respiratory System

• Respiratory Rate
   – Resting - 8-20 breaths per min
• Exercise
   – ↑ O2 consumption
   – ↑ CO2 emission
• To increase air exchange
   – ↑ Respiratory rate
       • RR linked to stride freq.
       • ↑ Tidal Volume (TV)
            – Air inhaled or
              exhaled in a breath
  Locomotor-
   Respiratory
 Coupling (LRC)

• Galloping Horse
  – 150 Breaths
  – 12-15 liters of air
• Trotting Horse
  – 70-85 Breaths
  – 20-25 liters of air
                Respiratory Problems
• Laryngeal hemiplegia
   – Partial paralysis of larynx
   – Inadequate gas exchange
   – Surgical treatment
• Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
  Disease
   – Decreases respiratory rate
   – Hyperallerginc response to dust,
     mold, irritants
   – House outdoors
• Exercise Induced Pulmonary
  Hemorrhage
   – Bleeding in lungs
   – Speeds above 14 m/s
   – Variable effects
   – Furosemide (Lasix)
               Thermoregulation
• Thoroughbred (race)    • Importance
  – 2.5 gal                – Evaporative Cooling
• Endurance horse (50-       (Sweating)
  100 miles)               – Most important route
  – 6-12 gal                 of heat dissipation
• Three day event          – Requires ample
  (dressage/cross            blood flow to carry
  country)                   heat from core to
  – 5-6 gal                  surface
     Thermoregulation



• ↑ Exercise intensity > ↑ heat load > ↑ need for
  heat dissipation
• Prevent dehydration to prevent thermal injury
  – Provision of adequate water
  – Normal diet
  – Salt & mineral supplement
                   Thermoregulation
• Dehydration
   –   Electrolyte & pH disturbances
   –   Fatigue
   –   Gait incoordination (ataxia)
   –   ↑ risk of orthopedic injury
   –   Muscle damage
   –   Death
• Supplement electrolytes
   – Beginning training program
   – Adjusting to high temperature
            Types of Training
• Endurance
   – Enhances aerobic
     system
• High intensity/Quick
  burst
   – Increases muscle mass
   – Strength training
    Influence of Training
•   ↑ heart size
•   ↓ HR at given speed
•   Quicker recovery to given heart rate
•   ↑ Capillaries
     – ↑ O2 delivered to muscles
• Increase aerobic capacity
  Influence of Training

• ↑ Muscle Cell Mitochondria
  – ↑ O2 utilization per unit of muscle
• Muscle has quickest adaptation
  to training of all body tissues
Conditioning Times of Body Structures

                                    Fit
25

20

15

10

 5
                                   Unfit
 0
     Muscles   Ligaments   Bones
               Signs of Fatigue
• Respiration rate > heart rate
  –   Inversion
  –   Hyperventilating
  –   Shallow breathing
  –   Shock
• Muscle soreness (lactic acid buildup)
• Ataxia
• Deydration
Conditioning is A Process That
     Occurs Over Time

				
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posted:6/6/2012
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