Practical Application of Knowledge Management tools and concepts

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					Centrally sponsored schemes for socio-economic
              development in India
 “The basic economic resource is no longer capital, nor
  natural resources, nor labor. It is and will be knowledge,”
  according to Peter Drucker.
 Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for socio-economic
  development in India, have focus on financial outlays.
 There is serious concern about performance of the
  delivery system, as outcome of CSS is not
  commensurate to financial outlays.
 “Knowledge Management” (KM) in CSS has not received
  adequate emphasis.
 There is valuable information relating to the niche area of
  every CSS. eGovernance initiatives for extensive use of I.T.
  for improving the delivery system.

 KM Concepts and Tools , largely in the context of
  commercial organizations, provide direction for using I.T.
  KM is a relatively new approach : tools and techniques are
  evolving to provide customer-centric focus.

 There is need for exploring practical application of KM in
Evolution of KM in the context of
 Need for further evolution of KM frameworks relevant to
  public administration in India.
 External agencies are preferable for evaluating the
  processes for creation, sharing and utilization of
  knowledge at various levels.
 KM tools and techniques should be adaptable to different
  CSS, which are centrally managed and implemented in
  villages, small towns, cities and metropolitan towns.
 The evolved frameworks should enable government
  departments, international development agencies and
  other stakeholders in making objective evaluations of the
  strategies for economic and human development.
Intellectual Capital in Centrally
Sponsored Schemes
 There are number of CSS, with specialized knowledge
  of socio economic development.
 Success of CSS is vital.
 Intellectual capital of Government employees
  associated with each CSS should be used to improve
  delivery systems.
 Hitherto, focus is on financial outlays of CSS and
  intended outcome does not reach beneficiaries.
  Practical implementation of KM may be explored.
Need for adopting KM to the
administrative requirements of CSS
 Macro-level concepts such as MAKE Framework (Most
  Admired Knowledge Enterprises), KAM (Knowledge
  Assessment Methodology), MAKCi (Most Admired
  Knowledge Cities), cannot be directly applied.
 Creation, sharing and utilization of knowledge in CSS,
  is an unexplored area.
 Evolution of new framework of KM, which is more
  relevant to public administration, in Indian context
  requires research in each CSS.
 Pilot projects, for initiating this process.
The MAKE Framework
 Knowledge-driven culture
 Developing knowledge workers
 Developing knowledge-based products
 Maximizing enterprise intellectual capital
 Creating an environment for collaborative enterprise
  knowledge sharing
 Creating a learning organization
 Delivering value based on customer knowledge
 Transforming enterprise knowledge into shareholder
The MAKCi Framework: Can this
analysis be made at Districts level?
 Identity Capital
 Intellectual Capital
 Financial Capital
 Relational Capital
 Human Individual Capital
 Human Collective Capital
 Instrumentation- Material Capital
 Instrumentation-Knowledge Capital
The KAM Framework : Need for
decentralised “bench-marking”
 Overall Performance of the Economy
 Economic Incentive and Institutional regime, comprising
   Economic Regime
   Governance
   The Innovation System
   Education and Human resources, comprising of:
   Education
   Labour
   Gender
   Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Centrally Sponsored Schemes
 Financial outlays : 2.35% of GDP in 11th. Plan
 Implementation of CSS is through State
  Government, District, Blocks and Panchayats.
 It is difficult to ensure that outcome reach
  intended beneficiary.
 Enormous waste of public money and corruption
 Need for enhancing capabilities to create, access
  and use knowledge
 Practical application of the concept and tools of
  Knowledge Management (KM) needed.
 Centralized control by the concerned Ministries
  of Government of India,
 Cater for local needs,
 Fulfill the requirement of Constitution of India,
  in respect of power and authority vested in the
  State Governments,
 Enable feedback of information from the field
  leading to mid-course corrections, and
 Provide for transparency and public
  accountability under RTI Act 2005.
Major challenge in Knowledge
Management of CSS
 Disclosure     and dissemination of relevant
  information to intended beneficiary, under
  Section 4 of the RTI Act 2005, for effective public
  accountability of grass-root implementing
 “Social Audit” by the intended beneficiaries is
  essential for the successful delivery system.
 Intended beneficiary should have access to vital
  financial and operational data.
 Mid course administrative corrections, by
  feedback of data
KM as a tool for stream-lined
processes and delivery system
 Improve existing management practices and
    explores ways of sustained improvement.
   KM tools and concepts have evolved in commercial
    setting and have to be adopted to the needs of
    public administration.
   Focus on better outcome from public expenditure.
   Extensive use of I.T. provides the main thrust of
    improving KM in public administration.
   KM for enhanced innovation capabilities for
    improving delivery system.
Problems in implementation of
 Centrally Sponsored Schemes
1) Poor planning: focus on inputs rather than outcomes; unrealistic
   targets; top‐down planning with limited attention to varied local
   needs; and limited citizen participation

2)Poor implementation: the involvement of multiple levels of
  government with overlapping roles and responsibilities and
  varied capacity in program implementation; poor expenditure
  management leading to unpredictable fund flows, and finally,

3)Weak monitoring and oversight: limited information on
  implementation processes; poor incentives within the system to
  track progress; and limited oversight by citizens.
Need for “Knowledge Managers”
 • Creation and maintenance of knowledge repositories, by
   improving recording of knowledge relating to each centrally
   sponsored scheme.

 • Influencing the culture of an organization toward improved
   delivery system by knowledge sharing, reuse, learning,
   collaboration and innovation,

 • Improving record keeping and dissemination of information
   with extensive use of computers, as envisaged in section 4(1) of
   RTI Act.

 • Treating the knowledge component of activities as an explicit
   concern reflected in strategy, policy, and practice at all levels of
   the organization.
• Making a direct connection between an organization’s
  intellectual assets — both explicit [recorded] and tacit [personal
  know-how] — and positive results.

• Identifying and     mapping    intellectual   assets   within   the

• Generating new knowledge for improving performance,

• Sharing best practices and bench-marking.

• KM, as any new concept would, is going through phases of
  maturity. Therefore Knowledge Managers in the Government
  Departments should keep themselves abreast with new
  developments and strive towards adopting theoretical concepts
  into practice.
• Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) evolved by the
 World Bank is to be adopted for each Centrally Sponsored
 Scheme, to evaluate current status and identify areas where
 improvement is needed.

• Customer focus is the driving force behind reforms in
 management practices.

    Knowledge     Manager       in    the
 Government has to focus on utilizing
 knowledge in providing better services to
 the citizens.
Concept of “Learning Organisation”
applied to CSS
 KM efforts focus on improved performance by sharing
    of lessons learned and management of knowledge is
    regarded as strategic asset .
   Sharing of knowledge for proper use of financial
   Self-directed learning by government employees with
    focus on outputs.
   Critical Success Factors should be evaluated, disclosed
    and disseminated at all levels.
   Extensive use of I.T. for knowledge sharing and
    reforms in public administration.
 Training inputs to “Knowledge Managers,” entrusted with
  the responsibility of introducing KM practices to improve
  the delivery system of each CSS and frame concrete action
  plans for improving delivery system and promote efficient
  utilization of public money.

 Evaluation of existing status of KM, pertaining to each CSS.
  Evolution of KM indices for comparative evaluation, by
  external expert agencies.

 Concerned Ministry of the Government of India would
  have to play leading role in implementing the concept of
  KM in improving management of CSS at all levels.

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