Centrally sponsored schemes for socio-economic
development in India
“The basic economic resource is no longer capital, nor
natural resources, nor labor. It is and will be knowledge,”
according to Peter Drucker.
Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for socio-economic
development in India, have focus on financial outlays.
There is serious concern about performance of the
delivery system, as outcome of CSS is not
commensurate to financial outlays.
“Knowledge Management” (KM) in CSS has not received
There is valuable information relating to the niche area of
every CSS. eGovernance initiatives for extensive use of I.T.
for improving the delivery system.
KM Concepts and Tools , largely in the context of
commercial organizations, provide direction for using I.T.
KM is a relatively new approach : tools and techniques are
evolving to provide customer-centric focus.
There is need for exploring practical application of KM in
Evolution of KM in the context of
Need for further evolution of KM frameworks relevant to
public administration in India.
External agencies are preferable for evaluating the
processes for creation, sharing and utilization of
knowledge at various levels.
KM tools and techniques should be adaptable to different
CSS, which are centrally managed and implemented in
villages, small towns, cities and metropolitan towns.
The evolved frameworks should enable government
departments, international development agencies and
other stakeholders in making objective evaluations of the
strategies for economic and human development.
Intellectual Capital in Centrally
There are number of CSS, with specialized knowledge
of socio economic development.
Success of CSS is vital.
Intellectual capital of Government employees
associated with each CSS should be used to improve
Hitherto, focus is on financial outlays of CSS and
intended outcome does not reach beneficiaries.
Practical implementation of KM may be explored.
Need for adopting KM to the
administrative requirements of CSS
Macro-level concepts such as MAKE Framework (Most
Admired Knowledge Enterprises), KAM (Knowledge
Assessment Methodology), MAKCi (Most Admired
Knowledge Cities), cannot be directly applied.
Creation, sharing and utilization of knowledge in CSS,
is an unexplored area.
Evolution of new framework of KM, which is more
relevant to public administration, in Indian context
requires research in each CSS.
Pilot projects, for initiating this process.
The MAKE Framework
Developing knowledge workers
Developing knowledge-based products
Maximizing enterprise intellectual capital
Creating an environment for collaborative enterprise
Creating a learning organization
Delivering value based on customer knowledge
Transforming enterprise knowledge into shareholder
The MAKCi Framework: Can this
analysis be made at Districts level?
Human Individual Capital
Human Collective Capital
Instrumentation- Material Capital
The KAM Framework : Need for
Overall Performance of the Economy
Economic Incentive and Institutional regime, comprising
The Innovation System
Education and Human resources, comprising of:
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Centrally Sponsored Schemes
Financial outlays : 2.35% of GDP in 11th. Plan
Implementation of CSS is through State
Government, District, Blocks and Panchayats.
It is difficult to ensure that outcome reach
Enormous waste of public money and corruption
Need for enhancing capabilities to create, access
and use knowledge
Practical application of the concept and tools of
Knowledge Management (KM) needed.
Centralized control by the concerned Ministries
of Government of India,
Cater for local needs,
Fulfill the requirement of Constitution of India,
in respect of power and authority vested in the
Enable feedback of information from the field
leading to mid-course corrections, and
Provide for transparency and public
accountability under RTI Act 2005.
Major challenge in Knowledge
Management of CSS
Disclosure and dissemination of relevant
information to intended beneficiary, under
Section 4 of the RTI Act 2005, for effective public
accountability of grass-root implementing
“Social Audit” by the intended beneficiaries is
essential for the successful delivery system.
Intended beneficiary should have access to vital
financial and operational data.
Mid course administrative corrections, by
feedback of data
KM as a tool for stream-lined
processes and delivery system
Improve existing management practices and
explores ways of sustained improvement.
KM tools and concepts have evolved in commercial
setting and have to be adopted to the needs of
Focus on better outcome from public expenditure.
Extensive use of I.T. provides the main thrust of
improving KM in public administration.
KM for enhanced innovation capabilities for
improving delivery system.
Problems in implementation of
Centrally Sponsored Schemes
1) Poor planning: focus on inputs rather than outcomes; unrealistic
targets; top‐down planning with limited attention to varied local
needs; and limited citizen participation
2)Poor implementation: the involvement of multiple levels of
government with overlapping roles and responsibilities and
varied capacity in program implementation; poor expenditure
management leading to unpredictable fund flows, and finally,
3)Weak monitoring and oversight: limited information on
implementation processes; poor incentives within the system to
track progress; and limited oversight by citizens.
Need for “Knowledge Managers”
• Creation and maintenance of knowledge repositories, by
improving recording of knowledge relating to each centrally
• Influencing the culture of an organization toward improved
delivery system by knowledge sharing, reuse, learning,
collaboration and innovation,
• Improving record keeping and dissemination of information
with extensive use of computers, as envisaged in section 4(1) of
• Treating the knowledge component of activities as an explicit
concern reflected in strategy, policy, and practice at all levels of
• Making a direct connection between an organization’s
intellectual assets — both explicit [recorded] and tacit [personal
know-how] — and positive results.
• Identifying and mapping intellectual assets within the
• Generating new knowledge for improving performance,
• Sharing best practices and bench-marking.
• KM, as any new concept would, is going through phases of
maturity. Therefore Knowledge Managers in the Government
Departments should keep themselves abreast with new
developments and strive towards adopting theoretical concepts
• Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) evolved by the
World Bank is to be adopted for each Centrally Sponsored
Scheme, to evaluate current status and identify areas where
improvement is needed.
• Customer focus is the driving force behind reforms in
Knowledge Manager in the
Government has to focus on utilizing
knowledge in providing better services to
Concept of “Learning Organisation”
applied to CSS
KM efforts focus on improved performance by sharing
of lessons learned and management of knowledge is
regarded as strategic asset .
Sharing of knowledge for proper use of financial
Self-directed learning by government employees with
focus on outputs.
Critical Success Factors should be evaluated, disclosed
and disseminated at all levels.
Extensive use of I.T. for knowledge sharing and
reforms in public administration.
Training inputs to “Knowledge Managers,” entrusted with
the responsibility of introducing KM practices to improve
the delivery system of each CSS and frame concrete action
plans for improving delivery system and promote efficient
utilization of public money.
Evaluation of existing status of KM, pertaining to each CSS.
Evolution of KM indices for comparative evaluation, by
external expert agencies.
Concerned Ministry of the Government of India would
have to play leading role in implementing the concept of
KM in improving management of CSS at all levels.