Centrally sponsored schemes for socio-economic development in India Problem “The basic economic resource is no longer capital, nor natural resources, nor labor. It is and will be knowledge,” according to Peter Drucker. Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for socio-economic development in India, have focus on financial outlays. There is serious concern about performance of the delivery system, as outcome of CSS is not commensurate to financial outlays. “Knowledge Management” (KM) in CSS has not received adequate emphasis. Opportunity There is valuable information relating to the niche area of every CSS. eGovernance initiatives for extensive use of I.T. for improving the delivery system. KM Concepts and Tools , largely in the context of commercial organizations, provide direction for using I.T. KM is a relatively new approach : tools and techniques are evolving to provide customer-centric focus. There is need for exploring practical application of KM in CSS. Evolution of KM in the context of CSS Need for further evolution of KM frameworks relevant to public administration in India. External agencies are preferable for evaluating the processes for creation, sharing and utilization of knowledge at various levels. KM tools and techniques should be adaptable to different CSS, which are centrally managed and implemented in villages, small towns, cities and metropolitan towns. The evolved frameworks should enable government departments, international development agencies and other stakeholders in making objective evaluations of the strategies for economic and human development. Intellectual Capital in Centrally Sponsored Schemes There are number of CSS, with specialized knowledge of socio economic development. Success of CSS is vital. Intellectual capital of Government employees associated with each CSS should be used to improve delivery systems. Hitherto, focus is on financial outlays of CSS and intended outcome does not reach beneficiaries. Practical implementation of KM may be explored. Need for adopting KM to the administrative requirements of CSS Macro-level concepts such as MAKE Framework (Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises), KAM (Knowledge Assessment Methodology), MAKCi (Most Admired Knowledge Cities), cannot be directly applied. Creation, sharing and utilization of knowledge in CSS, is an unexplored area. Evolution of new framework of KM, which is more relevant to public administration, in Indian context requires research in each CSS. Pilot projects, for initiating this process. The MAKE Framework Knowledge-driven culture Developing knowledge workers Developing knowledge-based products Maximizing enterprise intellectual capital Creating an environment for collaborative enterprise knowledge sharing Creating a learning organization Delivering value based on customer knowledge Transforming enterprise knowledge into shareholder value The MAKCi Framework: Can this analysis be made at Districts level? Identity Capital Intellectual Capital Financial Capital Relational Capital Human Individual Capital Human Collective Capital Instrumentation- Material Capital Instrumentation-Knowledge Capital The KAM Framework : Need for decentralised “bench-marking” Overall Performance of the Economy Economic Incentive and Institutional regime, comprising of: Economic Regime Governance The Innovation System Education and Human resources, comprising of: Education Labour Gender Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Centrally Sponsored Schemes Financial outlays : 2.35% of GDP in 11th. Plan Implementation of CSS is through State Government, District, Blocks and Panchayats. It is difficult to ensure that outcome reach intended beneficiary. Enormous waste of public money and corruption Need for enhancing capabilities to create, access and use knowledge Practical application of the concept and tools of Knowledge Management (KM) needed. ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS Centralized control by the concerned Ministries of Government of India, Cater for local needs, Fulfill the requirement of Constitution of India, in respect of power and authority vested in the State Governments, Enable feedback of information from the field leading to mid-course corrections, and Provide for transparency and public accountability under RTI Act 2005. Major challenge in Knowledge Management of CSS Disclosure and dissemination of relevant information to intended beneficiary, under Section 4 of the RTI Act 2005, for effective public accountability of grass-root implementing agencies. “Social Audit” by the intended beneficiaries is essential for the successful delivery system. Intended beneficiary should have access to vital financial and operational data. Mid course administrative corrections, by feedback of data KM as a tool for stream-lined processes and delivery system Improve existing management practices and explores ways of sustained improvement. KM tools and concepts have evolved in commercial setting and have to be adopted to the needs of public administration. Focus on better outcome from public expenditure. Extensive use of I.T. provides the main thrust of improving KM in public administration. KM for enhanced innovation capabilities for improving delivery system. Problems in implementation of Centrally Sponsored Schemes 1) Poor planning: focus on inputs rather than outcomes; unrealistic targets; top‐down planning with limited attention to varied local needs; and limited citizen participation 2)Poor implementation: the involvement of multiple levels of government with overlapping roles and responsibilities and varied capacity in program implementation; poor expenditure management leading to unpredictable fund flows, and finally, 3)Weak monitoring and oversight: limited information on implementation processes; poor incentives within the system to track progress; and limited oversight by citizens. Need for “Knowledge Managers” • Creation and maintenance of knowledge repositories, by improving recording of knowledge relating to each centrally sponsored scheme. • Influencing the culture of an organization toward improved delivery system by knowledge sharing, reuse, learning, collaboration and innovation, • Improving record keeping and dissemination of information with extensive use of computers, as envisaged in section 4(1) of RTI Act. • Treating the knowledge component of activities as an explicit concern reflected in strategy, policy, and practice at all levels of the organization. -continued- • Making a direct connection between an organization’s intellectual assets — both explicit [recorded] and tacit [personal know-how] — and positive results. • Identifying and mapping intellectual assets within the organization, • Generating new knowledge for improving performance, • Sharing best practices and bench-marking. • KM, as any new concept would, is going through phases of maturity. Therefore Knowledge Managers in the Government Departments should keep themselves abreast with new developments and strive towards adopting theoretical concepts into practice. -continued- • Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) evolved by the World Bank is to be adopted for each Centrally Sponsored Scheme, to evaluate current status and identify areas where improvement is needed. • Customer focus is the driving force behind reforms in management practices. Knowledge Manager in the Government has to focus on utilizing knowledge in providing better services to the citizens. Concept of “Learning Organisation” applied to CSS KM efforts focus on improved performance by sharing of lessons learned and management of knowledge is regarded as strategic asset . Sharing of knowledge for proper use of financial outlays. Self-directed learning by government employees with focus on outputs. Critical Success Factors should be evaluated, disclosed and disseminated at all levels. Extensive use of I.T. for knowledge sharing and reforms in public administration. Suggestions Training inputs to “Knowledge Managers,” entrusted with the responsibility of introducing KM practices to improve the delivery system of each CSS and frame concrete action plans for improving delivery system and promote efficient utilization of public money. Evaluation of existing status of KM, pertaining to each CSS. Evolution of KM indices for comparative evaluation, by external expert agencies. Concerned Ministry of the Government of India would have to play leading role in implementing the concept of KM in improving management of CSS at all levels.
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