Nationalism in Malaya and Malaysia

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					Nationalism in Malaya
    and Malaysia
Between Malay, Malayan and Malaysian nationalism
  Nationalism in Malaysia
 Now, based on our understanding of Smith, within your
  own table-mates, construct a probable story of the
  origins of Malaysian nationalism
   Malaysia as a nation
 What forms the historic territory of Malaysia?
 What are the common myths that people in Malaysia
  relate to?
 What are the historical memories that the people in
  Malaysia hold dearly?
 What forms the Malaysian culture and customs?
 What are the common economic activities in Malaysia?
 What are the common legal rights that Malaysians have?
  Your Collated Responses
 What forms the historic territory of Malaysia?

 Peninsular Malaysia (or West Malaysia) only
 Peninsular Malaysia + Singapore + East Malaysia
 What are the common myths and stories that people in
  Malaysia relate to?

 Hang Tuah and Hang Jebat
 Pontianak
 Anwar’s sodomy
  Your Collated Responses
 What are the historical memories that the people in Malaysia
  hold dearly?

 Merdeka
 Racial riots in the 1960’s
 What forms the Malaysian culture and customs?
 Malay language
 Religion (Islam)
 1Malaysia
 Food
  Your Collated Responses
 What are the common economic activities in Malaysia?

 Agriculture
 Industrial-based
 Tourism
 What are the common legal rights that Malaysians have?

 Affirmative action, Malay special rights
 Equal rights under law, like voting
       Historic Territory of
 Which one came first?
    Malay states
    Malaya
    Malaysia
 Are they the same? Or are they different?
          The Malay States
 Prior to the formation of Malaysia, the current territory
  of Peninsular Malaysia was once under the control of
  the following maritime empire
    Srivijaya (between 7th to 13th centuries)
    Melaka (between 1402 to 1511)
 For most of the times, Malay states in Peninsular
  Malaysia were ruled by independent sovereigns
   Spheres of Malay States
 There were a few spheres or centres of power of Malay
  states in the Malay Archipelago (Southeast Asia)
    Patani, Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu
    Aceh, Perak, East Sumatra, Selangor and Negri Sembilan
    Johor-Riau sultanate
    Brunei sultanate in Borneo and Sulu Archipelago
Malay Peninsula
      Milestones in Malay
        states’ History
 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, as a result of British and
  Dutch dispute over Singapore, broke up the Johor
  Sultanate and created what would eventually be the
  boundaries of Malaysia and Indonesia
       Milestones in Malay
         states’ History
 1874 – Introduction of the British Residents as advisors
  to the Sultans of Perak and Selangor hence beginning the
  period of British indirect rule in the Malay Penisula

 1895 – 4 Malay states under British indirect rule came
  together to form the Federated Malay States, the
  forerunner to the present-day Federation of Malaysia
       Milestones in Malay
         states’ History
 1909 – Siam transferred its rights of claim over Kedah,
  Kelantan, Terengganu and Perlis to the British. However,
  the Malay states of Patani, Narathiwat and Yala still
  remain under Siamese and later Thai control till today
      Milestones in Malay
        states’ History
 1942-45 – Japanese Occupation of Malaya

 1946-48 – Malayan Union was formed consisting of all
  Malay Peninsular states under British control

 1948 – Federation of Malaya was formed to replace
  Malayan Union which was opposed by UMNO due to
  the loss of Sultans’ privileges and danger to Malay
  special rights
       Milestones in Malay
         states’ History
 1957 – Total political independence for Malaya
 1963 – Formation of Malaysia with Singapore, Sarawak
  and Sabah, all three were the remaining British colonies
  in Southeast Asia
 Since historically, there was never a fixed territory called
  Malaysia, and Malaya/Malaysia was in fact a colonial
    what form of nationalism took shape in Malaya?
    when did this form of nationalism appear?
 One of the points brought up during the discussion of
  Malaysia as a nation was the provision of affirmative
  action as one of the common legal rights in Malaysia

 How did the issue of the provision of special rights come
    Who were the beneficiaries?
    What was the context that led to the provision of special
     rights to them?
          Origins of Malay
 According to some historians, the Malay identity was
  marked by the following characteristics:
    Allegiance to a raja
    Belonging to a common faith, ie. Islam
    Converse in the Malay language
 Migration and inter-marriages were a common
  occurrence in the Malay archipelago so it was easier for
  a migrant to become a Malay (“Masuk Melayu”)
          Origins of Malay
 Transient labour from China was already brought into
  the Malay Archipelago before colonial times by the
  respective rulers of the various maritime kingdoms
    Eg. Tin miners in Perak and Bangka, gambier plantation
     workers in mainland Johor
 Immigration expedited during British indirect rule as
  more labour was required by the British to exploit the
  resources in Malaya
    Also due to insufficient number of natives to work in
     these fields as they preferred to tend to subsistence
          Origins of Malay
 First instance of Malay awakening
    Munshi Abdullah
    Wrote Hikayat Abdullah (The Voyages of Munshi
     Abdullah) in early 1840’s
    Even though he was seen by some quarters as “Raffles’
     puppet”, his writings exhorted the importance of religious
     and secular education in order for Malays to escape
     poverty and persecution
           Origins of Malay
 Second Wave of Malay awakening (1907 – 1937)
    British colonial rule and its liberal immigration policies
     changed the socio-economic landscape of Malaya
    Graduates of overseas Islamic educational institutions
     returned home to witness the malaise of their community
     due to economic dominance of the immigrants and the
     colonial masters
    These graduates resorted to writing in novels and
     newspapers to exhort their community to return to
     religious fundamentals, seek knowledge and progress
          Origins of Malay
 After the First World War, Malay intellectuals educated
  in English schools and British-sponsored Malay medium
  schools, would front the nationalist movements

 These intellectuals would start Utusan Melayu and
  Berita Harian to write articles, exhorting their
  communities to pursue education and embrace
  modernity, development and progress
           Origins of Malay
 Third Wave of Malay Nationalism (1937 – 1957)
    While the early years of Malay nationalist movements
     focused more the need for the community to develop and
     progress, the 3rd wave focused more on getting political
 Melayu (later Indonesia) Raya movement (1937 – 1947)
    Fronted by the Young Malays Movement (KMM), the
     Melayu Raya was the rallying call for all territories in the
     Malay Archipelago to be free from colonial rule and be
     united under one sovereign administration
          Origins of Malay
 Malay nationalism under UMNO (1946 – 1957)

 Malay political awakening became more popular after
  the Malayan Union episode which threatened the
  political position of the Malays in their own homeland

 UMNO was initially formed to protect the interests of
  the Malay aristocratic and upper-middle class,
  threatened by the implementation of the Malayan Union

 UMNO soon undertook the struggle for independence
  for Malaya
           Origins of Malay
 The political independence sought after by UMNO was
  not Melayu or Indonesia Raya

 This was because Melayu or Indonesia Raya would pose
  a threat to the political position of the Malay sultans and
  their upper-middle class followers

 Only the independence of British Malaya was sought

 Due to the multiracial composition of British Malaya,
  UMNO worked together with MCA and MIC in order
  to negotiate for independence from the British
          Origins of Malay
 At which juncture in history, did Malay nationalism
  evolve to become Malayan nationalism?

 What were the reasons for this evolution?
  Other forms of Malayan
 The notion of the non-Malay “Malayan national” was
  frowned upon by the British colonial administration as
  well as the Malay nationalists

 However, the “Malayan national” movement was largely
  fronted by Peranakan Straits Chinese and Malayan-born
  Chinese who formed a minority among the Chinese
  population in the early 1900’s

 Chinese nationalism was more prevalent in the 1900’s as
  the Chinese in Malaya were more inspired by the
  overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in China in 1911
  Other forms of Malayan
 Chinese nationalism was the motivation behind the Anti-
  Japanese boycott and donation drive in the 1930’s

 Chinese political activists in Malaya were divided into
  either Kuomintang supporters or Communist supporters

 Post-WW2, the dissolution of Malayan Union and the
  Communist insurgency made the Chinese realized of
  their own political situation in Malaya

 With increasing number of Malayan-born Chinese, the
  Chinese began to organize themselves politically in order
  to include themselves in the make-up of future
  independent Malaya
  Other forms of Malayan
 Indian-based national movements in Malaya was also
  largely influenced by developments in India

 Malayan Indian Congress was initially formed to gather
  support among Indians in Malaya for Indian

 With the dissolution of the Malayan Union and the new
  Federation of Malaya providing restrictions to non-
  Malay citizenship, the MIC began to focus on fighting
  the interests of Malayan-born Indians in future
  independent Malaya
                In Summary
 Malayan nationalism was formed out of pragmatism
  even though it had very separate origins

 The key to Malayan independence, ie. “Social Contract”,
  was agreed upon by UMNO, MCA and MIC along with
  other community leaders and the Malay royalty.
    Compromise was reached between the various ethnic
       Through Articles 14–18 of the Constitution, pertaining to
        the granting of citizenship to the non-Malay people of
        Malaya, and Article 153, which grants the Malays special
        rights and privileges
               Group Tasks
 Nationalist movements emerge out of a myriad of
  contributing factors. Within each nationalist movement,
  there are many individuals and institutions that play a
  major role in the development of the movement

 Your task is therefore to identify these key roles and
  explain how they were performed, which eventually led
  to the growth of nationalism in a particular country
               Group Tasks
 The key players in a nationalist movement are:
    Community leaders and intellectuals
    Royalty
    Schools and printing presses (including newspapers)
    Colonial policies
    External development (events that happened elsewhere yet
     influence local nationalist movements)
               Group Tasks
 For every country case study, you will be assigned to
  look into similar roles according to the various countries

 Research on these roles as thoroughly as possible and
  then explain to your group mates how each individual or
  institution contribute to the development of nationalism
  in a particular country

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