James Joyce “The Dead”.ppt by censhunay

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									James Joyce
“The Dead”
 Dubliners
• Published with the rest of the
  collection but written in Trieste in
  1907
• Setting → Julia and Kate Morkan’s
  house (during their Christmas party)

          → along the river Liffey,
            a cab

          → a hotel room
Characters
 The hostesses (Julia + Kate Morkan, their niece
  Mary Jane)
 Gabriel, Gretta
 Lily, the housemaid
 The guests:
Miss Ivors (a University teacher, fanatically in love
  with Ireland)
Freddy Malins (a drunkard)
Mr Bartell D’Arcy (a singer)
Mr Browne (a Protestant)
Structure and plot
3 parts:
• Arrival of guests and first dances
• Gabriel’s dance with Miss Ivors, supper and
  speech
• Song, departure, hotel scene (revelation of
  Gretta’s past love)

Three stages of a unified theme: a man’s
 realization of his psychological paralysis
• Gabriel’s egotism→ broken down by
   three “failures”
1. Lily’s sharp remark on men when he
   mentions a possible future wedding
   (failure as a gentleman)
2. Miss Ivors’ use of the abusive term
   West Briton (failure as an Irishman)
3. Gretta’s withdrawal into the past and
   her revelation (failure as a man, a lover,
   a husband)
•  Alone to meditate on the living and the
   dead (Who are the former? Who are
   the latter?)
• Ambiguous conclusion:
1. He yields to the final paralysis
   symbolized by the snow
2. He rises from the shades through
   deeper understanding, generosity,
   love, a closer union with nature
• Final part of the story: Gabriel gradually
  abandons his egotism and starts feeling a
  member of a vaster community
• In the three final paragraphs: first, he
  compares his love to Michael’s (he has
  never been able of such a feeling)
• Then he imagines he sees the young man
  and the many human beings that are dead
• Finally he feels his identity fade out to
  become part of the community of the living
  and the dead, whom the snow covers with
  the same whiteness and silence.
• Last paragraph→description of the snow:
  reproduces symbolically the process illustrated
  in the two previous paragraphs.

• Language: the narrator’s or Gabriel’s?

• Use of alliterative patterns, sound effects,
  repetitions→evoke an atmosphere between
  death and awareness; give unity to the
  paragraph, enacting the writer’s intention to
  evoke the unity of all creatures in the universe
A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the
window. It had begun to snow again. He watched
sleepily the flakes, silver and dark, falling obliquely
against the lamplight. The time had come for him to set
out on his journey westward. Yes, the newspapers were
right: snow was general all over Ireland. It was falling on
every part of the dark central plain, on the treeless hills,
falling softly upon the Bog of Allen and, farther westward,
softly falling into the dark mutinous Shannon waves. It
was falling, too, upon every part of the lonely churchyard
on the hill where Michael Furey lay buried. It lay thickly
drifted on the crooked crosses and headstones, on the
spears of the little gate, on the barren thorns. His soul
swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly
through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent
of their last end, upon all the living and the dead.
A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the
   window. It had begun to snow again. He watched
   sleepily the flakes, silver and dark, falling obliquely
   against the lamplight. The time had come for him to set
   out on his journey westward. Yes, the newspapers were
   right: snow was general all over Ireland. It was falling on
   every part of the dark central plain, on the treeless hills,
   falling softly upon the Bog of Allen and, farther westward,
   softly falling into the dark mutinous Shannon waves. It
   was falling, too, upon every part of the lonely churchyard
   on the hill where Michael Furey lay buried. It lay thickly
   drifted on the crooked crosses and headstones, on the
   spears of the little gate, on the barren thorns. His soul
   swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly
   through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent
   of their last end, upon all the living and the dead.
Symbols

• The journey westward

• The snow

• First names
The West
• The region where the sun sets, the place
  of death
• America: the place where to lay the
  foundations of a new existence
• The West of Ireland: wild, half-known
  country where the roots of real Irishness
  lie deep; where Gretta and Michael come
  from (Nora Barnacle). Going west = accept
  to be totally Irish
Snow

• Cold sterility of the protagonist’s
  emotional life
• The common destiny of death + a
  possibility of rebirth
• General paralysis
                    Names
         Michael                     Gabriel
Daniel 10,13-21: one of     Daniel 8,15-24: the
  the most important          angel who speaks,
  angels, their leader, a     explains things to
  protector                   man; reveals what will
Judas’ Letter 9: the          happen at the end of
  archangel fighting          times, helps man to
  with the devil              understand
Revelation 12,7: a war      Luke 1,11-20.26: the
  in heaven, Michael          messenger, brings
  and his angels              good news (Zacharias
  against the dragon          will have a son);
                              announces to Mary
                              the birth of Jesus

								
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