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PHARMA SCIENCE MONITOR ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY .pdf

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									Vol-1, Issue-1, 2010                                                                      Israni et al



                               PHARMA SCIENCE MONITOR
         AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES



ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF

                TERMINALIA CHEBULA & GAUMUTRA IN HIGH

                            CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

                       Dipa A. Israni1*, Kirti V. Patel2, Tejal R. Gandhi2
1
    Dept. of Pharmacology, Shri B. M. Shah College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Modasa

383315, India.
2
    Dept. of Pharmacology, Anand Pharmacy College, Anand 388001, India.

ABSTRACT
Terminalia chebula RETZ. (Combretaceae), a native plant in India and Southeast Asia
commonly known as Haritaki has been reported to exhibit a variety of biological
activities. In the present study, aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and its
combination with Gaumutra were investigated for anti-hyperlipidemic activity in
Sprague-dawley rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced by giving high cholesterol diet (2%
cholesterol, 1% sodium cholate and 2% coconut oil) for thirty days in standard rat chow
diet. Rats on high cholesterol diet showed significant increase (p<0.05) in serum and
tissue cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, atherogenic index and decrease HDL-C
levels. Treatment with Terminalia chebula (300mg/kg, p.o) and its combination with
Gaumutra (30mg/kg, p.o) showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum and tissue
serum and tissue cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, atherogenic index and increase
HDL-C levels. Histological study showed that Terminalia. chebula caused decrease in
aortic plaque and fatty liver formation but its combination with Gaumutra showed no
significant effect in aorta and liver as compared to high cholesterol diet fed rats. Thus
Terminalia. chebula and its combination with Gaumutra both are effective as an anti-
hyperlipidemic agent.
Keywords: Terminalia chebula; Gaumutra; high cholesterol diet


INTRODUCTION
The American Heart Association have identified the primary risk factor associated with
the atherosclerosis is the elevated levels of cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood.
Therefore the therapist considers the treatment of hyperlipidemia to be one of the



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                                                                            [1]
major approaches towards decelerating the atherogenic process                     . Atherosclerosis,
referred to as a “silent killer”, is one of the leading causes of death in the developing
                       [2]
countries like India         . In the general population, the cardiovascular disease risk from
increased LDL cholesterol is supported by observations that cholesterol-lowering therapy
greatly diminishes the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, particularly since the
advent of inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (i.e., statins)
                                                 [3]
that profoundly lower LDL cholesterol                  . In contrast to the situation with LDL
cholesterol, the relation between HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis is an inverse one
[4]
  .
Allopathic hypolipidemic drugs are available at large in the market but the side-effects
and contraindications of these drugs have marred their popularity. Recently herbal
hypolipidemics have gained importance to fill the lacunae created by the allopathic
drugs [5].
        Terminalia chebula RETZ. (Combretaceae), a native plant in India and Southeast
Asia, is extensively cultivated in Taiwan. Its dried ripe fruit, also called as medicinal
                                                                                                     [6]
terminalia fruit, has traditionally been used to treat various ailments in Asia                            .
Terminalia chebula (Kadukkai) is one of the traditional Ayurvedic medicines that have
found to posses various qualities on curing different kinds of diseases. T. chebula has
been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activity, including anticancer,
                                                                                              [7]
antidiabetic, antimutagenic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities, etc               . In
                                                                                            [8]
ayurveda it is mention that T. chebula is an effective anti-hyperlipidemic agent                  & as
per ayurvedic doctors addition of Gaumutra may enhance the efficacy of Terminalia
chebula. Fruit of Terminalia chebula contains Tannins, anthraquinones, chebulinic
acids, chebulic acid, ellagic acid and gallic acid also possesses corilaegin, β-D-
glucogallin, glucose and sorbitol[9]. In light of above objective, current investigation
was carried to study effect of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruitsand its
combination with gaumutra in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.
MATERIAL & METHODS
Plant material
        Dried ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula were obtained from a commercial
supplier and it was identified and authenticated by Mr. M. S. Jangid, Botany



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Department, Modasa, India. A voucher specimen was retained in our laboratory for
further reference. Aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula was prepared by grinding 600
g of fruits into small pieces, and then extracted with 1liter of warm water for 24 h. The
same procedure was repeated another two times. The extracts were then combined,
concentrated under reduced pressure, and finally dried. The final yield of the water
extract was 137.0 g. and Gaumutra extract was obtained from Aarkay food products,
Ahmedabad. TLC was run for authentification of extract and Rf value were comparable
with that of standard.
Animals
         Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 gm of either sex were used. Rats were
maintained on a standard diet and water ad libitum. All animals were housed at ambient
temperature (21±10C) and relative humidity (55±5%) with fixed 12h/12h light/dark
cycle. Animals had free access to standard pellet diet and water given ad libitum. The
experimental protocol was approved by Institutional Animal Ethical Committee as per
the guidance of committee for the purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments
on Animals (CPCSEA), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of
India.
Treatment protocols
         Dose of Terminalia chebula was selected by using the references of various
articles on T. chebula, further 7 days Anti-hyperlipidemic study was done using four
different doses 100mg/kg, 300mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 700mg/kg of T. chebula. Among
this dose 300mg/kg showed good anti-hyperlipidemic activity. So 300mg/kg of
T.chebula was selected. Similarly as per ayurvedic physician T.chebula combined with
10% of guamutra may show good activity. Thus, 7 days study was done using four
combinations, i.e., T.chebula (90mg/kg) + Gaumutra(10mg/kg); T.chebula (270mg/kg) +
Gaumutra(30mg/kg); T.chebula (450mg/kg) + Gaumutra(50mg/kg) and T.chebula
(6300mg/kg) + Gaumutra(70mg/kg). Among this combinations, T.chebula (270mg/kg) +
Gaumutra(30mg/kg) showed good anti-hyperlipidemic activity.
         Hyperlipdemia in rats was induced by administration of high cholesterol diet (2%
cholesterol, 1% sodium cholate and 2% coconut oil) for thiry days in standard rat chow
diet. The rats were divided into five groups; each group containing six rats. Group 1



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served as normal control and received saline solution. Group 2 High Cholesterol diet –
Cholesterol control (HCD) for 30 days. Group 3 received High Cholesterol diet (HCD) +
Terminalia chebula (300 mg/kg, p.o. in Distilled water) for 30 days. Group 4 received
High Cholesterol diet (HCD) + Terminalia chebula (270 mg/kg, p.o. in Distilled water) &
Gaumutra (30 mg/kg, p.o. in distilled water) for 30 days. Group 5 received High
Cholesterol diet (HCD) + Atorvastatin (15mg/kg, p.o. in CMC) – Standard control for 30
days.
        Blood were collected initially before the administration of the diet i.e. on 0 day
and After 30 days. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein after 8 h fast and
allowed to clot for 30 minutes at room temperature. Blood samples were centrifuged at
3000 rpm for 20 minutes. Serum was separated and stored at -20C until biochemical
estimation of lipid profile. Serum lipid profile was then estimated (Auto-span diagnostic
kits pvt. Ltd., India) [10, 11]. Liver, Heart and Thoracic aorta was dissected out from rats of
each group. Tissue were rinsed with distilled water                    and   homogenate in
chloroform:methanol (2:1v/v) mixture. This homogenate were further processed for
                              [12]
estimation of lipid profile          . Food intake and Weight gain in rats of each group were
observed for 30 days. Samples of aorta and liver were collected from the each group of
animals for histopathology.
Statistical analysis
        Results were expressed as mean  standard error of mean (S.E.M.). Result were
analyzed statistically using Student’s unpaired and paired t-test wherever applicable.
Values of p< 0.05 were considered significant.
RESULTS
Effect on Food intake and weight gain
        The food intake and weight was increased in high cholesterol fed diet rats as
compared to normal control. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. chebula and its
combination with Gaumutra showed no change in food intake but there was significant
decrease in weight gain as compared to high cholesterol fed diet rats (Table-1).




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    TABLE-1 EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF T. CHEBULA AND ITS
     COMBINATION WITH GAUMUTRA ON CHANGE IN BODY WEIGHT
                     GROUP                          CHANGE IN THE BODY WEIGHT (gm)
 Normal control                                    11.67  7.032
 Cholesterol control (HFD)                         51.67 14 *
 HFD + T. chebula treated (300mg/kg)                -18.33 4.773 $
 HFD + [T. chebula (270mg/kg) + -1.667 6.54 $
 Gaumutra (30mg/kg)]
 HFD + Statin treated (15mg/kg)                    -31.67 4.773 $
All the values are expressed in Mean ± SEM of 6 observations.
(student`s unpaired t-test)
*Significant different as compared to normal control P<0.05.
$ Significant different as Compared to cholesterol control P<0.05
Effect on Serum lipid profile
         High Cholesterol diet (HCD) fed rats produced significant increase (p<0.05) in
serum cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-C, LDL-C, atherogenic index but significant
decrease (p<0.05) in HDL-C level as compared to 0 day and normal control rats (Table-
2). Treatment with aqueous extract of T.chebula & its combination with gaumutra
showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-C, LDL-C,
atherogenic index but significant increase (p<0.05) in HDL-C as compared to high
cholesterol diet fed rats (Table-2).
Effect on Tissue lipid profile
         High Cholesterol diet (HCD) fed rats produced significant increase (p<0.05) in
tissue cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-C, LDL-C, atherogenic index but decrease in HDL-C
level as compared to 0 day and normal control rats (Table-3). Treatment with aqueous
extract of T.chebula & its combination with Gaumutra showed significant reduction
(p<0.05) in tissue cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-C, LDL-C, atherogenic index but increase
in HDL-C as compared to high cholesterol diet fed rats (Table-3).




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             TABLE-2 EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF T. CHEBULA AND ITS
                 COMBINATION WITH GAUMUTRA ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE
             GROUPS           Cholesterol    Triglyceride     HDL            LDL          VLDL              Atherogenic
                                                            cholesterol   cholesterol   cholesterol            Index
 Normal           0 day         65.88          77.6          32.79          26.6         15.49               16.26
 control                       ± 6.945        ± 1.947       ± 5.818         ± 7.5       ± 0.3878            ± 0.8492

                  After 30      79.26          78.87         39.28         24.24          15.77               16.43
                  day          ± 4.267        ± 6.191       ± 3.735        ± 3.41        ± 1.239             ± 1.227

 Cholesterol      0 day         64.05          93.66          37.77         14.29         20.24               21.75
                                                                                                   $
 control (HFD)                 ± 3.093        ± 3.39         ± 3.016       ± 3.184      ± 1.787              ± 1.827
                  After 30      375.3          164.9          24.91         319.8         20.24               36.92
                                                                                                   $
                  day         ± 18.49 *      ± 19.76 *      ± 2.027 *     ± 16.61 *     ± 1.787             ± 1.208 *

 HFD + T.         0 day         46.92          75.91         22.74         9.935         14.47                16.1
 chebula                       ± 2.941        ± 4.367       ± 1.061       ± 3.119       ± 0.6525             ± 1.116
 treated                        225.5          101.2          54.62          166          20.24               27.29
                  After 30
                                         $              $             $             $              $                   $
                  day         ± 14.64        ± 8.933        ± 5.055       ± 18.74       ± 1.787             ± 3.004

 HFD + T.         0 day         57.18          73.09          26.27         13.01        14.62                17.72
 chebula +                     ± 8.181        ± 8.339        ± 2.979       ± 5.891      ± 1.668             ± 0.9391
 Gaumutra         After 30       252           107.9          49.85         185.6        21.58                  28
 treated          day         ± 40.39 $      ± 4.991 $      ± 2.841 $     ± 41.41 $     ± 0.9985            ± 1.961 $
                                                                                            $

 HFD + Statin     0 day         59.58          64.93         29.95         17.42          12.98               14.54
 treated                       ± 3.948        ± 7.972       ± 1.914       ± 3.648        ± 1.594             ± 1.834

                  After 30      173.5         98.41           62.87         89.15         19.68              22.35
                                         $
                  day         ± 5.512        ± 4.412 $      ± 5.143   $
                                                                          ± 5.922   $
                                                                                        ± 0.8833 $          ± 1.165 $


All the values are expressed in Mean ± SEM of 6 observations.
(student`s unpaired t-test)
*Significant different as compared to normal control P<0.05
$ Significant different as Compared to cholesterol control P<0.05

Histological results of aorta
           In the histopathological study high cholesterol diet fed rats exhibit atheromatous
plaque as compared to normal control. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. chebula
shows decrease in plaque size as compared to cholesterol control. Combination of T.
chebula with Gaumutra shows fibrofatty plaque in aorta (Fig. 1).




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       TABLE-3 EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF T. CHEBULA AND ITS
           COMBINATION WITH GAUMUTRA ON TISSUE LIPID PROFILE
                              Cholesterol                    HDL            LDL           VLDL                   Atherogenic
          GROUP                             Triglyceride
                                                           cholesterol   cholesterol    cholesterol                 Index
 Normal        Liver            32.46         87.79          17.53         1.184           17.55                   18.23
                               ± 3.253       ± 3.457        ± 1.669       ± 0.555        ± 0.6932                  ± 1.09
 control
               Heart            41.94         60.21          14.02          16.8           12.04                   12.82
                               ± 1.978       ± 3.095        ± 1.552       ± 3.883        ± 0.6191                 ± 0.3605
               Aorta             46.4         46.94          8.818         5.748           9.383                   12.07
                               ± 1.96        ± 5.114        ± 1.463        ± 2.08         ± 1.023                 ± 2.573
 Cholester     Liver            104.6         139.6          8.598         59.08           30.73                     38
                              ± 8.163 *     ± 6.23 *       ± 2.258 *     ± 0.2094 *      ± 3.112 *               ± 2.341 *
 ol control
               Heart            102.3         139.6          7.144         68.85           27.91                   35.04
 (HFD)                        ± 2.397 *     ± 6.23 *       ± 0.4648*     ± 4.573 *       ± 1.246 *               ± 1.747 *
               Aorta            115.7         138.7          32.33         65.95           27.74                   33.87
                              ± 6.926 *     ± 4.046 *      ± 2.375 *      ± 3.33 *      ± 0.8083 *               ± 2.332 *
 HFD + T.      Liver            53.81          84.5          16.86         20.04            17.6                   18.32
                              ± 2.834 $     ± 2.439 $      ± 1.067 $      ± 3.613 $     ± 0.7834 $               ± 0.4304 $
 chebula
               Heart            41.43         63.23          19.83         11.36           12.64                   10.86
                              ± 2.163 $     ± 3.621 $      ± 1.518 $     ± 2.502 $      ± 0.7241 $              ± 0.5509 * $
               Aorta            59.62         55.16          26.91         21.96           12.46                   12.91
                              ± 1.119 $     ± 6.535 $      ± 1.099 $      ± 1.027 $      ± 1.704 $               ± 1.398 $
               Liver            55.33         92.95          9.017         27.69           19.22                   21.26
                              ± 2.857 $     ± 4.304 $       ± 1.264      ± 2.066 $$     ± 0.8774 $               ± 0.8455 $
 HFD + T.
               Heart            62.22         78.87          17.72         29.43           14.67                   17.36
 chebula +                    ± 4.021 $$    ± 4.265 $      ± 0.6412$     ± 2.507 $$     ± 0.8963 $               ± 0.6657 $
 Gaumutr       Aorta
                               69.93         66.66          20.66          32.69         14.57                    15.77
 a                            ± 4.352 $     ± 3.459 $      ± 2.013 $      ± 4.07 $      ± 1.335 $               ± 0.9428 $
 HFD +         Liver           49.67         61.44          18.54          15.39          10.75                   12.37
                              ± 3.977 $     ± 4.372 $      ± 1.563 $      ± 2.23 $      ± 0.6313      $
                                                                                                                ± 0.6441 $
 Statin
               Heart
 treated                       35.29         53.75           33.75         7.763           10.2                   10.51
                              ± 1.887 $     ± 3.157 $       ± 6.05 $     ± 3.117   $$
                                                                                        ± 0.4745 $              ± 0.6048 $

               Aorta         36.27       43.19       29.03                  3.4           8.638                   9.509
                           ± 1.718 $    ± 2.484 $   ± 4.867 $             ± 6.52   $
                                                                                        ± 0.4968 $              ± 0.9177   $


All the values are expressed in Mean ± SEM of 6 observations.
(student`s unpaired t-test)
*Significant different as compared to normal control P<0.05
  $ Significant different as Compared to cholesterol control P<0.05




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(a) Normal control               (b) Cholesterol control (HCD)      (c) HCD + T.chebula
                                                                  treated




         (d) HCD + (T.chebula with           (e) HCD + Statin treated
            Gaumutra treated)
                                           Figure 1
                                      Histology of Aorta
Histological results of liver
       In the histopathological study high cholesterol diet fed rats shows fatty
cytoplasmic vaculated cells as compared to normal control. Treatment with aqueous
extract of T. chebula shows less fatty cytoplasmic vacuoles as compared to high
cholesterol diet fed rats. Combination of T. chebula with Gaumutra shows focal area of
cytoplasmic vacuoles (Fig. 2).




(a) Normal control                (b) Cholesterol control (HCD)    (c) HFD + T.chebula
                                                                        treated




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               (d) HCD + (T.chebula with            (e) HCD + Statin treated
                 Gaumutra treated)
                                               Figure 2
                                          Histology of Liver
DISCUSSION
          Development of atherosclerotic disease is a complicated process involving
accumulation of lipid-containing particles in the walls of coronary arteries & other major
arteries within the body. A high-fat diet causes cholesterol levels to increase in
susceptible people, which leads to obesity. The weight gain in high cholesterol diet
(HCD) group of rats was significantly higher than control rats reflecting the influence of
                        [13]
high cholesterol diet          . Similarly, in present study there was significant weight gain in
cholesterol control (HCD) as compared to normal control groups. Treatment with T.
chebula and its combination with gaumutra significantly reduced the weight gain.
Lowering high cholesterol levels significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks, strokes,
and death. Normally hepatocyte initiate synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol during
states of increased free fatty acid flux to the liver (e.g., after the fatty meal or in the
situation of increased lipolysis) but due to anti-hyperlipidemic drug, there may be
inability of hepatocytes to increase cholesterol synthesis and decrease hepatocyte
cholesterol concentration by increases the catabolic conversion of cholesterol to bile
acids in liver. High chol diet increased serum cholesterol and LDL-C level significantly [10,
14, 15]
      . A rise in LDL may cause deposition of cholesterol in arteries and aorta and hence it
                                                          [16, 17]
is a direct risk factor for coronary heart disease                   . Studies show that both LDL and
                                                    [16, 18, 19]
VLDL have a positive role in atherogenesis                         . In the present study, there was
elevation in serum and tissue cholesterol, LDL-C, and VLDL-C level in response to high
cholesterol diet as compare to normal control group. Treatment with aqueous extract of




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T. chebula and its combination with Gaumutra significantly reduced serum and tissue
cholesterol, LDL-C, and VLDL-C level.
       The decrease in serum triglyceride level is an important finding of this
experiment. Recent studies show that triglycerides are independently related with
                          [20, 21]
coronary artery disease              . Treatment with aqueous extract of T.chebula and its
combination with Gaumutra shows significant decreased in triglyceride.
       HDL is synthesized mainly in intestine and liver. HDL is considered to be a
beneficial lipoprotein as it has an inhibitory effect in the pathogenesis of
atherosclerosis. Low level of HDL is associated with high risk of coronary artery disease
[22]
   . In the present study HDL-C level in both serum and tissue were significantly
increased by aqueous extract of T.chebula and its combination with gaumutra
       Atherogenic index indicates the deposition of foam cells or plaque or fatty
infilteration or lipids in heart, coronaries, aorta, liver and kidneys. The higher the
                                                                                       [23]
atherogenic index, the higher is the risk of above organs for oxidative damage                .
Treatment with aqueous extract of T.chebula and its combination with Gaumutra shows
significant decreased in Atherogenic index.
       In histopathological study we found treatment of T. chebula significantly
decreases the plaque size in aorta and significantly decrease fatty cytoplasmic vaculated
cells in Liver parenchyma as well as liver cell necrosis is prevented. But combination of
T. chebula with gaumutra showed no effect in aorta and liver compared to HCD rats.
CONCLUSION:
       Hence treatment with T. chebula and its combination with gaumutra significantly
decreases the Cholesterol, Triglyceride, VLDL-C, LDL-C, Atherogenic index and a
significantly increase in HDL-C in serum and various tissue homogenate like Aorta, Liver
& Heart. These results were further substantiated with the histopathological results.
Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula may be due to
presence of tannins, anthraquinones, chebulinic acids, chebulic acid, ellagic acid and
gallic acid and this requires further investigation.
       Thus from above results it can be concluded that aqueous extract of Terminalia
chebula and its combination with gaumutra has significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity.




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 For Correspondence:
 Ms. Dipa A. Israni
 Dept. of Pharmacology, Shri B. M. Shah College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Modasa 383315, India.
 Email: dip_israni@yahoo.co.in; dipaisrani@gmail.com
 Tel. 02774-247160;
 Fax no. 02774-249482



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