Police Organization and Management Chapter #6 Police Mission in U.S. 1. enforce / support _____ 2. investigate _____ 3. apprehend _____ 4. _____ crime 5. ensure ___________ 6. provide community with _____ Enforcing law _____% - _____% of all calls to police require a police response Police must respond regardless Crime prevention Proactive 1. 2. 3. Prevention based on _____ Crime prevention Compstat: crime analysis & police management based upon crime mapping ________ + ________ + __________ = reduction or lower risk Quality of life issues Broken window theory Weed-and-seed programs Police services 911 – emergency calls 311 – non-emergency calls Preventive patrol Uniformed officers on street: 1. 2. 3. 4. psychological feeling of safety Routine response 2nd most important function Response time: from dispatch to arrival Emergency response Critical incidences Human life in jeopardy Crime scene Physical area where a crime is __________& __________ Crime scene response 1. determine whether a crime’s been committed 2. initiate enforcement action 3. gather evidence 4. forensic specialists Problem solving SARA – scanning / analysis / respond / assess Support services Dispatch / training / property control / records / evidence Police management _____ / _____ / coordinating __________ Police Organization and Structure Most police organization is structured along lines of authority. Line Operations Staff Operations Field activities or Include support supervisory activities roles, such as directly related to day- administration to-day police work Chain of command Unbroken line of authority that ________________________ Span-of-control __________ a ranked officer supervises Historical Eras in American Policing Styles of policing Watchman style Maintain _____ Control _____ behavior Consider using ______ Inner city style Urban areas Legalistic style Enforce the law Ignore quality of life issues Service style Try to meet community needs Helping as opposed to arresting Team policing Assign officers to fixed districts Get to know the community Community policing Police-Community At least 1 of 4 of the Relations following 1. store front police 1. community-based 2. neighborhood watch crime prevention 3. Project ID 2. re-orient police to 4. Youth fingerprinting non-emergency service 3. increase police accountability 4. decentralized command Strategic policing Attacks organized crime: Problem oriented Use social _____ to attack social ______ Critique of Community Policing Some criticize community policing, citing problems such as: Too abstract of a concept Hard-to-measure success Difficult to conceptualize and quantify “citizen success” Not readily accepted by all police officers or managers Difficulty coming to a consensus with regard to what’s considered a “community problem” Impact of terrorism 1. increased federal aid to ______ 2. re-define ______ 3. re-direct patrol to _____ 4. creation of _____ 5. protect people 6. new technology The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Approach IACP announced its Taking Command Initiative in 2004. They identified five key principles behind an effective homeland security policy. 1. Homeland security proposals must be developed in local context. 2. Prevention is a key part of any strategy. 3. State and local law enforcement can help identify, investigate, and apprehend terrorist suspects. 4. Strategies must be coordinated nationally, not federally. 5. There cannot be a one-size-fits-all approach considering the vast diversity among state and local law enforcement and public safety agencies. Intelligence-led policing Use of intelligence to fight terrorism Criminal intelligence – info compiled / analyzed / disseminated in order to anticipate / prevent / monitor criminal activity The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Approach IACP announced its Taking Command Initiative in 2004. They identified five key principles behind an effective homeland security policy. 1. Homeland security proposals must be developed in local context. 2. Prevention is a key part of any strategy. 3. State and local law enforcement can help identify, investigate, and apprehend terrorist suspects. 4. Strategies must be coordinated nationally, not federally. 5. There cannot be a one-size-fits-all approach considering the vast diversity among state and local law enforcement and public safety agencies. MATRIX – multi-state anti- terrorism information exchange Exchange of sensitive info b/w federal / state / local Boundary-less policing NLETS – International Justice & Public Safety Information Sharing Network 1. 1. encrypted digital communications 2. 2. data bases: A. 3. B. C. D. E. Fusions Centers 1. National ________________ 2. Center 3. National Gang ______________ Center 4. National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan 1. promote 2. share 3. provide 4. Discretion = choice Basis of what a police officer does discretion Influences: 1. officer’s _____ 2. suspect’s _____ 3. department _____ 4. _____ interest 5. pressure from _____ 6. disagreement with _____ Police ethics / accreditation Adhere to the moral duty / obligation that is inherent in police work National standards that include ethical behavior Education / training http://www.mpoetc.state.pa.us/m potrs/site/default.asp Selection process 1. written test 2. oral test 3. personal interview 4. physical agility test 5. medical exam 6. drug testing 7. psychological test Percentage of Local Police Departments Using Various Recruit-Screening Methods, (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000) Ethnic & gender diversity 2000 – _____% of Females officers were non- ___% - all police Caucasian jobs ___% - minority females ___% - top command ___% - supervisors ___% - line officers Female police officers Overview 1. 2. 3. Types 1. 2.
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