The Revolutionary War
Up until 1776, most of the fighting
centered around what area?
What are some disadvantages of the
Patriot army? Advantages?
By mid-1776 fighting is going to shift
into the middle colonies.
Battle of Long Island
General Howe was leading the British Army in
1776 34,000 troops, 10,000 sailors
March from Boston to New York City and conquer
Battle of Long Island – Washington v.
More than 1,400 Continentals were killed,
wounded or captured.
The rest retreated to Manhattan (20,000 troops)
Washington eventually crossed into NJ
and then made his way to PA.
He gained information about British
troops and needed to transport it.
Nathan Hale, a young CT officer,
volunteered to transport it.
Hale was stopped by British officials,
searched, and then hung at the gallows.
Battle of Trenton
Washington’s troops were sick and tired
Had no money, food, or clothing
Washington decided to win they would need
a surprise attack.
Battle of Trenton – Washington v.
On Dec. 25, 1776 (Christmas) he crossed the
Delaware River and surprised the Hessians who
were celebrating Christmas and were easily able
to defeat them.
Hessians – soldiers from Germany who fought on
the British side.
Cornwallis tried to retake Trenton on Jan. 2,
However, Washington fooled him by leaving
their fires burning at their old camp.
Instead, Washington marched forward and
overtook the British troops at Princeton, NJ.
He wintered at Morristown, NJ.
In 1777, General John Burgoyne presented a
new British plan for victory.
He thought the British should cut off New
England from the rest of the colonies.
His plan called for 3 different British
regiments to march to Albany, NY and crush
This would allow them to control the Hudson River
and stop colonial supplies.
What Really Happened
Burgoyne’s plan called for General Howe to
move to Albany.
However, King George wanted Howe to take
Howe captured Philadelphia in the Battles of
Germantown and Brandywine.
He decided NOT to go to Albany.
This allowed George Washington to stay at
Valley Forge for the winter.
Moving to NY
ONLY Burgoyne moved to Albany.
However, the Patriots cut down trees
and blocked streams to slow him down.
The Green Mountain Boys hurried to NY
to help the Patriots.
There, the Patriots surrounded the
British and held them off.
Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga – Burgoyne v. Gates
Patriots surrounded the British forcing Burgoyne to
surrender 1/3 of the British army.
This was the turning point of the war.
Ended the British threat to New England.
Boosted American spirits
Convinced France to become an ally to the
Ally – work together to achieve a common goal.
The French were eager to defeat the British
because they were still upset about the
French and Indian War.
However, they did not want to join the war
unless they knew the Americans would win.
In February of 1778, France became the first
nation to sign a treaty with America.
Recognized the new nation and agreed to provide
Also, the Netherlands and Spain later join against
Britain by providing loans to the patriots.
Marquis de Lafayette – young French noble
who trained Patriot soldiers.
Became a close friend of Washington’s
Freidrich von Steuben – Prussian who helped
to drill Washington’s troops
Thaddeus Kosciusko – A Polish engineer
who helped build forts and other defenses.
Casimir Pulaski – A Polish man who helped
form and train the cavalry
Cavalry – troops on horseback
Continentals suffered through the winter of
1777-1778 at Valley Forge.
Conditions: cold, damp, no homes, slept on
frozen ground, no shoes, suffered from
frostbite and other diseases
Women sent food, ammunition, warm clothes,
medicine and more
As spring came, Von Steuben taught them to
march and drill.
With Washington and Von Steuben, the spirits