The Revolutionary War The Revolutionary War

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					The Revolutionary War

   Battles, Generals
Review Slide
 Up  until 1776, most of the fighting
  centered around what area?
 What are some disadvantages of the
  Patriot army? Advantages?
 By mid-1776 fighting is going to shift
  into the middle colonies.
Battle of Long Island
 General Howe was leading the British Army in
  1776  34,000 troops, 10,000 sailors
 His Plan:
       March from Boston to New York City and conquer
   Battle of Long Island – Washington v.
       More than 1,400 Continentals were killed,
        wounded or captured.
       The rest retreated to Manhattan (20,000 troops)
Nathan Hale

 Washington  eventually crossed into NJ
  and then made his way to PA.
 He gained information about British
  troops and needed to transport it.
 Nathan Hale, a young CT officer,
  volunteered to transport it.
   Hale was stopped by British officials,
    searched, and then hung at the gallows.
Battle of Trenton
   Washington’s troops were sick and tired
       Had no money, food, or clothing
 Washington decided to win they would need
  a surprise attack.
 Battle of Trenton – Washington v.
       On Dec. 25, 1776 (Christmas) he crossed the
        Delaware River and surprised the Hessians who
        were celebrating Christmas and were easily able
        to defeat them.
       Hessians – soldiers from Germany who fought on
        the British side.
Cornwallis’s Retaliation
 Cornwallis tried to retake Trenton on Jan. 2,
 However, Washington fooled him by leaving
  their fires burning at their old camp.
 Instead, Washington marched forward and
  overtook the British troops at Princeton, NJ.
 He wintered at Morristown, NJ.
Burgoyne’s Plan
 In 1777, General John Burgoyne presented a
  new British plan for victory.
 He thought the British should cut off New
  England from the rest of the colonies.
 His plan called for 3 different British
  regiments to march to Albany, NY and crush
  the Americans.
       This would allow them to control the Hudson River
        and stop colonial supplies.
What Really Happened
 Burgoyne’s plan called for General Howe to
  move to Albany.
 However, King George wanted Howe to take
       Howe captured Philadelphia in the Battles of
        Germantown and Brandywine.
 He decided NOT to go to Albany.
 This allowed George Washington to stay at
  Valley Forge for the winter.
Moving to NY
 ONLY    Burgoyne moved to Albany.
 However, the Patriots cut down trees
  and blocked streams to slow him down.
 The Green Mountain Boys hurried to NY
  to help the Patriots.
 There, the Patriots surrounded the
  British and held them off.
Battle of Saratoga
   Battle of Saratoga – Burgoyne v. Gates
       Patriots surrounded the British forcing Burgoyne to
        surrender 1/3 of the British army.
       This was the turning point of the war.
   Results
       Ended the British threat to New England.
       Boosted American spirits
       Convinced France to become an ally to the
            Ally – work together to achieve a common goal.
French Aid
 The French were eager to defeat the British
  because they were still upset about the
  French and Indian War.
 However, they did not want to join the war
  unless they knew the Americans would win.
 In February of 1778, France became the first
  nation to sign a treaty with America.
       Recognized the new nation and agreed to provide
        military aid.
       Also, the Netherlands and Spain later join against
        Britain by providing loans to the patriots.
Famous Foreigners
   Marquis de Lafayette – young French noble
    who trained Patriot soldiers.
       Became a close friend of Washington’s
 Freidrich von Steuben – Prussian who helped
  to drill Washington’s troops
 Thaddeus Kosciusko – A Polish engineer
  who helped build forts and other defenses.
 Casimir Pulaski – A Polish man who helped
  form and train the cavalry
       Cavalry – troops on horseback
Valley Forge
 Continentals suffered through the winter of
  1777-1778 at Valley Forge.
 Conditions: cold, damp, no homes, slept on
  frozen ground, no shoes, suffered from
  frostbite and other diseases
 Women sent food, ammunition, warm clothes,
  medicine and more
 As spring came, Von Steuben taught them to
  march and drill.
       With Washington and Von Steuben, the spirits
        were renewed.

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