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Morocco




  Evaluation of foreign degrees and
   qualifications in the Netherlands
   Information about the structure of the education system of Morocco
   and the evaluation of degrees obtained in Morocco.




                                                             International Recognition Department
                                                                           2012 Nuffic, The Hague




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Country Module - Morocco © Nuffic | 2nd edition January 2012 | version 5, January 2012   -2-
Evaluation chart
In the following chart, the left part lists the foreign qualifications. The right part lists the Dutch
equivalents, with corresponding levels in the Netherlands and European qualification frameworks.


Degree or qualification                                     Dutch equivalent and NLQF                  EQF
                                                            level                                      level
Attestation du Baccalauréat                                 at least a HAVO diploma              4      4

Attestation du Baccalauréat                                 HAVO diploma with vocational         4      4
(with vocational component)                                 subjects

Diplôme de Technicien                                       MBO diploma (qualification level 3   3/4    3/4
                                                            or 4)

Diplôme de Technicien Spécialisé/Brevet de                  1 to 2 years of HBO                  5      5
Technicien Supérieur

Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (DUT)                  at least 2 years of HBO              5      5

Diplôme d’Ingénieur d’Application                           HBO bachelor’s degree                6      6

Licence                                                     at least 1 year of WO                6      6


Master                                                      WO bachelor’s or master’s degree     6/7    6/7


NB

     -    The information provided in the table is a general recommendation from which no rights may
          be derived.
     -    NLQF = Netherlands Qualifications Framework. EQF = European Qualifications Framework
     -    Information on the Dutch equivalent qualifications is available in our Netherlands Country
          Module. See: www.nuffic.nl/international-organizations/docs/diploma-recognition/country-
          modules/country-module-netherlands.pdf
     -    The information regarding international study programmes at VMBO and MBO level is issued
          by SBB, the foundation for the Co-operation Vocational Education, Training and the Labour
          Market.




Country Module - Morocco © Nuffic | 2nd edition January 2012 | version 5, January 2012                         -3-
Introduction
Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with a head of state who occupies a strong position in terms of
constitutional law. The country also has a bicameral parliamentary system, with elections taking place
every 3 years.

Although the Moroccan government pursues a policy involving regionalization and delegation of
competencies, the national government remains ultimately responsible.

Since 1996, Morocco has had a single Ministry of Education, combining the former Ministère de
l’Education Nationale (responsible for primary and secondary school legislation) and the Ministère de l’
Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique (responsible for higher education legislation).
Up until that time, the Ministère des Travaux Publics, de la Formation Professionnelle et de la
Formation des Cadres organized professional education and middle-management training, yet this
responsibility now also falls under a single ministry: the Ministère de l’Education Nationale et de
l’Enseignement Supérieur de la Formation des Cadres et de la Recherche Scientifique. In addition, a
range of line ministries are responsible for (higher) professional education programmes in their own
area of specialization, for example in mining, sport and healthcare.
Competencies for primary and secondary education are delegated to the educational districts
(académies).

Higher education is legislated in the 2000 Higher Education Act (Dahir nr 01-00). This Act came into
force in 2003 and covers the introduction of a new system following the European bachelor’s-master’s
degree structure, and in particular the LMD (Licence-Master-Doctorat) system, following France.

Education in Morocco has undergone a range of changes over the past decades. The most recent
being the reforms in primary and secondary education in 2000 and those introduced in 2000 (coming
into force in 2003) in higher education. In 1985 the phasing in of a 9+3 system was initiated to replace
the former 5+4+3 system in primary and secondary education. As part of this process, primary
education (enseignement primaire) and lower secondary education (enseignement secondaire
provided by a collège) were merged into the 9-year enseignement fondamental (basic education). This
structure came into effect in the 1992/1993 school year, and applied to all year levels of Moroccan
basic education. Upper secondary education (enseignement secondaire provided by a lycée)
remained unchanged.

Education in Morocco is officially compulsory for 9 years, for children aged 6-14 (enseignement
fondamental). This is followed by 3 years of upper secondary education, with a general or
general/vocational component. Pupils can also take lower and secondary vocational education, which
lead on to short programmes in post secondary professional education.

Higher education consists of university education, so-called managerial staff training programmes,
Ecoles or établissements d’enseignement supérieur ne relevant pas des universités, and various
forms of higher professional education; this last type includes many programmes offered by private
institutions.

The language of instruction in secondary education is Arabic, and French is a compulsory subject of
the curriculum from the age of 8. English is offered as a foreign language in secondary education.
Higher education in sciences is still provided in French, whereas the language used in humanities and
social sciences is usually Arabic.

The academic year runs from September until the end of June.




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Primary and secondary education
Class levels in secondary education (enseignement secondaire) are indicated by année secondaire
(AS) and are counted from the first year of senior secondary education onwards: 1AS to 3AS. Prior to
2000, the examination was completed in various sections during this 3-year programme.

The reforms in 2000 included a modification to the manner in which the final examination is
administered. The examination consists of a (compulsory) regional examination set by the académie,
and a national written examination. The final marks are determined by three components: twenty-five
per cent by the average grade over the last school year (sometimes the last 2 years, depending on the
policy of the académie), twenty-five per cent by the final mark on the regional examination, and fifty
per cent by the national written examination. The regional examination is conducted in the second-last
year, and the national written examination at the end of the final year. The government remains
responsible for the exit qualifications, yet the separate académies have been given more authority in
the content and the structure of the diploma. The national inspectorate conducts regular inspections in
the various districts.

The certificate awarded is a state diploma, called Attestation du Baccalauréat (since 2003).. The
results obtained in the year of the final examination are crucial in determining the final result, which
are incorporated into a final examination list, the Relevé de Notes du Baccalauréat. The relative
weighting of the subjects in a certain programme is indicated in terms of the coefficients attached to
each subject.

The (statutory) implementation of delegated authorities means that the content of the programme and
the final examination, the organization of the final examination, the assessment of the results and the
award of the diploma fall fully under the responsibility of the relevant académie, the educational district
of which the secondary school in question is a part of.

Prior to 2003, the final diploma was called Baccalauréat de l’Enseignement Secondaire. An attestation
du baccalauréat was a (sometimes easily counterfeited) copy of the original diploma.

Baccalauréat programme
The Baccalauréat includes three programme types with distinctive specializations:

General secondary education:
A. Baccalauréat Lettres (languages), subdivided into:
      - lettres modernes (modern languages);
      - lettres originelles (classical languages), language of instruction is Arabic.
B. Baccalauréat Sciences (science). The first year pupils follow a common curriculum. As of the
   second year, the programme is subdivided into:
      - sciences expérimentales (experimental sciences);
      - sciences mathématiques (mathematics);
      - sciences originelles (a classical variant with additional attention devoted to Arabic and
          Islamic sciences), language of instruction is Arabic.

In terms of level, the Attestation du Baccalauréat is comparable to at least a HAVO diploma.

Education with a vocational component:
C. Baccalauréat Technique, subdivided into
      - génie mécanique (mechanical engineering), with a range of specializations;
      - génie électrique (electrical engineering), with a range of specializations;
      - génie civil (construction engineering), with a range of specializations;
      - chimie (chemical engineering).
   - sciences économiques (economics or economics/business administration);
   - sciences agronomiques (agriculture).




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These vocational training programmes are mostly made up of general subjects such as mathematics,
modern languages and, depending on the vocational specialization, physics (technical
specializations), chemistry (chemical engineering), biology (specializations in agriculture) and
geography/history (specializations in economics). Approximately one-third of the programme consist of
specific vocational skills.

The Baccalauréat Technique programmes are counted as part of regular secondary education in
Morocco, and all lead on to programmes in higher education.

The following specializations were introduced after 2000:
Section littéraire:
    - série lettres;
    - série lettres spécialité « langues;
Section enseignement originelles:
    - série lettres orginelles;
    - série juridiques (la Chariaâ);
    - série sciences expérimentales originelles;
Section sciences:
    - série sciences expérimentales;
    - série sciences mathématiques (A);
    - série sciences mathématiques (B);
Section génie mécanique (mechanical engineering):
    - série industrie mécanique;
    - série sciences et techniques;
    - série fonderie;
Section génie électrique (electrical engineering):
    - série électronique;
    - série électrotechnique;
Section génie civil (civil engineering):
   - série conception et bâtiment;
   - série arts plastiques;
   - série arts et industries graphiques;
Section chimie (chemical engineering):
    - série chimie industrielle;
Section génie économique et gestion (specialization in economics or economics/business
administration):
    - série techniques de gestion administratives;
    - série techniques de gestion comptable;
    - série sciences économiques;
Section sciences agronomiques (specialization in agriculture):
    - série sciences agronomiques;

In terms of level, the Attestation du Baccalauréat with vocational component is comparable to a HAVO
diploma with vocational subjects.

It is possible to obtain the secondary school diploma Attestation du Baccalauréat through regular
daytime classes, yet it can also be obtained via a candidat libre state examination. In such cases, only
the marks of the regional and national written examinations play a role in determining the final grade.

Secondary vocational education
Professional training programmes exist at various levels, which until recently were coordinated by the
Office de Formation Professionelles et de Promotion du Travail, a section of the former Ministère des
Travaux Publics, de la Formation Professionnelle et de la Formation des Cadres. Since 1996 these
programmes were placed under a single ministry, the Ministère de l’Education Nationale et de
l’Enseignement Supérieur de la Formation des Cadres et de la Recherche Scientifique. The highest
level of these professional training programmes is provided by the Instituts de Technologie Appliquée
(I.T.A.). Graduates of these programmes are awarded the Diplôme de Technicien. Admission to an
I.T.A. may be granted based on at least a certificate of transfer from 2AS into 3AS (usually in the form


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of a Certificat de Scolarité, a school certificate). The Diplôme de Technicien itself grants access to
certain short programmes in higher professional education, upon completion of an entrance
examination.

In terms of level, the Diplôme de Technicien is comparable to an MBO diploma at qualification level 3
or 4, depending on the programme and provided it is obtained at an institution recognized by the state.




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Admission to higher education
The Attestation du Baccalauréat is required for admission to higher education in Morocco. The
programme includes both general and general/vocational subjects. Additional criteria apply for entry
into specific programmes, in the form of both entrance examinations (including for engineering
programmes and medical specializations) and in terms of prerequisite subject clusters or
specializations. Students’ final examination average can also play a role in admission.




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Higher education
Morocco has university and non-university higher education. In total, there are 14 state and other
universities and around 200 non-university higher education institutions, 107 of which are private.
There is also an English-language university with a separate status, the Al Akhaouayn University in
Ifrane.

Morocco has public and private higher education institutions. The majority of public institutions are
governed by the Ministry of Higher Education, yet they may also be set up by other line ministries,
such as the Ministry of Agriculture or the Ministry of Health.

It is possible to distinguish between two types of higher education in Morocco :

    1.   academic education provided by universities;
    2.   applied (technical) higher education provided by écoles, also called managerial staff
         programmes.

Programmes in university and in applied higher education are run in two phases (or ‘cycles’), at the
end of which a diploma is awarded. Students can then continue their studies in the same
specialization (even at a different institution).

There are also engineering programmes that are provided by special institutions offering professional
and/or specialist higher education. These institutions are sometimes referred to as Grandes Ecoles,
however, this is not an official name. Admission is granted after a 2-year preparatory programme
called classes préparatoires, provided by lycées designed especially for this purpose, and passing an
entrance examination.

Education system (from 2003 onwards)
The system is based on a division of higher education into three stages (or 'cycles') of 3+2+3 years.
Graduates are awarded the Licence diploma at the end of the first cycle, the Master at the end of the
second cycle, and the Doctorat after the third cycle and the public defence of a doctoral thesis.
The first cycle consists of an initial (propedeutic) year, after which students may choose between a
theoretical specialization (études fondamentales) and a professional specialization (études
professionnelles). Upon completion of this cycle, graduates are awarded the Licence d’Etudes
Fondamentales or the Licence Professionnelle. The second cycle has a duration of 2 years and also
has two specializations, one leading to a Master, the other to a Master Spécialisé.

At the student’s request, it is also possible to obtain the following interim diplomas:

    1. following 2 years of higher education in the first cycle, the interim diploma Diplôme d’Etudes
       Universitaire Générales (DEUG) or the Diplôme d’Etudes Universitaire Professionelles
       (DEUP);
    2. after 1 year in the second cycle (i.e. 3+1 years in total) a Maîtrise diploma (can be a final
       qualification).

Continuation onto higher years (following the second, third and fifth year) is determined by means of a
selection procedure.

The new structure features a subdivision of the academic year into semesters, and a study
programme made up of modules. A semester consists of 16 weeks of instruction, including
examinations. Each semester is made up of at least three modules, with a minimum of 360 hours.
The ECTS system applies: DEUG/DEUP = 120 credits; Licence = 180 credits; and the Master = 120
credits following the Licence.

A new higher education system was introduced in Morocco from the 2003/2004 academic year
onwards. Both systems ran side-by-side for some time.The first diplomas from the new system were
awarded in 2006, initially only the Licence d’Etudes Fondamentales.




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In terms of level, the Licence diploma is comparable to at least 1 year of university education (WO) in
the Netherlands, depending on the programme of study.

In terms of level, the Master diploma is comparable to at least 3 years of university education (WO) in
the Netherlands, depending on the programme of study.

Managerial staff training programmes (Ecoles)
In addition to state institutions, écoles (or: grandes écoles) publiques and établissements
d’enseignement supérieur ne relevant pas des universités for managerial staff training programmes,
there is also a large number of private institutions approved (authorisées) by the government. There
are also many private institutions, called établissements d’enseignement supérieur privés.

Diplomas from institutions approved by the government are not nationally recognized diplomas and do
not provide eligibility for admission to university education.

Institutions for managerial staff training recognized by the government (called Ecole, Ecole Nationale,
Ecole Supérieure, Institut) can be divided into three groups:

1. schools for technical (or scientific) education, including agricultural programmes
2. schools for economic, legal and social education
3. teacher-training programmes.

Ecoles d'Ingénieurs occupy a prominent position within the first category. These schools provide
education in technology and science, comparable to the programmes provided by a technical
university in the Netherlands. As preparation for the entrance examinations for these institutions,
prospective students follow a 2-year programme after secondary school comprising primarily
mathematical subjects, in what are called classes préparatoires. A similar common curriculum also
exists for programmes in agricultural specializations, called the année préparatoire aux études
supérieures d'agronomie (A.P.E.S.A.). It lasts for 1 year.

The institutions for managerial staff training offer different types of programmes that vary in length.
Some have a strong practical focus. Most such programmes follow a cycle-based structure similar to
that of the universities, and offer programmes of 2 to 4 years in length. Exceptions are programmes in
Veterinary Medecine and Architecture, which each require 6 years of study. The Ingénieur d’Etat
programme lasts for 3 years after the classes préparatoires. In terms of level, the Ingénieur d’Etat
diploma is comparable to an HBO or WO bachelor’s degree in the Netherlands, depending on the
programme of study.

In some cases, students with a university degree can continue on to managerial staff training
programmes.

Higher professional education
Higher professional education in Morocco has several types of (short) programmes in applied higher
professional education, Ecoles de formation des Cadres, with or without a Baccalauréat as admission
requirement.

1. A 2-year specialist programme in a certain area of specialization, for which the minimum
    admission requirement is the Diplôme de Technicien. Graduates of these programmes are
    awarded the Diplôme de Technicien Spécialisé, in most cases offered by an ISTA (Institut
    Supérieur de Technologie Appliqué), or an institution referred to in current legislation as an
    Etablissement d’enseignement supérieur ne relevant pas des universités. These programmes are
    intended as final programmes of study, and do not grant access to university education. In
    addition, there are (mostly) 2-year specialist advanced programmes culminating in a Brevet de
    Technicien Supérieur or a diploma of Adjoint Technique (Specialisé). This diploma sometimes
    only states the name of the relevant specialization, e.g. dessinateur (draughtsman), instituteur
    (teacher), or technicien de premier grade.




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In terms of level, the Diplôme de Technicien Spécialisé or Brevet de Technicien Supérieur is
comparable to 1 or 2 years of higher professional education (HBO) in a similar specialization,
depending on the programme and provided it is obtained at an institution recognized by the state.

2. A 2-year Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (DUT) / Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur
    programme, which has the Baccalauréat and an entrance examination as admission
    requirements. The programmes are provided by institutions that are affiliated with universities, and
    are intended as final programmes of study. Continuation to university study is an exception.

In terms of level, the Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (DUT) / Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur
is comparable to at least 2 years of higher professional education (HBO) in a similar specialization,
depending on the programme and provided it is obtained at an institution recognized by the state.

3. A 4-year programme in higher professional education, culminating in the Diplôme d’Ingénieur
    d’Application. The admission requirement is a Baccalauréat diploma and, in some cases, an
    entrance examination.

Programmes are provided by both public and private institutions.

In terms of level, the Diplôme d’Ingénieur d’Application is comparable to an HBO bachelor’s degree in
the Netherlands, depending on the programme and the content, and provided it is obtained at an
institution recognized by the state.




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Assessment systems
The Moroccan education system uses an assessment scale from 0-20 at all levels:

Numerical grade           Description           Meaning
16-20                     Très bien             Very good
14-15                     Bien                  Good
12-13                     Assez bien            Quite
                                                satisfactory
10-11                     Passable              Satisfactory
0-9                       Insuffisant           Unsatisfactory




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Qualification frameworks

Morocco is currently in the process of establishing a national qualification framework.

The Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionelle is developing a framework by the name of
Cadre National des Certifications au Maroc. Information about this project can be found on the
following websites:
www.etf.europa.eu/eventsmgmt.nsf/(getAttachment)/2296CA87927255CAC125758B00394478/$File/3
0%20Jan%2004%20Development%20of%20a%20National%20qualifiation%20framework%20(Morocc
o).pdf
www.etf.europa.eu/pubmgmt.nsf/(getAttachment)/4A8D354287EDC383C125761D00592061/$File/NO
TE7V9N5H.pdf

Morocco is also a participant in the MEDA -ETE-project (www.meda-ete.net/meda-ete-web.nsf).
Establishing a national qualification framework is part of this project. However, for the time being, this
concerns only technical and vocational education and training (TVET).




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Quality assurance and accreditation
Quality assurance for higher education resides with the inspectorate of the Ministry of Higher
Education and Scientific Research, or of the relevant line ministry. The Commission Nationale
d’Accreditation et d’Evaluation (CNAE) gives advice to the minister on requests to offer third-cycle
programmes or regarding authorization to conduct academic research. Quality assurance in primary
and secondary education is mainly the responsibility of the académies. The Mission de Coordination
de l'Enseignement privé accredits recently founded private institutions.




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International treaties
There are no international recognition agreements between Morocco and the Netherlands.




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Addresses
www.dfc.gov.ma and www.men.gov.ma
Website of the Ministère de l’Education National, de l’Enseignement Supérieur, de la Formation des
Cadres et de la Recherche Scientifique.

www.s-bb.nl
Website of SBB, the foundation for the Co-operation Vocational Education, Training and the Labour
Market.




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Composition of file
Secondary school certificates consist of the Baccalauréat diploma with an official final examination list
of results (not hand-written).

In higher education, a diploma is issued with transcripts and grade list from all years, along with any
interim certificates awarded.




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List of higher education institutions
www.enssup.gov.ma/
Website of the Ministry of Education, including an overview of state and other universities.

www.dfc.gov.ma
Website of the Ministry of Education, including an overview of (private) institutions. Some have been
recognized by the state.




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Baccalauréat de l’enseignment secondaire - after 2003




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Baccalaureat de l'enseignement secondaire - before 2003 (transcript)




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Attestation du Baccalaureat - after 2003

                                                           - CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -




Country Module - Morocco © Nuffic | 1st edition October 2005 | version 5, January 2012                     -21-
Transcript Attestation du Baccalaureat - from 2000/2003 onwards




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                         - CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -




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Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie

                         - CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -




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Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (transcript)




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Certificat Universitaire d’Etudes Scientifiques




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Certificat Universitaire d’Etudes Scientifiques (transcript)




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Licence

                              - CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -




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Diplôme d’etudes supérieures approfondies




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales (Diploma – 2008)




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales – 2008 (translation diploma)




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales – 2008 (transcript) (page 1)




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales – 2008 (transcript) (page 2)




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales – 2008 (transcript) (page 3)




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales – 2008 (transcript) (page 4)




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales – 2008 (transcript) (page 5)




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Licence en Etudes Fondamentales – 2008 (transcript) (page 6)




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Master diploma 2010




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Master – 2010 (translation)




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Master – 2010 (transcript) (page 1)




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Master – 2010 (transcript) (page 2)




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Master – 2010 (transcript) (page 3)




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Master – 2010 (transcript) (page 4)




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Qualification - Morocco




                                        Attestation du Baccalauréat




___________________________________________________________________




     general secondary education diploma


     grants access to all higher education programmes in Morocco upon
      completion of entrance examinations



___________________________________________________________________

This qualification is comparable to at least a HAVO diploma in the Netherlands.




NB this information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be
   derived




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Qualification - Morocco




                                                        Licence




___________________________________________________________________




     first cycle higher education diploma


     grants access to master’s programmes in Morocco


     has a nominal duration of 3 years



___________________________________________________________________

This qualification is comparable to at least 1 year of university education (WO) in the
Netherlands, depending on the programme of study.




NB this information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be
   derived




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Qualification - Morocco




                                                         Master



__________________________________________________________________




     second cycle higher education diploma


     grants access to PhD programmes in Morocco


     has a nominal duration of 2 years



__________________________________________________________________

This qualification is comparable to at least 3 years of university education (WO) in the
Netherlands, depending on the programme of study.




NB this information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be
   derived




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