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Tetanus and Gangrene

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					Tetanus and Gangrene




  Boetius Alexander Turek
                   Tetanus




Derived from Clostridium tetani bacterium
“Created” by Carle and Rattone in 1884
                Contraction




Bacterium found in soil, dust, and animal feces
Contracted when bacterium enter a deep flesh wound

Tetanus spores travel to nervous system, where the

rest of the body is affected
                  Symptoms




Stiffness of jaw or neck
Muscular irritability

Neck, jaw, and muscle spasms or convulsions

Fever

Usually appear from 3-21 days after initial infection
                   Treatment




Most common and effective treatment is vaccine,
which completely prevents against tetanus
If infected prior to vaccination, medicinal treatment

is available, but is strenuous and painful
Even with treatment, death can result
         Civil War Applications



Very prevalent in Civil War, due to soldiers'
propensity to wounds and cuts, coupled with poor
hygiene and healing process
Originally thought to be derived from pressure on

wounds or excessive cold
Since war-era treatments were ineffective, almost

90% of all infected soldiers died.
                  Gangrene




Death of a patch of tissue
Discovered as early as 1028

Four varieties
                 Contraction




Contraction occurs when a body part loses its blood
supply
Most commonly caused by injuries that affect blood

flow
                  Symptoms




Blue or black discoloration of affected skin
Severe pain, followed by numbness, in affected area

Foul-smelling discharge

Fever

Septic shock
                   Treatment




Surgery is used to remove the dead tissue
Intravenous antibiotics can be used to treat infected

gangrene
Hyperbaric oxygen chamber
          Civil War Applications




Caused by rotting of flesh after unhygienic surgeries
Despite conditions, more than 75% of infected

soldiers survived

				
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posted:6/5/2012
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