South Asia in Transition

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					South Asia in Transition

        Chapter 9
       Mrs. Arroyo
               Chapter Focus
   South Asia’s economic, political, and social
    development from the early 1900s to the
   Mohandas Gandhi & Indian independence
   Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims
    results in two separate nations
   Modernization is changing traditional
    patterns of life
   Events in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
    Bhutan, and Nepal
Freedom – and Partition

        Section 1
         Freedom – and Partition

   Global Connections, Champions of
    Nonviolence, pp. 242-243
       Student textbook
   Satyagraha
       Gandhi’s idea of satyagraha, or “truth force,”
        was rooted in traditional Hindu beliefs about
        respect for all life.
   Civil disobedience
       Influenced by Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr.,
        advocated the use of civil disobedience to
        peacefully break laws in order to fight
                Growing Unrest
   World War I (1914-1918)
   1919 – harsh laws from Britain
   10,000 Indians gather in Amritsar
       British troops ordered to open fire
   Amritsar Massacre
       379 Indians dead
       1,100 Indians wounded
       Turning point in India’s struggle for freedom
       Result = demands for Indian independence
         Gandhi & Independence
   1914 – Gandhi returns from South Africa
   Principles
       South Africa – nonviolent resistance to end
          Satyagraha (SUHT ya gruh ha) or “truth force”
          Goal: Convert the wrongdoer

       Hindu beliefs and Christian traditions
       Henry David Thoreau, American philosopher
            Civil Disobedience, the refusal to obey unjust laws
         Gandhi & Independence
   Gandhi’s appeal
       Gave up western ways
       Encouraged traditional Indian industries
       Vegetarian (fasting)
       Duty, morality, and self-discipline
       Mahatma “Great Soul”
       Untouchables – Harijan – “Children of God”
       Reached out to Muslims
         Gandhi & Independence
   Campaign of civil disobedience (1920s)
       Strikes, protests
       Boycott – stop buying
            British-made goods
   The Salt March (1930s)
       Tax on Salt
       200-mile march from his home to the coast
       Broke the law & made salt from sea water
       Increase of world support
         WWII and Independence
   “Quit India”
       Policy of non-cooperation with the British
   1945 – War-weakened Britain
       Nationalist forces strong (India)
       Opposed keeping overseas colonies (Britain)
   Hindu Congress Party vs. Muslim League
       British encouraged conflict
       Religious, Economic & Political difference
                  Cultural Differences
   1946 – Rioting between Muslims & Hindus
   1947 – British parliament passed the Indian
    Independence Act
       Ended British rule in India
       Partition of the Indian subcontinent into two separate
        and independent nations
            Hindu-dominated India (Jawaharlal Nehru)
            Pakistan – Muslim majority (Jinnah)
   Partition led to an explosion of violence
   Mass Migration (15 million people)
       Muslims fled India to Pakistan
       Hindus left Pakistan for India
               Cultural Differences
   August 15, 1947
       Gandhi refused to celebrate Indian’s
   January 1948
       Hindu extremist shot Gandhi
       “The light has gone out of our lives, There is
        darkness everywhere,”
                          Nehru, Prime Minister of India
          Champions of Nonviolence
              Pages 242-243
   Mohandas Gandhi
       Lead India to freedom from British rule
   Martin Luther King, Jr.
       American Civil Rights movement
   Spreading Influence
       Oppressed people look to Gandhi and to King
        as symbols in their struggle against injustice
   Defending a Position
   Dialogue between Gandhi and King
Political Challenges

      Section 2
           Political Challenges
   Key Terms Worksheet
   Skill Practice Worksheet, Analyzing a
    Political Cartoon
   Describe how the government of India is
   Identify the forces that have unified
    Indians and the forces that have divided
   List the leaders that have shaped India
    since independence.
   Parliamentary democracy
       India’s parliamentary democracy is based on
        the British form of government
   Coalition
       Several groups with separate interests may
        form a coalition in certain governments
   Secular
       Because Islam is officially supported by the
        government, Pakistan would NOT be
        considered a secular state
        Government Organization
   1949 – Indian Constitution = Federal System
   Central Government
       28 States & 7 Territories
       Power divided between federal and state
       President of India appoints state governors
   Parliament
       Parliamentary democracy – president is head
        of state but has little power, real power lies in
        the hands of the political party that wins the
        most seats in parliament
       Prime Minister – leader of political party with the
        most seats in parliament
        Government Organization
   Two Houses of Indian Parliament
       Upper house – Rajya Sabha or Council of
         Chosen   by state legislatures
       Lower house (more powerful) – Lok Sabha
        or People’s Assembly
         Voters   elect members directly
        Government Organization
   Chief of State: President (Patil)
   Head of Government: Prime Minister (Singh)
   State & Territorial Governments
   Political Parties
       Indian National Congress (INC) - Sonia Gandhi
       Bharata Janata Party (BJP) – Nitin Gadkari
       Coalition – several parties join to rule
          Forces that Divide India
   Large population – 988 million
   Caste
       Government’s attempt to weaken the effects of the
        caste system & strengthen economy often fail
   Cultural diversity – has posed a major
    challenge to unity in India since independence
   Sikh separatism
       Sikhism – religion of the early 1500s that blended
        together elements of Islam and Hinduism
       Goal – break away and form a separate country
   Hindu-Muslim Clashes
         Forces that Unify India

   Common Faith
   Hindu traditions create important ties for
    the majority of Indians
   Modern communications
   Strong leaders
   Commitment to democratic traditions
Leaders that have Shaped India
   Jawaharlal Nehru
       Secular – country with no official religion
       Modern industrial nation
   Indira Gandhi
       Nehru’s daughter
       Sikhs
   Rajiv Gandhi
       Indira’s son
       Assassinated
Economic Development

       Section 3

   Tenant farmer
       A tenant farmer does not own the property on
        which he or she works
   Land reform
       A land reform program helps distribute land
        more evenly among farmers
              Nehru’s Economic Goals
   Make the nation self-sufficient
   Produce what it needs & stop importing
   Socialist principles
       Regulation of economy
            Gov’t controlled: steel, mining, transportation, and
       Five-year plans to set economic goals
       Limited foreign investment
   Mixed economy
       Private ownership of smaller businesses
                Indian Industry

   In the 1950s & 1960s
       Factories built to produce manufactured
        goods & end economic dependence
   1960s – India ranked as the world’s
    seventh most industrialized nation
   1970s – few oil resources slowed industrial
              Increase Farm Output
   Farming is the heart of Indian economy
   Use of Irrigation
   Land reform
       Problem with land distribution
   Green Revolution
       Technological advance in agriculture
       Increased output of certain crops
            Wheat & rice
Changing Patterns of Life

         Section 4
         Changing Patterns of Life

   Skill Lesson, Analyzing Fiction, pp. 38
       Student Textbook
   Daily Life Worksheet
       A Generous Tea Seller
       A Village Truck Driver

   Cottage Industry
       In many Indian villages, goods are still
        produced by a system of cottage industries
   Infant Mortality
       One goal of India’s health care program is to
        reduce the infant mortality
         Technology & Village Life

   Modernization
       Television and other new technologies are
        opening up new worlds to villagers
    Changes to the Caste System

   India’s government has tried to weaken
    the caste system
   Deeply rooted attitudes and traditions
   Changes
       Mix MORE freely
       Untouchables
       Urbanization (caste distinctions)
                  Social Changes
   Improving Education
       10-52 percent literacy rate
       Age 14
   Family life
       Marriage customs
       Nuclear family
   Lives of Indian Women
       Right to vote, own property and get a divorce
Other Nations of South Asia

          Section 5
     Other Nations of South Asia
   Main Ideas Worksheet
   Enrichment Worksheet
       India Comes to the Aid of Bangladesh
   Describe the people, government,
    economy, and issues of:
       Pakistan
       Bangladesh
       Sri Lanka
       Afghanistan
       Nepal & Bhutan
Creation of Pakistan & Bangladesh

   “The Hindus and Muslims belong to two
    different religious philosophies and social
    customs. To yoke together two such
    nations under a single state must lead to
    growing discontent and final destruction.”
                Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan
Creation of Pakistan & Bangladesh
   Pakistan
       Formed by the Indian Independence Act of 1947
        (along with India)
       Has suffered long periods of military rule as well as
        civil war
       Influenced by Islamic fundamentalism, this country
        amended its constitution in 1991 to make the Koran
        the supreme law of the land
       Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded that this country be
        made a separate Muslim nation
   Conflict between East & West Pakistan
       Establishment of Bangladesh
    Economic Progress of Pakistan
   Development of agriculture
   Irrigation & land reform programs
   Develop local industry to limit dependence
   Textile industry
   Economic & political challenges
       Growing population
       High Illiteracy
       Military rule
        Bangladesh and Geography

   Bangladesh
       Located on a delta that is subject to cyclones
        and terrible floods
       With the aid of India, this nation won
        independence in 1971
    Ethnic Diversity and Sri Lanka

   Tamil separatism
       Has slowed economic progress in Sri Lanka
       Tamil guerrillas from this nation were linked
        to the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in 1991
   Sri Lanka
       Buddhists and Hindus have clashed violently

   A monarch rules this nation that is made
    up mostly of Buddhists
   Landlocked nation high in the Himalayas

   The king of this mostly Hindu nation
    moved the country toward democracy by
    permitting elections in 1991
   Faces serious deforestation, as people
    clear land for farming and burn wood for
   Landlocked nation high in the Himalayas

   Formed by the Indian Independence Act
    of 1947 (along with Pakistan)
   Sikh separatists have clashed violently
    with the government
   Mohandas Gandhi led this country to

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