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Zoonotic Parasites.ppt

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					Zoonotic Parasites




                     Copyright 2010. PEER.tamu.edu
What are zoonotic diseases
      According to the CDC* a zoonotic disease is any
       disease which may be passed from animals to people
       or from people to animals.




CDC: U.S. Communicable Disease Center
Zoonotic Diseases

  Approximately 60% of all human
   pathogens are zoonotic
  75% of emerging infectious diseases
   have an animal origin
  Growing need for veterinarians and
   physicians to work together
Causes of Zoonotic Disease

          Bacteria

              Fungi
          Virus

           Parasites
Parasites and Animals

    Many methods of parasite transmission
     to people involve animals
Can you name some animal
parasites?
Vector-borne Parasites

  A vector is an agent which transfers a
   parasite from one host to another
  Typical parasite vectors: fleas, ticks,
   mites, mosquitoes, flies, and other
   insects
  People become infected when a vector
   picks up the parasite from an infected
   animal and infects a human
Parasites carried by Vectors

    Many parasites that are carried by
     vectors are often found in the blood of
     humans and animals
Trypanosoma Cruzi
    Causes Chagas disease.
    Damage to heart, digestive tract, and brain (in
     children).
    Spread by the “Kissing Bug,”
     native to South America and the southern US
    The bug bites the human then defecates next to the
     wound. Rubbing bite wound spreads parasite into the
     wound.
    Parasite can cycle from animals like armadillos,
     raccoons, opossums, and foxes to bugs to humans.
Chagas Disease & The “Kissing
Bug”                            Don’t Kiss
                                  ME!!!




 Trypanosoma cruzi   Kissing Bug found
 in the blood        in Texas
Babesia
 Intracellular protozoa found in red blood
  cells
                                      If you play
 Spread by infected Ticks           around trees,
                                       check your head
                                         and body for
                                             me!!
DID YOU KNOW?
Texas A&M University College of
  Veterinary Medicine was started to stop
  the spread of the Cattle Fever Tick.
 The causative agent was a species of
  Babesia that the ticks were spreading to
  Texas cattle.
                               Thanks
                             TEXAS A&M!!
Leishmania

  Unlike Babesia and Chagas Disease,
   Leishmania live in tissue and not the
   blood
  Spread through the bite of an infected
   Sandfly*

 *common on Caribbean beaches
Leishmania




   Human foot
Waterborne Parasites

  Spread when humans come into contact
   with water that has been contaminated
   by an infected animal
  Common waterborne parasites include
      Giardia
      Cryptosporidium
Giardia & Cryptosporidium
Giardia & Cryptosporidium
   Get from swallowing water contaminated by
    another infected human or animal
   Giardia is the 2nd most common parasitic
    disease in people
   Cryptosporidium is the most common
    cause of diarrhea from swimming
   Both can cause severe diarrhea
                             Gross!!! Don’t
                             drink the water
                             your swimming
                                   in!!!
How Do People Get Parasites
Methods of Parasite             I need to
Transmission                    WASH MY
                                HANDS!!!
    Insect bites
    Animal feces
    Handling raw meat and fish
    Handling cat litter boxes
    Contaminated fruits and vegetables
    Infected food handlers
    Contaminated water
    Contact with an infected person
Broad Categories of Transmission

  Vectorborne (insects)
  Waterborne
  Fecal Oral Transmission
  Contaminated Meat
Fecal-Oral Transmission

  Most common way people become
   infected with zoonotic parasites
  Parasites are spread to humans when
   they ingest the eggs from the feces of an
   infected animal                      I don’t feel
                                          so good
  Parasites spread by fecal oral
   transmission generally live in the
   intestinal tract
Spread by Fecal Oral Transmission

  Hookworms
  Roundworms
  Hydatid Disease
  Toxoplasmosis
Hookworms & Roundworms




            They are like
            monsters!!!!
Hookworms & Roundworms
  Carried by dogs and
   cats
  Kids often get
   infected from playing
   in sand boxes which
   animals have
   defecated
  Or by putting toys in
   their mouth which
   have been on the
   ground
Hookworms
                          Can penetrate the
                           skin and gain entry
                           into the human body
                          Bare feet are a
                           common route of
                           entry
    Wearing shoes is one of the
    best ways to prevent
    parasites from entering your
    feet!!!
Hydatid Disease

    After Humans consume the eggs passed
     by dogs the worms can form huge cysts
     in the body
Toxoplasmosis
    How many have of you
     have heard that
     pregnant women
     shouldn’t clean cat litter
     boxes?
    That is because of the
     potential for them to
     contract Toxoplasmosis
     which can cause them to
     lose their unborn child.
Toxoplasmosis
 Even though it is commonly associated
  with pregnancy and litter boxes,
  toxoplasmosis is more commonly
  transmitted through undercooked meat
 According to the CDC toxoplasmosis is
  the 3rd leading cause of foodborne
                                     Order your
  related deaths in the US           food to be
                                        cooked all the
                                        way!!
Contaminated Meat

  Meat can be contaminated with harmful
   bacteria and can also contain parasitic
   cysts which may infect people.
  Common Parasites Found in Meat
      Toxoplasmosis
      Trichinella

      Taenia

      Gnathostomosis
Trichinosis & Taenia
                   Both caused by
                    eating cysts in
                    undercooked pork or
                    beef
                   Incidence rate has
                    decreased with
                    better animal
                    management and
                    slaughter protocol
                   Fully cook your
                    meat!
Cysticercosis

                   If a person
                    consumes Taenia
                    eggs they can
                    develop cysts in their
                    brain!
Gnathostomosis

  Similar to Taenia and Trichonosis, but
   gnathostomosis is found in raw fish
  What area do you think this disease is
   most common?         Asia
Summary

    Zoonotic parasites have many routes of
     transmission to people
      Vectors
      Water

      Fecal Contamination

      Infected Meat
So How Can You Protect
Yourself?
Preventing Zoonotic Parasites

    Brainstorm some ways we can prevent
     them…
        Always wash your hands
        Keep sand boxes covered
        Wear shoes
        Pick up animal feces when possible
        Don’t drink untreated water
        Cook meat thoroughly
References

  http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDx/default.ht
   m
  http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/dxendo
   par/index.html
  www.nih.gov
  www.nsf.gov
  www.floridahealthfinder.gov

				
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