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									Research in

Department of
Engineering Materials
                                         Research in Progress 2010

         The University of Sheffield

   Department of Engineering Materials

     Research in
    Progress 2010



                    April 2010
Research in Progress 2010

Cover Photography:
Background Image (left)
Peter and Andrew of the Advanced Metallic Systems Centre for Doctoral Training
try their hand at sand casting.

Background Image (middle)
E-Futures: Doctoral Training Centre in Interdisciplinary Energy Research students
visit the Advanced Manufacturing Park.

Background Image (right)
Typical appearance of plasma discharge during EPP treatment.

Production Team:
Wendy Dutton and Mike Cooper

Professor Allan Matthews

Department of Engineering Materials
The University of Sheffield
Sir Robert Hadfield Building
Mappin Street
Sheffield S1 3JD
United Kingdom
Tel: (+44) (0) 114 222 5941
Fax: (+44) (0) 114 222 5943
                                                                     Research in Progress 2010

                                                                                  Page No
1.  Preface                                                                              5
2.  Staff in the Department of Engineering Materials                                      7
3. Industrial Liaison Committee                                                         10
4.  Academic Staff Profiles                                                              11
5.  Materials-Based University Research Centres                                         19
    5.1 Sheffield Centre for Advanced Magnetic Materials and Devices                    19
    5.2 Research Centre in Surface Engineering                                         20
    5.3 Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering                                  21
    5.4 The Sorby Centre for Electron Microscopy and Electron Microscopy Research      25
    5.5 IMMPETUS                                                                        27
    5.6 The Ceramics and Composites Laboratory (CCL)                                   28
    5.7 NanoLAB Research Centre for Nanomanipulation and Nanorobotics                  29
    5.8 The Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL)                                    30
    5.9 The Polymer Centre                                                              31
    5.10 E-Futures: Doctoral Training Centre in Interdisciplinary Energy Research      32
    5.11 Advanced Metallic Systems Centre for Doctoral Training                        33
    5.12 Nuclear FiRST Doctoral Training Centre                                        34
6. Research Highlights                                                                 35
    6.1 Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering                                            35
    6.2 Ceramics                                                                       36
    6.3 Glasses, Cements and Waste Immobilisation                                      38
    6.4 Magnetics                                                                      39
    6.5 Metallurgy                                                                     43
    6.6 Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering                                              45
    6.7 Polymers and Composites                                                        46
    6.8 Surface Engineering and Tribology                                              47
7.  Publications, 2008/2009                                                             51
    7.1 Publications 2008                                                               51
    7.2 Publications 2009                                                              53
8. PhD Awards, 2008/2009                                                               60
9. Current Research Sponsors                                                            61
10. Grants and Contracts Awarded 2009                                                  63
11. Department Highlights, 2009                                                        67
    11.1 Personal Highlights, 2009                                                     67
    11.2 Events, 2009                                                                  77
12. Maps                                                                               83
Appendix: Annual Report 2009 (separate report)

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                          3
Research in Progress 2010

4                           Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                             Research in Progress 2010

1. Preface
The Department of Engineering Materials continues to play a key role as a driving force for innova-
tion in research and postgraduate training. Over the past two years our involvement in four pioneering
Centres for Doctoral Training (CDTs) has raised the bar for the delivery of PhD programmes both within
the University and nationally. Also, our involvement in transformative research (especially with industrial
interactions) has received many plaudits. The recent government report “The Current and Future Role
of Technology and Innovation Centres (TICs) in the UK” by Dr Hermann Hauser1 cites the University’s
Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) as an example of good practice in co-location with “the
leading research expertise into materials and metals in Sheffield University” – thereby confirming the ben-
eficial inputs of the Department’s research leaders in the AMRC’s development.
Our nationally-leading position in Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTPs) was endorsed with the award of
a prize in 2009 for “The best KTP building on EPSRC-funded research”. The project was based on the fab-
rication of dielectrically-loaded antenna cores from glass-ceramics and the industrial partner was Sarantel
Ltd. The academic lead was Professor Ian Reaney.
During 2009 our research awards again exceeded £8 million
(not including CDT grants) and came from various sources,
as shown in the pie chart. We are particularly proud of the
increase in the level of research funding obtained directly from
industry, which illustrates the highly relevant nature of our
work to the nation’s real economy.
Also during the year, we are delighted to report that three of our
staff members were promoted to Readerships: Russell Hand,
Eric Palmiere and Neil Hyatt; and two were promoted to Senior
Lectureships: Karl Travis and Adrian Leyland. Also we congratu-
late Gino Hrkac for obtaining a Royal Society Research Fellowship
and this further strengthens our thriving Modelling group.
The huge success of our CDT programmes mentioned above
builds on several key factors. First they all address key tech-
nology areas of vital importance to the UK economy: Nuclear
Fission, Energy, Advanced Metallic Systems and Tissue
Engineering with Regenerative Medicine. Secondly, at the         Departmental research funding by sponsor type.
University we have world-leading expertise and facilities in
these fields. Thirdly, we have in place a well-designed PhD programme structure which aims to provide
CDT students with excellent taught course provision and exposure to industry coupled with scientifically
challenging and industrially - relevant research projects.
The award of a CDT is regarded by many (including the Research Councils themselves) as a key benchmark
by which university research excellence is best assessed. For this Department to lead two and be partners
in two more is a remarkable accolade.
Centres for Doctoral Training provide a new approach to postgraduate training. They aim to enrich the student
experience, giving them the range of skills needed to become research leaders of the future. Our CDT pro-
grammes build on the Department’s established reputation for research training excellence through a range
of activities designed to broaden the student’s research exposure and enhance their transferable skills. The
cohort-based approach which we adopt means students are able to learn from and support each other as they
progress, whilst working in partnership with other departments, both within the University and with other insti-
tutions. This provides new opportunities for exciting multidisciplinary research and enables students and staff
to benefit from the complementary expertise of our academic and industrial partners.
The CDT programmes have a number of features in common. Students enter each 4-year course with a
range of first degrees and the first year provides them with the core knowledge and understanding they
need to underpin their research, delivered through taught masters-level courses and mini research projects.
The breadth of topics covered means students explore a range of research areas before committing to a
pre-defined PhD project or proposing their own topic of research. Years two to four focus on PhD research
with additional skills training including outreach projects and industrial or international placements.
1DrHermann Hauser “The Current and Future Role of Technology and Innovation Centres in the UK”, Crown Copyright March 2010
BIS/Pub/Xk/03/10.NP.URN 10/843.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                           5
Research in Progress 2010

The Nuclear First CDT is a partnership with The University
of Manchester focussing on nuclear fission science and tech-
nology to supply highly trained specialists for the expanding
UK nuclear industry. The DTC builds on long-standing suc-
cessful collaboration between two BNFL University Research
Alliances: the Immobilisation Science Laboratory and Centre
for Radiochemistry Research. Understanding the social and
ethical context of nuclear research is an important part of
the programme and students undertake a range of innovative
public engagement activities. As an example of this, EPSRC and
its partner organisations organised an “IMPACT” exhibition in
London to showcase the impact of scientific developments,        DTC Directors Neil Hyatt (Sheffield) and
and our CDT students collaborated with an artist based at the Francis Livens (Manchester) monitor naturally
Royal College of Art (Zoe Papadopoulou) to produce a display radioactive yellow cake.
illustrating how nuclear science can provide benefits such as
boosting economic growth and reducing carbon emissions. To communicate aspects of nuclear power
and radioactivity the students and the artist baked yellow cakes using ingredients high in potassium – 40,
a radioactive isotope (such as bananas, Lo-salt (TM) and Brazil nuts). They later met with members of the
public and Professor Robert Winston to explore public perceptions of nuclear energy over tea and cake!
The Advanced Metallic Systems CDT, also a partnership with
The University of Manchester, addresses the growing shortage
of high quality metallic materials specialists facing UK indus-
try. The 2009 cohort of 12 students includes chemists, physi-
cists, mechanical and civil engineers as well as some students
returning to university after working in industry. They have
gelled as a team and impressed us with their hard work and
enthusiasm. In the first year, Advanced Metallics attracted 23
industrially-sponsored PhD project proposals highlighting the
continued importance of this research area for UK industry
across a range of sectors.
                                                                  2009 Metallics CDT cohort at a visit to TWI.
The E-Futures Doctoral Training Centre in Interdisciplinary
Energy Research draws together 16 academic departments
across the Faculties of Engineering, Science and Social Science within the University of Sheffield. It brings
together diverse areas of expertise to train engineers and scientists with the skills, knowledge and confi-
dence to tackle today’s evolving issues regarding energy generation, management and supply. In its first
year, E-Futures has been very successful in attracting 21 skilled
and highly motivated graduates with science, engineering
and social science backgrounds. As part of efforts to interact
with industry, an open day in October 2009 attracted over 50
industry delegates resulting in over 40 mini project proposals.
Fourteen students are undertaking industrial projects and it is
expected that many of these will lead to sponsored PhDs.
The Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM)
CDT is a White Rose University partnership with Leeds and
York providing a multidisciplinary research and training envi-
ronment at the life sciences interface. A highlight of the year is
the residential induction week bringing together all the mem- TERM students on their induction week.
bers of the CDT. This year it included team building and prob-
lem solving activities as well as visits to all the CDT research centres and to industrial companies.
We are naturally proud of the many research successes outlined in this report, and we hope that you enjoy
reading about them. Above, the CDTs have been given special mention as they underline not only the firm
scientific foundations on which the Department and Faculty are built, but also our commitment to providing
highly-skilled personnel for industry and enhancing the career prospects of bright engineers and scientists.
                                                                                                   Allan Matthews
                                                                                                          April 2010

6                                                                    Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                             Research in Progress 2010

2. Staff in the Department of Engineering Materials
Head of Department:
Prof A Matthews      a.matthews@                     0114 2225466         Surface Engineering
Prof M R J Gibbs     m.r.gibbs@                      0114 2224261         Materials Physics
Prof J H Harding     j.harding@                      0114 2225957         Functional Materials
Prof S MacNeil       s.macneil@                      0114 2225995         Cell and Tissue Engineering
Prof W M Rainforth   m.rainforth@                    0114 2225469         Materials Science and Engineering
Prof I M Reaney      i.m.reaney@                     0114 2225471         Ceramics
Prof T Schrefl       t.schrefl@                      0114 2225965         Functional Materials
Prof D C Sinclair    d.c.sinclair@                   0114 2225974         Materials Chemistry
Prof P Tsakiropoulos p.tsakiropoulos@                0114 2225960         Metallurgy
Prof G Ungar         g.ungar@                        0114 2225457         Polymers and Organic Materials
Prof A R West        a.r.west@                       0114 2225501         Electroceramics and Solid State Chemistry
Dr R J Hand          r.hand@                         0114 2225465         Glasses and Ceramics
Dr J W Haycock       j.w.haycock@                    0114 2225972         Cell and Tissue Engineering
Dr N C Hyatt                      0114 2225470         Nuclear Materials Chemistry
Dr B J Inkson        Beverley.inkson@                0114 2225925         Nanomaterials
Dr G Möbus           g.moebus@                       0114 2225512         Microscopy and Materials Science
Dr M I Ojovan        m.i.ojovan@                     0114 2226033         Waste Immobilisation and Materials Science
Dr E J Palmiere      e.j.palmiere@                   0114 2225978         Ferrous Metallurgy
Dr I Todd            i.todd@                         0114 2226011         Metallurgy
Dr S Zhang           s.zhang@                        0114 2225958         Structural Ceramics and Refractories
Senior Lecturers:
Dr D A Allwood       d.allwood@                      0114 2225938         Materials Physics
Dr C K Chong         c.k.chong@                      0114 2225984         Biomedical Engineering
Dr A Leyland         a.leyland@                      0114 2225486         Surface Technology
Dr S J Matcher       s.j.matcher@                    0114 2225994         Biomedical Engineering
Dr K P Travis        k.travis@                       0114 2225483         Modelling
Dr B P Wynne         b.wynne@                        0114 2226026         Metallurgy
Dr F Claeyssens      f.claeyssens@                   0114 2225513         Biomaterials
Dr R Goodall         r.goodall@                      0114 2225977         Metallurgy
Dr S A Hayes         s.a.hayes@                      0114 2225516         Aerospace Materials and Engineering
Dr H Kinoshita       h.kinoshita@                    0114 2225930         Materials Chemistry and Geochemistry
Dr N A Morley        n.a.morley@                     0114 2225935         Material Physics
Dr G Reilly          g.reilly@                       0114 2225986         Tissue Engineering
Dr R P Thackray      r.thackray@                     0114 2225963         Steelmaking
Dr X Zeng            x.zeng@                         0114 2225948         Polymers
Lecturers – Elect:
Dr G Hrkac           g.hrkac@                        0114 2226028
Dr M Jackson         martin.jackson@                 0114 2225474
Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellows:
Dr C Rodenburg       c.rodenburg@                    0114 2225929
Emeritus Professors:                                 Prof B B Argent      Prof F R Jones
                                                     Prof M Cable         Prof H Jones
                                                     Prof H A Davies      Prof J M Parker
                                                     Prof F G F Gibb      Prof C M Sellars
                                                     Prof G W Greenwood   Prof J H Sharp
Associate Professors:                                Prof P V Hatton      Prof R van Noort
Associate Senior Lecturers:                          Dr D H Kirkwood
Associate Lecturers:                                 Dr J Devlin

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                     7
Research in Progress 2010
Visiting Staff:                           Prof N A Chapman        ITC, Switzerland
                                          Prof P Curtis           DSTL
                                          Prof S Franklin         Philips, The Netherlands
                                          Prof A A Howe           Corus
                                          Prof P T McGrail        Composites and Polymers Consultant
                                          Dr S Owens              Nexia Solutions Limited
                                          Dr D Porter             Department of Zoology, University of Oxford
                                          Dr W Smith              CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory
                                          Prof J L Thomason       University of Strathclyde
                                          Prof S Van der Zwaag    Delft University of Technology
Senior Experimental Officer:              Dr P Korgul             0114 2226005
Sorby Centre Manager:                     Dr M I Highett          0114 2225981
Marketing Officer for Sorby Nano:         Miss E J Needham        0114 2225982
SUMAC Consultants:                        Dr J M Devine           0114 2225497
                                          Dr D A W Taylor         0114 2225497
Short Courses Director:                   Dr P A Kapranos         0114 2225509
Departmental Superintendent:              Mr J W Smedley          0114 2225500
Financial Administrator:                  Mr D M Binns            0114 2225979
E-Futures DTC Programme Manager:          Dr N J Lowrie           0114 2225506
Engineering Manager (IMPC):               Dr M Ruffo
CCL Manager:                              Mr G Brown              0114 2225971
Project Engineer:                         Mr F Derguti
Learning Technologist (DTC):              Mrs K Thomson           0114 2225475
Project Manager (DTC):                    Dr C Hinchliffe         0114 2225478
Research Fellows and Research Assistants:
Mr A Ahmed                   Dr P Eves                      Mr F Liu                        Dr A Sidambe
Dr A J Beck                  Dr M Faraji                    Mr Y Liu                        Miss K H Smith
Dr P A Bingham               Dr M C Ferrarelli              Dr Z Liu                        Dr L E Smith
Mr M L Blackmore             Mr I Figueroa                  Mr A Lockwood                   Dr M C Stennett
Dr M Bryan                   Dr J P Foreman                 Dr M Lopez-Pedrosa              Miss I Sterianou
Dr A J Bullock               Mr C L Freeman                 Mr Z Lu                         Mr T Swait
Mr K Butler                  Dr A Goncharov                 Mr A Mangera                    Mr H Uppal
Dr A Connelly                Dr W Guan                      Dr N Maso Carcases              Dr C Utton
Dr D Cumming                 Mr Y Han                       Dr S Miao                       Dr A L Yerokhin
Dr J Dean                    Dr T Hayward                   Mr Y Peng                       Dr P Zeng
Dr D Deivasagayam            Dr J W Hinton                  Dr J Pokorny                    Mrs W Zhang
Mr F Derguti                 Mr M A E Jepson                Dr N Reeves-McLaren             Dr Z Zhou
Ms P Deshpande               Dr M Krzyanowski               Ms Z Saghi
Dr R Dost                    Dr O Latinwo                   Miss L E Saharan
Dr J W Eichler               Dr M Li                        Dr M A Shcherbina
Visiting Scientists:
Mr M Kawakami                Ms M Ricca                     Mr P Svora                      Dr X Yuan
Dr E Krajewska               Mr N Schreven                  Ms A Vancostenoble              Ms C Zhang
Dr M Lahirigoyen             Dr C Stone                     Dr P M Vilarinho                Dr N Zhu
Ms Y Lei                     Prof J-B Sun                   Dr D Xie
KTP Associates:
Mr T Burnett                 Mr W S Flores Roman            Dr Y N Kok                      Miss B Zalinska
Miss J Corfield              Miss E Gill                    Dr Z Mirza
Dr M Darby                   Mr Y Kadaveru                  Dr X Xu

8                                                                     Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                     Research in Progress 2010
Secretarial/Clerical Staff:
Mrs V M Dalton          PA to Head of Department, WMR/PT, Secretary to Advanced Metallic Systems DTC
Mrs K A Burton          PGR/PGT Admissions, Monitoring and Progress, ISL
Ms W Dutton             Exam Preparation and Monitoring/Prizes, FRJ/GU, Out of Hours, Research in Progress,
                        Short Courses, Dept List
Miss R Fearon           Purchasing and Accounts, General Enquiries
Miss K L Heard          Secretary to SMN, Kroto Institute
Miss F E Kirk           Research Secretary to E-Futures DTC Director
Mrs L C Mason           Undergraduate Secretary/Support/DTQC Secretary/Enquiries/Exam Results
Mrs A Newbould          PG Monitoring and Progress, Secretary to HAD/JHH/DCS/MRJG
Miss E Noble            Support Secretary, Kroto Institute
Mrs T V Sampson         Teaching Databases, Taught Courses, UG Admissions (with UG Tutors)
Mrs A E Sargent         Purchasing and Accounts, JWS
Technical Staff:
Miss M Baran            Tissue Engineering
Mr S Bater              Materials Processing
Miss D Bussey           Nanoindentor, STM, Undergraduate Laboratory
Mr M Carter             Teaching Laboratories
Mr M G Cooper           Graphics, DTP, Web Pages, Audio Visual
Mr F G Fletcher         Electronics, Computing
Mr P J J Hawksworth     Surface Engineering, Magnetic Materials
Mr D Haylock            Mechanical Testing, Materials Processing
Miss C Johnson          Tissue Engineering
Mr R I Kangley          Electrical, PAT and IT
Ms B C Lane             Materials Characterisation
Mr A G Mould            Electroceramics and Waste Immobilisation
Mr V C Rhodes           Stores
Dr C Shields            EPMA
Mr P Staton             Mechanical Testing, Metallography
Mr M J Wagner           Cleanroom Manager, Tissue Engineering
Mr I P Watts            Materials Processing
Dr P Zeng               Electron Microscopy
Turner Museum Staff:
Mrs C Evans             Coffee Bar
Mrs A Marquis           Coffee Bar

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                            9
Research in Progress 2010

3. Industrial Liaison Committee
Dr R Dolby                          Dr S Pike
25 High Street                      Manager, Continuous Improvement and Business Excellence
Burwell                             Corus Long Products
Cambridgeshire                      PO Box 1
CB5 0HD                             Brigg Road
                                    North Lincolnshire
                                    DN16 1BP

Dr G Fairhall                       Dr B Rickinson
Chief Technology Officer            Chief Executive
National Nuclear Laboratory         Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining
Sellafield                          1 Carlton House Terrace
Seascale                            London
Cumbria                             SW1Y 5DB
CA20 1PG

Dr R Hardeman                       Dr R Ricks
Seagate Technology (Ireland)        Technology Strategy Consultants
1 Disc Drive                        Innovation Centre
Springtown Industrial Estate        Warwick Technology Park
Londonderry                         Gallows Hill
BT48 0BF                            Warwick
                                    CV34 6UW

Miss E M Holt                       Dr E G Shahidi
Research Scientist                  Advanced Composites Group Ltd
Johnson Matthey Technology Centre   Composites House
PO Box 1                            Sinclair Close
Belasis Avenue                      Heanor Gate Industrial Estate
Billingham                          Heanor
TS23 1LB                            Derbyshire
                                    DE75 7SP

Dr A J Hosty                        Dr M W Stow
CEO - Technical Ceramics Division   Director, Advanced Wound Care
The Morgan Crucible Company plc     Research and Development Worldwide
Quadrant                            Johnson and Johnson Wound Management
55-57 High Street                   Gargrave
Windsor                             N Yorkshire
SL4 1LP                             BD23 3RX

Dr D Kells                          Dr A Tingey
BAE Systems                         Biofusion Plc
Advanced Technology Centre          Sheffield Bioincubator
Sowerby Building                    40 Leavygreave Road
PO Box 5, FPC 267                   Sheffield
Filton                              S3 7RD
BS34 7QW

Dr M J May
31 Vicarage Lane
S17 3GX

10                                              Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                          Research in Progress 2010

4. Academic Staff Profiles
Dr Dan A Allwood                                            Dr Chuh K Chong
BSc PhD MInstP CPhys                                        BSc PhD
Senior Lecturer in Materials Physics                        Senior Lecturer in Biomedical
Current research focuses on inves-                          Engineering
tigating the behaviour of magnetic                          Main research interest centres on
domain walls in lithographically-                           cardiovascular fluid mechanics,
defined magnetic nanowires. These                           focusing on understanding the role
nanowires are increasingly assum-                           of haemodynamics in the patho-
ing worldwide importance as part                            genesis of arterial diseases, the
of novel sensor, memory and logic technologies. Here,       pharmacokinetics of drug-eluting stents, and the design
a magneto-optical instrument is being developed that        and performance of vascular implants. Another interest
is sensitive to magnetisation changes in a single nanos-    is in tissue engineering, focusing on the biomechanics of
tructure on a nanosecond timescale. This is being used      soft tissues, developing functional cell-seeding device,
to investigate the dynamics of domain wall propagation      bioreactors, scaffolds and matrices with desired archi-
in individual nanowires and of domain wall interactions     tecture and material properties, understanding the
at wire junctions. Although predominantly experimental      effects of materials, mass transport, biochemical cues
in emphasis, this research also seeks to understand         and mechanical stresses on cell activities in purpose-
these processes on a theoretical level.                     designed bioreactors.

Prof Michael Cable                                          Dr Frederik Claeyssens
BScTech PhD DScTech TkDhc                                   Licentiate PhD Member RSC MRS
HonFSGT                                                     Lecturer in Biomaterials
Emeritus Professor                                          Current research is focussed on
Current projects concern the his-                           biomaterials manufacture with laser
tory of glass technology as revealed                        based techniques. This research
by authorities of earlier times. Five                       broadly falls into three sub-projects:
books, three translated from French                         Coatings for biology: Biocompatible
or German, covering the period                              surface coatings of semiconductors
from 1662 to 1868 have been published. The translation      to be integrated into cell-silicon interfaces for biosensors.
of the sixth, a long book by Eberhard Zschimmer, one        Bioprinting: Laser based techniques for printing biomol-
of Schott’s early scientific collaborators, (which Schott   ecules/cells for producing biomolecule arrays and bio-
suppressed on its publication in 1912) is nearing com-      sensors. Biomaterials manufacture via microstereolithog-
pletion. The seventh, a reprint of Rosenhain’s “Glass       raphy: Production of microstructured biomaterials for
Manufacture” of 1918, is also completed.                    usage as tissue engineering scaffolds, via a laser based
                                                            photocuring technique. Via scanning the laser through
                                                            a photocurable resin, user-defined microstructures can
                                                            be produced from a biocompatible polymer. This tech-
                                                            nique can be combined with self-assembly approaches to
                                                            achieve hybrid biomaterials as 3D scaffolds for implants,
                                                            tissue engineering and pharmaceutical testing.
Prof Neil A Chapman
BSc PhD FGS CGeol                                           Prof Hywel A Davies
Visiting Professor of Radioactive                           BSc PhD ARSM DIC CEng CPhys
Waste Management                                            MInstP FIMMM FREng
Principal interests are in all aspects                      Emeritus Professor of Physical
of deep geological disposal of solid                        Metallurgy and Magnetic Materials
radioactive wastes, including geo-                          Research has concentrated mainly
logical characteristics of repository                       on the science and technology of
sites (geochemistry and hydro-                              solidification at ultra high cooling
geology), system evolution over tens of thousands of        rates. The areas covered include:
years, performance and safety assessment, long-term         (i) the mechanisms of formation of metastable micro-
waste-form and engineered barrier behaviour, natural        structures, with particular emphasis on amorphous
and archaeological analogues of repository materials,       and nanostructured alloys; (ii) the structures, proper-
repository design and construction. Chairman of the         ties and development of several classes of materials,
ITC International School of Underground Waste Storage       including metallic glasses, novel nanophase hard and
and Disposal, Switzerland. Member of the International      soft magnetic alloys and microcrystalline ferrous and
Technical Advisory Committee (ITAC) of the Japanese         non-ferrous alloys; (iii) the principles and applications
National Radioactive Waste Management Organisation,         of rapid solidification processing of advanced alloys,
NUMO. Member, IAEA review mission to NECSA, South           including the direct casting of thin strip and wire and
Africa (borehole disposal of disused radiation sources).    powder atomisation followed by consolidation.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                      11
Research in Progress 2010

Prof Fergus G F Gibb                                        Prof Geoffrey W Greenwood
BSc PhD FGS                                                 BSc PhD DMet CPhys CEng
Emeritus Professor of Petrology and                         FIMMM FInstP FREng FRS
Geochemistry                                                Emeritus Professor
Areas of expertise are in geological                        Interests are centred on atomic
materials (minerals and rocks) and                          movements, especially in relation to
the geological disposal of radioac-                         microstructure and to the flux paths
tive waste, especially the concept                          under mechanical, chemical and
of very deep borehole disposal on                           thermal driving forces. The applica-
which he is an international research leader. Specific      tions relate to microstructural evolution, properties of
interests and activities in the context of this research    interfaces and transitions between different modes of
currently focus on high pressure and temperature            deformation and fracture.
experimental mineralogy (especially nucleation, crystal
growth and reaction kinetics) and modelling of heat
flow in and around deep borehole disposals of heat-
generating nuclear wastes. Career-long interest in (i)
the electron probe microanalysis of minerals, glasses
and other materials and (ii) the mineralogy and petrol-
ogy of igneous rocks, particularly geochemical process-
es relating to the origins of basic/ultrabasic intrusions
led to recognition as an international authority on the
petrogenesis of basic sills.                                Dr Russell J Hand
                                                            MA PhD MEd CPhys CEng FSGT
Prof Michael R J Gibbs                                      Reader in Glasses and Ceramics;
BSc PhD CPhys FInstP MIEEE                                  Sub-Dean for Undergraduate
Professor of Materials Physics and                          Affairs, Faculty of Engineering
Director of the Centre for Advanced                         Research interests focus on the
Magnetic Materials and Devices                              mechanical properties of ceram-
Current research includes: the                              ics and glasses. He has on-going
study of magnetoelastic materi-                             research on the vitrification of
als, bulk and thin film; the study of                       radioactive and toxic wastes using borosilicate and
permanent magnet thin films; the                            other glasses. He is also interested in the use of glassy
study of magnetic microelectromechanical systems            wastes in secondary applications. Other work includes
(MagMEMS); the application of magnetic materials in         the development of chalcogenide glasses for sensor
sensors and actuators; the study of materials for appli-    applications, glass ceramics for dental applications and
cations in spintronics; the study of the principles and     mechanical property-composites relations in silicate
application of magnetic force microscopy                    glasses.

Dr Russell Goodall                                          Prof John Harding
MEng PhD                                                    MA PhD CPhys FRSC FInstP
Lecturer in Metallurgy                                      Professor of Functional Materials
Principal research interests are in                         Visiting Professor of Physics,
the processing, mechanical / ther-                          University College London
mal properties and applications of                          Current research includes the
open-celled porous metals, with                             development of methods to simu-
particular reference to aluminium                           late atomistic processes with long
foams or sponges. These materials                           timescales and their application to
are being examined for applications in a range of heat      problems in bulk ceramics and at interfaces; simulation
transfer situations and are processed using the NaCl-       of the structures of interfaces of ceramics; simulation
based replication method (where liquid aluminium is         of organic/inorganic interfaces, nucleation and self-
infiltrated into the spaces between grains or agglomer-     assembly (particularly in the context of biomineralisa-
ates of salt, which are dissolved in water after solidi-    tion and biomimetics); simulation of nanomaterials;
fication of the metal). He is also looking at innovative    mesoscale simulation of plasma-sprayed coatings. He is
processing techniques for porous materials fabricated       the organiser of an annual Summer School in Molecular
from higher melting point metals, such as titanium.         Simulation.

12                                                                      Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                        Research in Progress 2010

Dr John W Haycock                                          Dr Gino Hrkac
BSc PhD                                                    Dr techn Dipl INg
Reader in Cell and Tissue Engineering                      Royal Society University Research
Research interests are in the bio-                         Fellow
chemistry, cellular and molecular                          Main research area is computa-
biology of living cells following inter-                   tional and theoretical magnetism,
actions with synthetic and native                          and especially the development of a
peptide structures and matrix pro-                         numerical model to investigate and
teins. Current research includes:                          predict the behaviour of magnetic
investigations into the anti-inflammatory action of        spin valve systems and the effect of eddy currents in
peptide molecules; the biological performance of cell/     nano-scale materials. He is working on the theoretical
biomaterial interactions; the free radical mechanisms of   and numerical description of spin electronic devices
gene control.                                              on a length scale ranging from the computation of the
                                                           local spin current density and magnetization dynam-
                                                           ics with a sub-nm resolution in micron size devices
                                                           (magnetic nano pillars and Magnetic Tunnel Junctions).
                                                           A prominent example for his work is the theoretical
                                                           explanation of the angular dependency of phase locking
                                                           phenomena in point contacted spin valves and his work
                                                           on the simulation of spin current induced magnetization
                                                           dynamics that explained the low frequency oscillations
Dr Simon A Hayes                                           found in point contact devices that were explained by
BEng PhD                                                   vortex oscillations. His latest research includes ab initio
                                                           simulations of atomic structures, solid state molecular
Lecturer in Aerospace Engineering
                                                           dynamics for the simulation of the transition of amor-
Research interests encompass                               phous to crystalline grain boundaries in NdFeB magnets
smart materials, nanocomposites                            within the framework of an industrial funded project on
and nanomechanical property                                permanent magnets (European-Japanese consortium).
determination. He is involved in
the development of sensors for
                                                           Dr Neil Hyatt
damage detection, cure monitoring
and through life environmental condition monitoring in     BSc PhD MInstP
polymer-matrix composites. He has also developed a         Reader in Nulcear Materials
patented technology for the healing of damage within       Chemistry
composite structures. He has projects examining the        Research is focussed on the under-
mechanical properties of clay and nanotube-based           standing of structure – property
nanocomposites. He is also involved in the development     relationships in the solid state and
of nanoindentation for the analysis of soft viscoelastic   the application of diffraction tech-
materials.                                                 niques under extreme (high pressure/temperature)
                                                           conditions. Current areas of research interest include
                                                           the synthesis and characterisation of dielectric and
                                                           ferroelectric materials; the immobilisation of high level
                                                           nuclear waste in glass and ceramic matrices; structural
Prof Andy Howe                                             studies of the vitreous state; pressure induced spin
MA PhD FIMMM CEng                                          state transitions in perovskite related oxides; and the
                                                           synthesis of new materials under extreme conditions.
Visiting Professor, Corus Group plc
Research interests cover micro-
                                                           Dr Beverley J Inkson
structural evolution in steels includ-
ing solidification and microsegrega-                       MA PhD
tion, solid state phase transforma-                        Reader in Nanomaterials
tion and recrystallisation. Current                        Research interests focus on the
research includes the streamlined                          mechanical and electrical proper-
modelling of solidification at the micro-scale for cou-    ties of metals and ceramics at the
pling with macro-models, and the development of ultra-     nanoscale, with an emphasis on how
high strength steels.                                      nanostructures and surface films
                                                           behave differently from convention-
                                                           al bulk materials. Current projects include tribology and
                                                           surface wear of structural nanocomposites, mechani-
                                                           cal stability of nanowires, reliability of MEMS devices,
                                                           nanoprocessing of surface structures using focused ion
                                                           beams (FIB), nanocharacterisation (3D TEM/SEM/FIB,
                                                           tomography, in-situ TEM), and nanoindentation.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                  13
Research in Progress 2010

Dr Martin Jackson                                             Dr Hajime Kinoshita
MEng PhD DIC                                                  BEng MEng DEng
Royal Academy of Engineering/                                 Lecturer in Materials Chemistry and
EPSRC Research Fellow and                                     Geochemistry
Lecturer Elect                                                Main interest of research is in ther-
Research interests centre on solid                            modynamic aspects of environmen-
state processing, microstructural/                            tal materials for waste treatment.
textural evolution and phase trans-                           Research interests include: electro-
formations in light alloys. Major                             chemical aging of durable materials
research focus is development of low cost non-melt            for prediction of long-term stability in geological envi-
consolidation routes for particulate titanium-based           ronments; CO2 immobilisation in recycled cementitious
feedstock from emerging reduction processes. Current          materials; decontamination of alloys with molten salts;
research in titanium also includes; (i) microstructural       influence of thermodynamic parameters on O2- ion con-
evolution during isothermal forging of high strength          ductivity in stabilised zirconia; molten state processing
alloys used in airframe forgings; (ii) alpha case forma-      of ceramic materials for waste immobilisation; thermo-
tion/crack initiation in alloys used in aeroengine gas tur-   dynamic modelling and phase diagram calculation.
bine compressors. Other research interests include the
superplastic behaviour of aluminium and magnesium
alloys during processing for automotive applications.

Prof Frank R Jones                                            Dr Adrian Leyland
PhD FIMMM CEng FRSC CChem                                     BSc PhD MInstP
CSci                                                          Senior Lecturer in Surface
Emeritus Professor of Polymers and                            Technology
Fibre Composites                                              Research interests are focused on
Research centres around correla-                              Surface Engineering and Tribology,
tions between molecular aspects                               specialising in plasma-assisted
and macroproperties of polymer                                Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD)
matrix composites using micro-                                of nanostructured ceramic coat-
mechanical and surface analytical techniques. He has          ings (for wear resistance and/or adaptive behaviour
extensive research programmes on interfacial molecu-          in extreme environments), metallic nanocomposite/
lar engineering using plasma polymerisation; develop-         glassy-metal coatings (for combined wear and corro-
ment of phase-stepping photoelastic techniques for            sion protection), duplex plasma-diffusion/ PVD-coating
quantifying adhesion; environmental effects specifically      treatments (to improve the load-bearing capacity of
mechanisms of moisture absorption and thermal and             light alloys and stainless steels in sliding wear applica-
hygrothermal degradation of advanced high tempera-            tions) and the development of tribological testing/prop-
ture matrix systems. Group Interaction modelling of           erty evaluation techniques for coatings.
resin properties for understanding the durability of a
composite from a full knowledge of the matrix perform-

Prof Howard Jones                                             Prof Sheila MacNeil
BSc PhD CEng FIMMM                                            BSc PhD
Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy                              Professor of Cell and Tissue
and Materials                                                 Engineering
Research interests include mecha-                             Research is focussed on cell biology,
nisms and modelling of solidification                         specifically the actions of extracel-
in general and especially, the mech-                          lular matrix (ECM) proteins which
anism of dendritic and eutectic                               influences wound healing, neo-
growth in alloys. He has a longstand-                         plastic invasion of melanoma and
ing interest in the high temperature behaviour of mate-       also pigmentation. Particular areas of on-going work
rials, in particular the stability of microstructure and      include investigations into the regulation of melano-
mechanical properties. Other areas of interest include:       cytes of skin, hair and eye and the development of tis-
consolidation of particulate rapidly solidified materi-       sue engineered human skin for clinical use. In the latter
als, together with the development of intermetallics as       case a University spin-out company (CellTran) has been
engineering materials, the fundamentals of ceramic/           formed and is progressing this work in “proof of con-
metal bonding, metallic matrix composites and wettabil-       cept” clinical studies.
ity studies.

14                                                                        Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                        Research in Progress 2010

Dr Stephen J Matcher                                         Dr Nicola Morley
BSc, PhD, Member SPIE, OSA,                                  MPhys PhD MemInstP
BMS, ESM                                                     Lecturer in Material Physics
Senior Lecturer in Biomedical                                Current research includes: the
Engineering                                                  anisotropy and magnetostriction
Current research interests: devel-                           of epitaxial Fe and Co on GaAs sub-
opment of optical imaging and                                strates; the anisotropy and magne-
spectroscopy to characterize bioen-                          tostriction of thin Fe-based mag-
gineered tissues in vitro and in situ.                       netic films; novel spintronic devices,
Main techniques are optical coherence tomography and         which include organic polymer spacer layers; organic
microscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, second-         intrinsic magnetoresistance of conjugated polymers and
harmonic and two-photon microscopy. I am particularly        small-molecules.
interested in the collagen structure of connective tis-
sue and how this is altered in disease, in techniques to
assess tissue perfusion and cellular bioenergetics in
vivo and in Doppler techniques to study the microcircu-

Prof Allan Matthews                                          Dr Michael I Ojovan
BSc PhD FIMMM FIMechE FIEE                                   MSc PhD DSc FRANS FMRS
FIMF                                                         MSGT
Head of Department;                                          Reader in Materials Science and
Professor of Surface Engineering                             Waste Immobilisation
Main research interests involve                              Research interests focus on physics
plasma-based surface coating and                             of metastable states, structure and
treatment processes, and tech-                               properties of disordered systems
niques for surface characterisation                          and Rydberg matter, radiation-
and evaluation. Current projects include the deposi-         induced effects in solids. Recent work has included
tion of nanocomposite tribological coatings by sputter-      analysis of durability and long term performance of
deposition, the surface modification of lightweight met-     nuclear waste immobilising glasses and glass-composite
als by plasma electrolytic oxidation, low-temperature        materials, development of nuclear waste processing
deposition of phase-stabilised oxide ceramic coatings,       techniques including thermochemical decontamination
and plasma diagnostics and control studies. He is also       and self-sustaining immobilisation.
involved in the development of computer-based coating
selection systems.

Dr Günter Möbus                                              Dr Eric J Palmiere
DiplPhys Dr rer nat (PhD)                                    BSc MSc PhD CEng
Reader in Microscopy and Materials                           Reader in Metallurgy
Science                                                      Research involves the microstruc-
Research is focused on the char-                             tural evolution, and the subsequent
acterisation of materials on the                             development of mechanical proper-
atomic and nano-scale, including                             ties, during the thermomechanical
development of quantitative elec-                            processing of both ferrous and non-
tron microscopy techniques for                               ferrous alloys with a primary focus
3D-mapping of microstructure, composition, strain, and       on ferrous alloys such as stainless, microalloyed steels
retrieval of crystal defect structures. Within the context   and associated model alloy steels. He is particularly
of immobilisation science, modern characterisation           interested in developing a basic understanding between
techniques, such as tomography, 3D reconstruction, and       those softening (i.e. recovery, recrystallisation) and
fine structure spectroscopy are used to detect the local     strengthening (i.e. solid solution formation, precipita-
composition and microstructure in glasses and ceram-         tion) mechanisms which occur either in austenite or in
ics, and to determine local coordination and oxidation       ferrite.
states of cations.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                 15
Research in Progress 2010

Prof John M Parker                                         Dr Gwendolen Reilly
MA PhD FIMMM CEng FSGT                                     BSc DPhil
Emeritus Professor of Glass Science                        Lecturer in Tissue Engineering
and Engineering                                            Background: bone biomechan-
Research has included a number                             ics; transduction of mechanically
of themes based around structure,                          induced signals in bone cells; bio-
crystallisation and optical proper-                        active glasses as a scaffold for
ties. Current major topics are glass                       bone tissue engineering; skeletal
colour and how specific ions can act                       cell differentiation. Research aims:
as probes for local structure associated with segrega-     investigating the use of mechanical stimuli to enhance
tion such as complex formation or fictive temperature      strength of tissue engineered bone and cartilage; exam-
behaviour. A particular interest is the modelling of       ining the effect of biomaterial scaffolds on skeletal cell
absorption spectra as an aid to composition design for     mechanical responses; mechanical manipulation of
glass makers particularly when using high fractions of     tissue engineered matrix structures. Our laboratory
recycled glass. An ongoing interest is how the forma-      is particularly interested in using tissue engineering to
tion of nanocrystals within a matrix can influence the     create 3D bone models for use as an alternative to ani-
environment of dopant ions and produce specific opti-      mal experiments in the testing of orthopaedic pharma-
cal effects.                                               ceuticals and devices.

Prof W Mark Rainforth                                      Prof Thomas Schrefl
BMet PhD MIMMM CEng FInstP                                 DI Dr Techn
CPhys                                                      Professor of Functional Materials
Professor of Materials Science and                         His expertise is in materials and
Engineering                                                device modelling using finite ele-
Research focuses on developing                             ment and fast boundary element
a mechanistic understanding of                             methods. The primary goal of his
microstructural evolution as a basic                       modelling is to obtain a better
pre-requisite to the development of                        understanding of the influence of
physically based modelling of both metals and ceram-       the microstructure on the properties of the materials
ics. Huge gains have been made in the quantification       and the application of this knowledge to simulate the
of microstructure across the length scales, including      functional behaviour of devices over multiple length
field emission gun TEM techniques for determining          scales. Current research includes: the simulation of
chemical and physical structure at the atomic scale,       hard disk recording, finite element micromagnetics,
focus ion beam (FIB) microscopy for the determination      nanostructured magnetic materials, spin electronic
of surface structure (e.g. oxides) and high resolution     devices, magnetic memories (MRAM), and magneto-
back-scatter electron diffraction (EBSD) for texture and   elastic sensors.
phase distribution analysis. Such techniques are applied
to the structure of nanoscale coatings, the evolution of
deformation and precipitation substructures during hot
working, and surface structures developed through fric-
tion and high temperature exposure.                        Prof C Michael Sellars
                                                           BMet PhD DMet HonCMechD
Prof Ian M Reaney                                          FREng FNAE (India) FIMMM
BSc MSc PhD MInstP CPhys CEng                              Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy
FRMS                                                       Current research interests centre
Professor of Ceramics                                      on thermomechanical processing
Main research theme is the use of                          of metals and alloys, with emphasis
transmission electron microscopy                           on the microstructural changes
to study the structure and micro-                          produced and their effects on
structure of electroceramics as                            properties. The work is based on basic laboratory stud-
well as the development of new or                          ies using plane strain compression testing, laboratory
improved materials for commercial applications. His        scale rolling, extrusion and forging, which have been
research activities are mainly concerned with dielectric   used to provide data required to develop computer
resonators for microwave communications as well as         models of microstructural evolution and to validate the
materials for sensor and actuator applications. He has     predictions of the models. Experimental studies have
an interest in crystallisable glasses for biomedical and   been carried out on a wide range of alloys including
photonic applications, studying their phase evolution as   high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, stainless steels,
a function of temperature and composition.                 aluminium alloys, nickel-based superalloys, IF steels and
                                                           iron aluminides.

16                                                                     Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                            Research in Progress 2010

Prof John H Sharp                                               Dr Iain Todd
BSc PhD CEng FIMMM                                              BEng PhD
Emeritus Professor of Ceramic                                   Reader in Metallurgy and Research
Science                                                         Director of the Innovative Metals
Major on-going interest is in the                               Processing Centre
chemistry of cements. Current top-                              The development of novel process-
ics include the hydration reactions                             ing technologies and metallic mate-
and durability of Portland cement                               rials forms the core of my present
and composite cements (involving                                research activity. Current work
the partial replacement of Portland cement by waste             includes: the development of novel processes for the
materials or mineral products) used for nuclear waste           production of titanium components by powder metal-
management, and durability studies into the formation           lurgical routes; modelling microstructure evolution
of delayed ettringite and thaumasite in Portland cement         during additive manufacturing processes; the manufac-
systems. In particular, the effects of pH, temperature          ture of Ti components for biomedical applications and
and carbon dioxide on the thaumasite form of sulfate            the kinetics of Bulk Metallic Glass formation and their
attack.                                                         physical properties. Work is conducted through the
                                                                Innovative Metals Processing Centre and in collabora-
                                                                tion with Industry and the Advanced Manufacturing
                                                                Research Centre with Boeing at the University of

Prof Derek C Sinclair                                           Dr Karl P Travis
BSc PhD CChem MRSC                                              BSc PhD CChem MRSC
Professor of Materials Chemistry                                Senior Lecturer in Modelling
Research interests are primarily                                Materials
involved with the synthesis and                                 Research interests cover
characterisation of oxide-based                                 Theoretical and Mathematical
electroceramics. Current work                                   Physics, particularly of condensed
includes investigating composition-                             phases; structure-property relation-
structure-property relationships                                ships of materials; and the thermo-
in important electroceramics, explorative phase dia-            dynamic behaviour of nana-confined fluids. Research
gram studies and speculative synthetic work on ‘new’            is currently focussed on applying atomistic, mesoscale
materials with superior electrical properties. The latter       and continuum modelling techniques to problems
approach is being used to discover new mixed ionic/             connected with the storage of nuclear waste. Some
electronic conductors, proton conductors, microwave             current topics under investigation include: modelling
dielectrics, ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics and low tem-        radiation damage in ceramic wasteforms, modelling the
perature cofired ceramics.                                      conductive flow of heat in very deep geological disposal
                                                                scenarios and developing Dissipative Particle Dynamics
                                                                for predicting phase behaviour and rheology in complex

Dr Richard Thackray                                             Prof Panos Tsakiropoulos
BEng PhD DIC                                                    D Eng Mining Eng - Metallurgy
Corus Lecturer in Steelmaking                                   MMet PhD
Research interests are in continu-                              Professor of Metallurgy and POSCO
ous casting of steel, in particular                             Chair of Iron and Steel Technology
the role of mould powders in the                                Research interests are in the
processing route, where models                                  design and development of
have been developed which relate                                ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
the viscosity, break temperature,                               and composites for the energy,
and crystallinity of the powder to the successful per-          transport and aerospace industries via process-
formance of the casting operation. New research into            microstructure-property studies. Materials processing
evaluating the suitability of F-free fluxes to replace exist-   under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions
ing fluxes will also be carried out in the near future. In      is also researched as part of the alloy development.
addition, work to understand the complex flow of metal          The emphasis of the research is on establishing (i)
during the casting process, and the associated heat             the effects of processing on the microstructure and
transfer effects and product quality implications, using        properties of structural engineering materials and
process modelling techniques is also ongoing.                   (ii) how processing can be tailored to particular
                                                                engineering requirements for desirable microstructures
                                                                and properties. Currently, alloys of Fe, Mo, Nb, Ti and Zr
                                                                are under investigation.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                      17
Research in Progress 2010

Prof Goran Ungar                                           Dr Bradley P Wynne
BSc PhD CPhys                                              BEng PhD
Professor of Polymers and Organic                          Senior Lecturer in Metallurgy
Materials                                                  Research interests focus on the
Research interests include the                             thermomechanical processing of
study of structure and phase                               metals and alloys, particularly the
behaviour of liquid crystalline (l.c.)                     interrelationship between the con-
and supramolecular polymeric, oli-                         straints imposed by the deforma-
gomeric and low molecular mass                             tion conditions and the constraints
systems. A second area of research is the structure and    on flow behaviour generated by crystal structure and
morphology of semicrystalline polymers. In particular,     crystallographic texture, which in turn determines
monodisperse model polymers in the form of very long       deformation microstructure evolution. Currently his
chain n-alkanes are studied; new crystallization mecha-    major focus is on the effects of non-linear strain paths
nisms have been proposed (“self-poisoning” effect) and     on microstructure evolution. The overall aim of this
new layer superlattices discovered.                        research is to develop true internal state models for
                                                           microstructure evolution to replace our current empiri-
                                                           cally based models which are often inadequate when
                                                           deformation conditions are complex.

Prof Anthony R West                                        Dr Xiangbing Zeng
BSc PhD DSc CChem CPhys FRSC                               BSc MSc PhD
FInstP FIMMM FRSE                                          Lecturer in Polymers
Professor of Electroceramics and                           Current research concerns 1-d,
Solid State Chemistry                                      2-d, 3-d ordered nano-structures
Current research includes: the                             (1-100 nm) in macromolecular
development of new spinel cath-                            and supramolecular systems, with
ode materials such as LiCoMnO4                             potential applications for molecu-
for lithium batteries; synthesis and                       lar electronics, photonics etc. The
characterisation of new ferroelectrics and relaxor fer-    main methods used are small angle x-ray and neutron
roelectrics with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure;     scattering (SAXS and SANS). These experiments are
new Li+ ion and O2- ion conducting solid electrolytes;     often carried out in real-time in order to catch transient
structures of Mn-based complex perovskites and Bi          structures and rapid transformations such as occur in
pyrochlores; probing the structure-property correla-       real-life, industrial processing of polymers.
tions that control the performance of zinc oxide varis-
tors, barium titanate PTCR devices and CaCu titanate
barrier layer capacitors. He is also well-known for his
books on Solid State Chemistry.

Prof Peter V Wright                                        Dr Shaowei Zhang
BSc MSc PhD                                                BSc MEng PhD
Emeritus Professor of Polymers                             Reader in Structural Ceramics and
Best known as the inventor in the                          Refractories
mid-1970s of polymer electrolytes.                         His main research interests are
His main research activities are                           in the processing, microstruc-
now involved with electroactive                            tures and properties of structural
polymeric materials, particularly                          ceramics and refractories. Current
low dimensional crystalline and                            research topics include develop-
liquid-crystalline systems with enhanced conductivities.   ment of next generation carbon-containing refractory
Another major area of research is the development of       composites, improvement of hydration resistance of
novel ‘large-area’ polymer films with switchable imped-    lime-based refractories, molten salt synthesis of ceram-
ances, in particular for the control of microwave trans-   ic powders, and preparation of oxide nanoparticles.
mission (“microwave smart windows”). Other areas           Other work includes fabrication of carbon nanotube-
of interest include: the interaction of ions with water    based composites, development of ultrahigh-tempera-
soluble polymers in aqueous solutions and ring-chain       ture ceramics and in-situ generation of carbide/oxide
equilibria, particularly in polysiloxane systems.          nanotubes/nanorods.

18                                                                     Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                          Research in Progress 2010

5. Materials-Based University Research Centres
5.1 Sheffield Centre for Advanced Magnetic Materials and Devices
This Research Centre provides a focus for research            Modelling on a number
innovation for the study and exploitation of magnetic         of length scales is an
materials and devices. Activities range from basic            increasingly impor-
research to applications, bringing together materials         tant tool in magnetics
processing and fabrication, state-of-the-art characteri-      research. The award of the fellowship to Dr Hrkac will
zation techniques, and multiscale simulation of materi-       very strongly underpin this effort over the coming years.
als and devices. The long term objectives are to provide
the collaborative framework for the investigation and         The programme on magnetic nanowires continues to
exploitation of novel magnetic phenomena and the              develop, led by Dr Allwood with strong support from
development of new and improved materials, structures         Prof Gibbs and Prof Schrefl. Whilst there is much fun-
and devices, and where appropriate to apply these to          damental science to be explored in terms of dynamic
the needs of industry and commerce.                           response of such structures, there are also many poten-
                                                              tial application areas. Novel applications in atom trap-
The academic staff associated with the Centre com-            ping for potential use in quantum information process-
prises Profs M R J Gibbs, T Schrefl and Drs D A Allwood       ing are being actively pursued.
and N A Morley, with Prof H A Davies now an Emeritus
Professor. Dr G Hrkac is a Royal Society Advanced             Industrial linkage for our projects is an important part
Research Fellow in the Centre.                                of our activities, and there are active collaborations
                                                              with Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, Seagate
Highlights for 2010 include a very strong presence at the     Technology, Toyota and Ultra Electronics. Consultancy
joint MMM/INTERMAG conference in Washington. More             is also provided, together with research quantities of
than ten papers were presented involving staff from           material where appropriate.
the Centre. Several EPSRC grants have been secured,
together with Yorkshire Forward proof-of-concept fund-
ing for device development. Applications in bioscience,
healthcare and security are attracting commercial interest.

Spintronics, the recognition and exploitation of the spin
as well as the charge on the electron, is a very hot topic
in world-wide magnetics research. Dr Morley and Prof
Gibbs are leading the Centre activity in this area, looking
at combining organic materials that show magnetore-
sistance with more conventional ferromagnetic materi-
als. Progress has been rapid with new results coming
from collaborations with the Paul Scherrer Institute in
Switzerland and Queen Mary College in London.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                       19
Research in Progress 2010

5.2 Research Centre in Surface Engineering
The Research Centre in Surface Engineering (RCSE)              wear-resistant metallic coatings to sub-
laboratory houses equipment for plasma-assisted depo-          stitiute toxic coatings & processes such
sition by both magnetron and remote-plasma sputtering          as cadmium, hard-chrome and chromate
and by electron beam evaporation – as well as facilities       conversion treatments (used widely in
for plasma immersion ion implantation surface treat-           aerospace and power-generation) with environmentally
ment and other novel ion-assisted coating methods,             benign plasma-based alternative technologies.
including High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
(HiPIMS). A purpose-built laboratory area has also been        The group has recently hosted two visiting research-
created for the study of plasma electrolysis treatment         ers sponsored via the EPSRC-funded 'Bridging the Gaps'
techniques, such as Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO).       scheme. Dr Evgeny Parfenov from Ufa State Aviation
                                                               Technical University (Russia) participated in a project
The group’s main coatings research involves vacuum-            dedicated to the development of new process diagnostic
plasma based methods, with particular emphasis at              & control tools for plasma assisted electrochemical proc-
present on new sputter-deposited nanocomposite and             esses, while Professor Lyubov Snizhko from the Ukrainian
multi-functional coatings, with controlled mechanical          University for Chemical Engineering, Dnepropetrovsk,
properties. There is increasing activity in electrolytic-      worked on modelling growth processes of PEO films
plasma processes for surface hardening - and other             on Al and Mg alloys under high anodic potentials. We
functional treatments - of (primarily) lightweight alloys of   were recently awarded funding by the Cyprus Research
aluminium, magnesium and titanium, funded by both the          Promotion Foundation (RPF), to continue our interactions
EPSRC and industrial sponsors. The RCSE has also been          with Prof. Rebholz’s group at the University of Nicosia,
investigating low-temperature growth of metal-oxide            Cyprus. The project involves reciprocal visits between
films by PVD techniques - with additional underpinning         Nicosia and Sheffield, to test and evaluate new diamond-
support for the group provided by an EPSRC Platform            like carbon (DLC) coatings for biomedical applications.
Grant. In late 2009 we obtained a major EPSRC capital
equipment grant (together with Leeds and Sheffield             During 2009 the RCSE benefited - together with the
Hallam Universities) and with this funding we will acquire     Tribology Group in the Department of Mechanical
in 2010 a new high temperature multi-source, multifunc-        Engineering – from a generous benefaction of support-
tional PVD coating and plasma treatment facility from          ing funds to establish "The Leonardo Centre for Tribology
Tecvac Ltd. The multifunctional capability incorporates        and Surface Technology". We hope this initiative will
both electron beam and sputter deposition with low-            act to improve co-operation across the University in the
pressure plasma diffusion treatment, under enhanced                                                          he
                                                               fields of surface engineering and tribology. The benefac-
plasma conditions – and at higher temperatures than            tion provides direct support for two full time Academic
were previously possible for such processes.                   posts (one in Engineering Materials and the other in
                                                               Mechanical Engineering) - and for a part time Visiting
The RCSE team recently completed a 3-year DTI/TSB              Professor from Philips in Holland, Professor Steven
Technology Programme project ("LIBTEC"), under the             Franklin. This link has proved enormously beneficial, not
“Materials for Extreme Environments” funding round.            only for collaborative research within the Faculty but also
The project objective was to develop new, advanced             in facilitating undergraduate student placements in the
plasma surface engineering treatments & coatings for           “High Tech Campus” at Philips in Eindhoven.
titanium alloys – allowing them to be used in high-load
bearing applications as a weight-saving, low maintenance       Our Yorkshire Forward “Capacity Building” Programme
alternative to traditional materials. The project partners,    in surface engineering ("Surface Engineering Group",
Tecvac Ltd, NMB-Minebea and Airbus UK, jointly devel-          SEG), run jointly since 2006 with the National Metals
oped new surface engineering techniques to permit a            Technology Centre (NAMTEC), Corus, The Welding
2-to-3 fold increase in load-bearing capability for Ti6Al4V    Institute (TWI) and Sheffield Hallam University has con-
alloy – with the RCSE team providing key plasma process-       tinued to be successful in assisting local industry to ben-
ing and mechanical property evaluation expertise to            efit from optimal use of advanced surface engineering
the industrial consortium. This has opened up numer-           technology - with around 70 Yorkshire companies already
ous opportunities for Airbus to implement significant          helped to safeguard and increase regional jobs. We
weight-saving measures on passenger aircraft, such as in       currently have three Knowledge Transfer Partnerships
landing-gear bearings on the forthcoming A350 range of         (KTPs) running. One is to develop novel hard-facing
aircraft. A second TSB Technology Programme project            treatments for oil drilling equipment with Cutting and
("SMARTHIP") awarded under the 2007 "Smart, Bioactive          Wear UK Ltd, Rotherham; another, with E Wood Ltd (3M),
and Nanostructured Materials for Health" funding round         Northallerton, is to improve the performance of poly-
is currently in progress, with Tecvac Ltd and Corin (a         meric coatings for pipelines and a third, with Silberline,
prosthetic device manufacturer), and with two other UK         Leven, Scotland is to improve the anti-corrosion per-
Universities (QMUL and Imperial College), to develop           formance of metallic paint pigments. A fourth project
multifunctional 'smart' coatings for hip & knee joint          awarded in 2009 is with Technicut Ltd, a Sheffield-based
prosthetic devices – and a third Technology Programme          manufacturer of high-performance cutting tools. Starting
project ("SUSCOAT") was recently awarded under the             early 2010, this project aims to develop improved materi-
"Sustainable Materials" funding round, commencing              als and coatings for optimised machining of advanced
Autumn 2009. The latter aims to develop corrosion- and         composites in future aircraft structural components.

20                                                                         Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                              Research in Progress 2010

5.3 Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
Bioengineering Peripheral Nerve                                 alignment. Thereafter, once the scaf-
                                                                fold conditions have been established
Injuries to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are             for the optimal support of Schwann
extremely common and although nerve regeneration is             cell growth, they can be constructed
possible, this typically occurs over very short distances       to form experimental nerve guidance
of 1-2mm. However, individuals who receive this type of         conduits for the 3D culture of Schwann
injury will have life-long disability. When damage to the       cells using a closed loop perfusion bio-
nerve is too significant for regeneration to take place,        reactor. Figure 5.3.1 shows the design of the perfused
surgical intervention is required, such as end-to-end           bioreactor for culturing Schwann cells under controlled
suturing or autografting. However, reconstructive sur-          flow conditions and figure 5.3.2 shows confocal micro-
gery does not result in complete or effective functional        graphs of alive (green) and dead (red) Schwann cells
recovery and a major disadvantage of autografting               growing on aligned PLLA microfibers. Figure 5.3.2 also
includes a secondary surgical procedure and donor site          illustrates the importance of an acrylic acid deposition,
morbidity. Previous studies have demonstrated that a            where a) top panel is PLLA fibres alone and b) bottom
high number of nerve cells do not survive, with 35% to          panel is PLLA fibres coated with acrylic acid.
40% dying following injury. Strategies to bioengineer
peripheral nerves are therefore being developed in John
Haycock’s group. The use of entubulation devices such
as nerve guidance conduits (NGC) provides a favour-
able microenvironment and a degree of basic physical
guidance for improving the rate of nerve growth. Many
types of NGC materials have been studied in the past,
including natural materials such as autologous veins
and arteries. However disadvantages exist with natural
materials such as a limited supply and unnecessary sur-
gical procedures. Therefore the use of synthetic NGC
materials is increasingly being studied. The advantages
                                                                Figure 5.3.2: Shows confocal micrographs of alive (green) and
of synthetic materials include control over properties          dead (red) Schwann cells growing on aligned PLLA microfibers.
such as physical flexibility, porosity, biocompatibility and
biodegradability, while also having control over material
purity and quality.                                             Bone Tissue Engineering

The delivery of Schwann cells to an injured PNS can             The Reilly group is interested in how mechanical forces
improve nerve growth and alignment. However gap                 can be used to improve tissue engineered matrix pro-
injuries have no spatial information between the proxi-         duction just as in the body our tissues respond to the
mal and distal nerves, and so we are designing scaffolds        stresses and strains they receive throughout life. A
for the growth of Schwann cells in the form of aligned          particular interest is in mechanical influences on bone
biodegradable fibres for improved nerve fibre align-            tissue production. In collaboration with the University
ment. In the present work we have fabricated aligned            of Kansas (Missouri, USA), a newly developed bone cell
microfibre scaffolds made from the hydrolysable poly-           line has been used which rapidly synthesizes matrix to
mer, poly-L-lactide, by high-speed electrospinning.             develop a system for studying the mechanical modu-
Fibres have then been surface coated using acrylic acid         lation of bone matrix formation in 3D using a cyclic
plasma polymerisation which has been found to improve           compressive loading stimulus. Polyurethane (PU) open
the ability to support Schwann cell adhesion and                cell foam scaffolds were seeded with bone cells under
growth. Schwann cells can be grown on fibre sheets              static conditions and loaded in compression at 1Hz, 5%
to rapidly evaluate an ability to support cell growth and       strain in a sterile fluid-filled chamber, designed by Bose
                                                                ElectroForce systems group. Loading was applied for
                                                                only 2 hours per day at day 5, 10 and 15 of culture and
                                                                cell-seeded scaffolds were assayed on days 10, 15 and
                                                                20 of culture. Collagen content was significantly (2 fold)
                                                                higher at days 15 and 20 in loaded samples compared
                                                                with static controls. Calcium content was significantly
                                                                (4 fold) higher by day 20. The number of viable cells
                                                                was higher in loaded samples at day 10 but there was
                                                                no difference by days 15 and 20. Loaded samples also
                                                                had higher stiffness in compression by the end of the
                                                                experiment. The gene expression of the bone matrix
                                                                proteins type I collagen, osteopontin and osteocalcin
                                                                was higher, after a single bout of loading, in loaded than
                                                                in non-loaded samples as assayed by RT-PCR. In conclu-
Figure 5.3.1: Shows the design of the perfused bioreactor for   sion, mineralisation by fully differentiated bone cells
culturing Schwann cells under controlled flow conditions.       was shown to be highly sensitive to mechanical loading,

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                         21
Research in Progress 2010
with short bouts of mechanical loading having a strong       of recognising either gram positive or gram negative
effect on mineralised matrix production. The 3D system       bacteria. On binding of the bacteria the hydrogels col-
developed will be useful for systematic investigation        lapse around the bacteria. These responsive hydrogels
of the modulators of in vitro matrix mineralisation by       are being developed to reduce bacterial infection in
osteoblasts in mechanobiology and tissue engineering         wounds and they also have the potential to deliver a sig-
studies.                                                     nal on binding the bacteria. A patent has been filed on
                                                                 this technology and the first paper on the chemistry
                                                                 accepted in the Journal of the American Chemical
                                                                 Society (Shepherd et al, in press). We look forward
                                                                 to developing this in 2010 for detecting bacteria in a
                                                                 variety of applications. Figure 5.3.4 shows the abil-
                                                                 ity of the modified hydrogel to bind gram positive
                                                                 bacteria. In this case the hydrogel was modified with
                                                                 vanocmycin which specifically interacts with gram
                                                                 positive bacteria. The lower panel shows the ability
                                                                 of a polymer modified with polymixin B to bind gram
                                                                 negative bacteria.

                                                                 Also in 2009 we developed a surface modified con-
                                                                 tact lens for the transfer of limbal epithelial cells to
                                                                 the cornea for ocular surface diseases (Deshpande
                                                                 et al, 2009) and in another project with Chemistry
                                                                 we developed a biodegradable electrospun scaf-
                                                                 fold for tissue engineering which is also capable of
Figure 5.3.3                                                 releasing ibuprofen as it degrades. This is also covered
                                                             by a patent application as it represents a useful mate-
Skin Tissue Engineering                                      rial in treating inflamed skin wounds. Essentially it is
                                                             being designed to provide an anti-inflammatory to both
2009 has led to major developments in our research in        reduce inflammation and pain for the patient and, as
the area of detection and treatment for infected skin        the dressing is biodegradable, it doesn’t need to be
wounds. To support this work the MacNeil group devel-        removed - yet fibres are in place for providing skin cell
oped a 3-dimensional bacterially infected human skin         guidance and migration.
wound (Shepherd et al, 2009). This has proved invalu-
able for testing the antimicrobial activity of novel bio-    2D and 3D Patterning of Cells and Biomolecules
compatible wound dressings based on triblock copoly-
mer hydrogels through a collaboration with Professor         In 2009, the Claeyssens group investigated diamond-
Steve Armes in the Department of Chemistry (Bertal et        like-carbon (DLC) coatings for bioelectronics coatings.
al, 2009). These latter hydrogels are capable of enter-      DLC is an amorphous form of carbon and can be depos-
ing both mammalian and bacterial cells and certain           ited at room temperature via pulsed laser deposition.
combinations of the triblocks have intrinsic antimicro-      This research has been carried out with colleagues at
bial activity. The hydrogels are also capable of releasing   the School of Medicine at Bristol University and has
drugs and we have been exploring their potential both        been published in Biomaterials (Biomaterials 31 (2010)
as topical drug delivery vehicles and as inherent antimi-    207-215).
crobial dressings.
                                                                 Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an attractive bio-
                                                                 material for coating human implantable devices.
                                                                 Our particular research interest is in developing
                                                                 DLC as a coating material for implants and electri-
                                                                 cal devices for the nervous system. We previously
                                                                 reported that DLC is not toxic to N2a neuroblastoma
                                                                 cells or primary cortical neurons and showed that
                                                                 phosphorus-doped DLC (P:DLC) could be used to
                                                                 produce patterned neuron networks. In the present
                                                                 study we complement and extend these findings by
                                                                 exploring patterning of dorsal root ganglion (DRG)
                                                                 explants, human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) and
                                                                 U-87 astroglioma cells on P:DLC. Further P:DLC data
Figure 5.3.4                                                     is provided to highlight that P:DLC can be used as an
                                                             effective coating material for in vitro multi-electrode
One of the most exciting projects delivering fruit in        arrays (MEAs) with potential for patterning groups of
2009 is a collaboration between the Departments              neurons on selected electrodes. We also introduce
of Chemistry, Engineering Materials and Oral Health          ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a simple treatment to
(Dental School) led by Dr Steve Rimmer, in which we          render DLC neurocompatible. We show that UV:DLC can
have developed antibiotic modified hydrogels capable         be used to support patterned and unpatterned cortical

22                                                                        Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                             Research in Progress 2010
neuron growth. These findings strongly support the use         comparing the variation of wall shear stress at different
of DLC as a tailorable and tuneable substrate to study         locations on the hood of graft and floor of artery), to
neural cell biology in vitro and in vivo. We conclude          quantify haemodynamic parameters in distal coronary
that DLC is a well-suited candidate material for coating       anastomoses and it was confirmed that geometric factors
implantable devices in the human nervous system.               like diameter ratio and angle between the graft and host
                                                               artery (Figure 5.3.6 right upper panel, variation of spa-
In 2009 we have also been developing a 3D microstruc-          tial WSS gradient on the floor), and smooth graft-artery
turing technique based on UV microstereolithography.           transition play similar roles in distal coronary anastomo-
Additionally we have been developing a laser based             ses as in the peripheral region. The impact of geometric
printing technique for producing biomolecule arrays            alteration on haemodynamics was further demonstrated
and biosensors. This technique is able to print viscous        in infragenicular supplementary vein cuffs which con-
fluids containing DNA, proteins and even living cells.         figuration, specifically the length-to-height ratio, is criti-
                                                               cal in controlling local haemodynamics. However, it is
                                                               still not entirely clear which and to what extent, these
                                                               flow parameters actually trigger the undesired cellular
                                                               response and the true mechanisms involved. We are
                                                               currently developing a flow system capable of expos-
                                                               ing viable cells cultured/co-cultured in well-defined
                                                               geometries to precisely-controlled flow parameters to
                                                               systematically understand and establish the quantitative
                                                               correlations (employing both experimental and computa-
                                                               tional approaches) and, hopefully obtain more insights on
                                                               the true mechanisms (e.g. biochemical cascade) involved.
                                                               The information is expected to be useful in develop-
                                                               ing anastomotically-engineered vascular tissue graft,
                                                               acknowledging that anastomosis is inevitable.

Figure 5.3.5: Preferential patterning of cortical neurons
(A & B, green ¼ MAP2 stain, blue ¼ DAPI), Dorsal root
ganglion cells (C & D, red ¼ b-III tubulin, blue ¼ DAPI)
and human neural progenitors (E & F) along P:DLC
tracks. Scale bars are 90 µm.                                  Figure 5.3.6

Anastomotic Engineering                                        Biophotonic Imaging of Tissues

Biomechanical forces have been suggested to play               The optical imaging group, led by Steve Matcher, is
important roles in arteriosclerosis, intimal thickening        developing non-destructive imaging modalities to study
(IT), and restenosis related to stented arteries or surgi-     the development of tissue-engineered constructs in
cal anastomosis. Research in CK Chong’s group show             bioreactors. 2009 saw a series of experiments in which
that certain haemodynamic features e.g. low mean wall          a new technique, swept-source optical coherence tom-
shear stress (WSS), oscillating WSS, abnormal temporal         ography, was used to image the development of tissue-
and spatial shear stress gradients, and high particle resi-    engineered skin constructs fabricated in the MacNeil
dence times, are found in the locations where IT prefer-       lab. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical
entially develops. This suggests a possible link between       analogue of ultrasound imaging but offering axial resolu-
these features and cellular responses and failure of the       tion of 1-10 microns over depths up to 2 mm in biological
endovascular device or surgical bypasses. It is evident        tissues. Our swept-source system is based on a 1300 nm
from our works (Figure 5.3.6 lower panels, variation of        frequency-swept laser, fibre-optic interferometer and
WSS on the arterial floor over space and time due to           telecentric beam scanning optics (see Figure 5.3.7).
increasing graft-to-artery diameter ratio) and others, that
geometrical features play an influential role in controlling
the flow features and therefore there is clinical relevance
and benefits for anastomotic engineering, a process of
modifying the geometry of the graft or anastomosis to
improve their haemodynamic performance. Thus far, we
have developed a computational model, validated by par-
ticle imaging velocimetry (Figure 5.3.6 left upper panel,      Figure 5.3.7

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                        23
Research in Progress 2010
Skin constructs were fabricated by seeding de-epithe-       Figure 5.3.9 (Ugryumova et al, 2009) shows retardance
lialized acellular dermis (DED) with keratinocytes and      images of the same site on equine articular cartilage
fibroblasts. The constructs were then grown in cell         taken with two different illumination directions. The
culture medium at an air-liquid interface for up to 21      strong banding pattern visible on the left is not a struc-
days. OCT imaging was performed at a series of time-        tural feature but instead reveals the presence of strong
points from day 1 to day 21. At day 21 OCT (Figure 5.3.8,   linear birefringence. The absence of the banding on the
top) demonstrated the formation of neo-epidermis that       right image, despite the measurement site being the
correlated with invasive histological assessment (Figure    same, provides information on how the collagen fibres
5.3.8, bottom). This data was reported at BioS 2010         are oriented in 3-D (the fibres must be nearly parallel
(Smith et al, 2010).                                        to the beam direction to produce low birefringence).
                                                            We are working to develop this idea into a tool that can
                                                            characterise the ECM geometry of articular cartilage
                                                            samples and thus guide the design of scaffolds to pro-
                                                            duce tissue engineered cartilage replacements.

Figure 5.3.8

2009 also saw the group complete the construction of a
swept-source polarization-sensitive OCT system. This is     Figure 5.3.9
an enhanced version of an earlier design that produces
“phase-retardance” images in addition to the structural
images illustrated above-left. Such images provide infor-
mation on the presence of directionally organised col-
lagen, via its linear birefringence.

24                                                                         Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                            Research in Progress 2010

5.4 The Sorby Centre for Electron Microscopy and Electron Microscopy Research
Director: Prof W M Rainforth                                       to the already substantial equipment base.
Senior Experimental Officer: Dr P Korgul                       iii The joint venture with the Department of Electrical
Experimental officers: Dr Peng Zeng, Dr Cathy Shields              and Electronic Engineering has reached its summit
                                                                   with the installation of the world beating aberration
The Sorby Centre is one of the largest electron optical            corrected TEM. The 300kV JEOL instrument has a
characterisation and analysis facilities in the UK, housing        cold field emission gun and delivers sub Å resolu-
11 electron microscopes for scanning and transmission              tion in both coherent and incoherent imaging and
electron microscopy, a broad range of specimen prepa-              high energy resolution spectroscopy.
ration equipment together with experience and exper-
tise in a variety of materials applications.                  Sorby Centre Webpage:
In particular, the facilities comprise:                       Information for Academic Users: The Centre cur-
                                                              rently supports research projects from 7 University
  • TEM: JEOL 3010 300kV high resolution electron             Departments. See our webpage for contact information
    microscopy.                                               and registration of new users.
  • TEM: FEI Tecnai 200kV imaging and analytical TEM
    (EDX).                                                    Information for Industry: We operate a full serv-
  • TEM: Philips 430 300kV imaging and InSitu heating         ice for industry through the Sorby Nano Investigation
    experiments.                                              Centre (SNIC). See
  • TEM: Philips 420 120kV imaging, EDX, and user
    training applications.                                    Historical Background: The name of the Centre
  • SEM: FEI Sirion FEGSEM. High resolution imaging,          reflects the early and pioneering work of Sheffield
    EDX, EBSD, STEM.                                          scientist Henry Clifton Sorby on light microscopy of
  • SEM: FEI Inspect F, FEGSEM. High resolution imag-         geological and metallurgical cross sections back in the
    ing, EDX, EBSD.                                           mid-nineteenth century.
  • SEM: JEOL 6400, for SEM imaging, EDX, EBSD.
  • SEM: Further basic instruments for routine SEM            His research is internationally recognised as the birth
    imaging and user training.                                of scientific metallography, and is remembered today
  • FIB: FEI Quanta 3D, Surface sectioning and TEM            e.g. by the annual Sorby Award of the International
    sample preparation, ESEM.                                 Metallographic Society. The Centre maintains the ambi-
  • A CAMECA SX51 Electron Microprobe with WDX                tion to provide state-of-the art characterisation facilities
    spectroscopy in the process of being setup.               for the benefits of the traditionally-strong Sheffield-
                                                              based Materials Research Centres.
Further facilities through joint access to the Engineering
Faculty FEGTEM & FIB facility (operated by Dept of            The Sorby Centre in Pictures:
Electronic and Electrical Engineering) are:

  • JEOL 005 FEGTEM with aberration corrected probe
    and imaging, EFTEM, EELS.
    and cooling stage.
  • JEOL Fabrika dual beam FIB-FEGSEM. Focused Ion
    Beam nanofabrication and imaging with ion and
    electron beams.

News during 2009:

  i. The Sorby Centre successfully moved to the Kroto
      Research Institute in 2009, with the new laboratory
      costing £1.3m to develop. This has provided us with
      a substantial increase in space (size and quality)
      and a substantial reduction in environmental pollu-
      tion. The current working environment is excellent
                                                              Figure 5.4.1: FEGSEM image of porous self-ordered anodic alu-
      and sets a UK leading standard.
                                                              minium oxide nanochannel array with general close-packing
  ii. Our European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)           order (courtesy Yong Peng, NanoLAB group).
      grant for the initiation and running of the ‘Sorby
      Nano Investigation Centre (SNIC)’ has fulfilled its
      ERDF objectives and substantially enhanced input
      into South Yorkshire industry , as well as providing
      a new environmental dual beam focused ion beam
      microscope (ESEM-FIB), a FEG-SEM, a Raman Laser
      Tweezers and a Laser Confocal, all of which will add

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                       25
Research in Progress 2010

Figure 5.4.2: Bright field image of a focused ion beam prepared
cross-section of a g-TiAl alloy following high temperature
oxidation, along with X-ray maps of the chemical distribution
from the same area (Courtesy J Walker, I Ross).

Figure 5.4.3: Award winning micrograph showing the growth
of oxide on steel, taken by Nelson Garza.

26                                                                Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                          Research in Progress 2010

IMMPETUS, the Institute for Microstructural and             gun TEM (a facility based in the Department of Electrical
Mechanical Process Engineering: The University of           and Electronic Engineering) can undertake atomic reso-
Sheffield ( is a multi-     lution imaging, and also identify the chemical distribu-
disciplinary research centre established in 1996 to study   tion and state of bonding at the nm level. The dual beam
the thermomechanical processing of metals, to model         FIB allows site-specific surface sections to be removed
the events taking place, and to develop improved plan-      for either SEM or TEM investigation, to examine, for
ning and control of industrial processes. IMMPETUS          example, the structure of surface oxides.
is based within three host Departments: Engineering
Materials, Mechanical Engineering and Automatic Control     IMMPETUS provides a platform for defining and solv-
and Systems Engineering. Across the three Departments       ing the next generation of problems for advancing fur-
it involves over fifty people: academic and research        ther the state of the art in metals processing, serve as
staff, research students, an administrator, a compu-        a resource for those seeking assistance with current
ter programmer and three technicians. Since 1996            problems, and train researchers to offer solutions to
IMMPETUS has been funded by three substantial EPSRC         industrial problems. We are proud for the wide and
grants, the last one of £5.5m started in 2007. IMMPETUS     fast dissemination of the Institute’s discoveries and
seeks to integrate a range of modelling methodologies       innovations to academia and industry, the exposure of
and experimental skills to provide true multidiscipli-      our researchers to industrial research and technolo-
nary research to develop physically-based models that       gies and opportunities for developing new industrially
predict the microstructure of metals as a function of       relevant research. IMMPETUS research is disseminated
process route. The work of IMMPETUS covers all major        through member publications in peer reviewed journals
metals, including steels (carbon, high strength, tool       and conference proceedings, our annual Colloquium,
and stainless), wrought aluminium alloys, nickel based      national and international conferences, and through
superalloys, near-a titanium alloys, magnesium alloys,      University publications such as PhD and MPhil theses
copper alloys and many more. Our work focuses on the        and other publications from each of the three academic
hot deformation of metals (by rolling, forging etc) but     departments, including the Institute’s and Departments’
also on other aspects of metals processing, including       regularly updated websites and IMMPETUS newslet-
solidification and powder processing technologies.          ters. Members of IMMPETUS serve in national commit-
                                                            tees of their professional institutes such as IoM3, IFAC,
Research in IMMPETUS is supported by a world lead-          IMechE, and contribute to the organisation and running
ing deformation simulation laboratory and world             of national meetings and symposia on key engineering
class materials characterisation facilities. The            topics. The Faculty of Engineering supports an entre-
Thermomechanical Compression Machine (TMC)                  preneurial research culture and assists with university-
provides high strain rate deformation, coupled with         industry research partnerships.
complex heating and cooling cycles that simulate hot
rolling or forging. The new arbitrary strain path test
machine (ASP) has been used to investigate the effect
of a complex series of changes in strain direction/
strain rate commonly known as strain path effects. This
machine is unique in the world. IMMPETUS has access
to state-of-the-art microstructural characterisation
that allows quantification of microstructure across the
length-scales. Our field emission gun EBSD facility sys-
tem allows quantification of microstructure, texture and
deformation substructure with high spatial resolution
(50-100nm), but with the ability to acquire data from
large specimen areas (cm2 possible). The field emission

                                                            Figure 5.5.2: IMMPETUS Annual Report 1 August
                                                            2008 – 31 July 2009.
                                                            For a copy please contact: Prof P Tsakiropoulos
Figure 5.5.1: IMMPETUS Colloquium 2009 Group Photo.         (

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                 27
Research in Progress 2010

5.6 The Ceramics and Composites Laboratory (CCL)
The Ceramics and Composites Laboratory (CCL) was                    • Experimental materials development software
launched in September 2003 with a 5 year Portfolio                    programmes with advanced modelling strategies to
Partnership award of £6M from the EPSRC. The group                    simulate the electrical properties of heterogeneous
brought together researchers from the areas of ceram-                 electroceramics and underpin investigations into
ics, composites and polymers. The group comprised                     structure-property relations.
of Profs F R Jones, W E Lee (now at Imperial College,               • Establishing a long term strategic alliance between
London), W M Rainforth, I M Reaney, A R West and P V                  the electroceramic groups at Sheffield and Leeds
Wright and Drs R J Hand and D C Sinclair.                             and to facilitate the development of electroceram-
                                                                      ics, in collaboration with industry, that have poten-
The CCL has continued since 2008 with funding from                    tial device applications.
an EPSRC Large Grant award and is now based on                      • Continuing existing and developing new interna-
researchers focussing on new and improved elec-                       tional academic collaborations.
troceramics. It comprises Profs I M Reaney, A R West,
D C Sinclair, A J Bell (Institute for Materials Research,          The success of the CCL in producing high quality
University of Leeds) and Profs J H Harding and W M                 research is demonstrated by the fact that it has pub-
Rainforth. The award in 2008 of £4.5M gives the aca-               lished over 450 papers since it was launched in 2003. In
demic investigators guaranteed underpinning research               addition over 30 postgraduate students have completed
funding for 4 years. In addition to the EPSRC Large                their research degrees and graduated with either a PhD
Grant the group has also continued with significant                or MPhil. The CCL holds an annual meeting for the dis-
funding from other EPSRC Grants, European Grants and               cussion and development of research that involves over
a significant link with Knowledge Transfer Programmes              60 academics, researchers and PhD students.

Figure 5.6.1: Annual Meeting of Academics, Researchers and PhDs.
                                                                   The CCL has also achieved significant success in devel-
The range of research interests covered by the CCL is              oping collaborations with industry. The development
very broad. It includes, for instance:                             of KTPs was an early development in 2004 with the
                                                                   appointment of Dr Fred Dobson by the CCL to estab-
 • Fundamental materials development and charac-                   lish Knowledge Transfer Partnerships for the group.
   terisation on several fronts in the field of electroce-         The CCL views such industrial partnerships as a vital
   ramics.                                                         outreach activity and this has been also been very suc-
 • Functionality in novel perovskite, layered rock salt,           cessful in extending the University of Sheffield’s wider
   tetragonal tungsten bronze and sillenite-based                  involvement in KTPs.
   materials via structure-composition-property rela-
   tionships.                                                      For further information about the group please contact the
 • Fabricating a range of known and new electroce-                 manager Gordon Brown (
   ramic materials in thin- and thick-film format as               visit the group’s website (
   feasibility studies for potential device development.
 • Using advanced materials characterisation tech-
   niques, such as aberration corrected electron
   microscopy and local probe impedance spectros-
   copy, helping to create a step change in the under-
   standing of structure and microstructure of elec-

28                                                                             Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                          Research in Progress 2010

5.7 NanoLAB Research Centre for Nanomanipulation and Nanorobotics
The NanoLAB Research Centre was set up in 2004,            NanoLAB initiated and contributes to a taught Masters
funded in large part through a RCUK Basic Technology       course, successfully running since 2006/07, on
Award. We conduct research into advanced nanomateri-       Nanomaterials for Nanoengineering.
als and nanotechnology, including the fields of nanoma-
terials processing, 3D characterisation, nano-electro-     NanoLAB activities are underpinned by a number of
mechanical testing, and development of nanomanipula-       significant Research Funding awards. New Programmes
tion devices.                                              for 2009 include a £0.8m Basic Technology Translation
                                                           award for expansion of the successful NanoLAB technol-
The scientists associated with NanoLAB include aca-        ogy to new academic and industrial applications, and an
demic staff Drs Beverley Inkson, Günter Möbus and          EPSRC award to study nanoparticle architectures in col-
Cornelia Rodenburg in Engineering Materials, interdis-     laboration with Cranfield and Bath Universities.
ciplinary collaborators in Dentistry and Electronic and
Electrical Engineering, and 14 PDRAs/ PhD/PG students.     NanoLAB has been active organising a number of
                                                           conferences during 2009, including the organisa-
                                                           tion of an Advanced School on Nanomanipulation
                                                           and Nanofabrication, and the bi-annual international
                                                           Institute of Physics EMAG2009 conference on electron
                                                           microscopy in Sheffield during September. We also
                                                           organised the Mechanical Characterisation using in-situ
                                                           Methods Symposium at EUROMAT 2009 in Glasgow, and
                                                           NanoFIB 2009: Advances in Focused Ion Beam micros-
                                                           copy, in Cambridge, March 2009.

Figure 5.7.1: Carbon onion generated by the rub-           Figure 5.7.1: Atomic resolution tomography, simulated for a
bing of amorphous carbon thin films.                       CeO2 nano-octahedron.

NanoLAB activities have significantly expanded in 2009.
Real-time manipulation and testing of nanostructures
inside electron microscopes is now rapidly moving from
instrumental development to a variety of high-profile
applications in nanotriboloy and surface modifications.
New methods have been developed for the construction
of nanowire circuitry, nanowelding and accurate nano-
scale electrical testing. Developments in tomography
and 3D reconstruction are continuing with applications
in nanocomposites and nanoparticles, and now also
include a new area of “tomographic nanofabrication” in
which 3D-fabrication and 3D-characterisation are com-
bined. SEM nanomanipulation, energy filtered SEM, and
the new technique of He-ion beam microscopy are also
further major research topics.

The NanoLAB Centre webpage, with up-to-date informa-
tion on activities and publications can be found at www., while the Basic Technology Programme
has its homepage at

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                       29
Research in Progress 2010

5.8 The Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL)
The Immobilisation Science Laboratory, ISL, estab-               £269k to support three CASE awards
lished in August 2001, is one of four University Research        led by Neil Hyatt and Karl Travis.
Alliances (URA’s) set-up by BNFL to address the decline
in the UK nuclear science knowledge base. ISL Research           Other selected highlights from 2009-10 include:
is focussed on radioactive waste processing, immo-
bilisation and disposal, and materials for the nuclear            • A new collaboration with CEA (France), ITU
renaissance. ISL academic staff include Director Neil               (Germany), KTH (Sweden), CNRS (France), to
Hyatt (nuclear materials chemistry), John Harding                   develop a thermodynamic database for advanced
(materials simulation), Russell Hand (vitrification and             nuclear fuels, led by Hajime Kinoshita.
glass research), Michael Ojovan (waste immobilisa-                • A new collaboration with Bruce Ravel at the
tion), Karl Travis (materials modelling), Günter Möbus             National Synchrotron Light Source, to develop XAS
(electron microscopy), and Hajime Kinoshita (materi-                methods applied to radiation damaged materials,
als chemistry). ISL activity is supported by several visit-         led by Neil Hyatt.
ing and associate academics, including Neil Chapman               • Award of an RWMD travel grant to PhD student
from Nagra in Switzerland (Chair of the ITC School of               Daniel Reid, to speak on “Synthesis, Structure
Underground Waste Storage and Disposal); Fergus                     and HREM of Model Ceramics for Plutonium
Gibb (deep geological disposal); and Ewan Maddrell                  Disposition” at MS&T 09 in Pittsburgh, PA.
from the National Nuclear Laboratory.                             • Award of The University of Sheffield’s Foster Research
                                                                    Prize in Glass Technology to Andrew Connelly for his
The ISL research training platform enjoyed strong                   thesis project on nuclear waste glasses.
growth in 2009-10, most notably as a key player in win-           • Election of Neil Hyatt to Chair of the International
ning two flagship Centres for Doctoral Training. Dr                 Scientific Advisory Committee for the MRS
Neil Hyatt led the ISL in securing £7.1M from EPSRC to              Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear
establish the Nuclear FiRST Doctoral Training Centre,               Waste Management.
as a national platform for nuclear skills training, in col-
laboration with Prof. Francis Livens at the University of        Hinkley Point ‘A’ Power Station (HPA) in Somerset was
Manchester. Furthermore, a partnership of six research           a twin reactor Magnox nuclear power station com-
groups, including the ISL, secured successful renewal            missioned in 1965. The power plant was permanently
of the Nuclear Engineering Industrial Doctorate Centre,          shut down in 2000 and the nuclear fuel was removed
led by The University of Manchester, supported by the            by the end of 2004. The site is now in the process of
award of £5.1 from EPSRC.                                        being decommissioned. Wet Intermediate Level Waste
                                                                 (Wet ILW) was generated during operation of HPA and
In recognition of the national importance of ISL capabil-        essentially occurs in three forms: ion exchange resins,
ity and expertise, a new Research Chair in Radioactive           sludges and sand. Following a review of process options,
Waste Management was established in 2010 with invest-            immobilsation of this wet ILW by vitrification has been
ment of >£1M from the Nuclear Decommissioning                    identified as a potential process. Drs Paul Bingham,
Authority, Royal Academy of Engineering, and The                 Neil Hyatt and Russell Hand of the ISL are working with
University of Sheffield. This prestigious appointment is         Magnox South Ltd, the site license company tasked with
the first of its kind to be supported by the NDA and con-        the cleanup of HPA Site, to develop a range of glass for-
solidates ISL’s position as a world leader in radioactive        mulations that are suitable for vitrification of the Wet
waste management.                                                ILW envelope arising from decommissioning of the HPA
                                                                 Site. This high-profile project is amongst the first seri-
Significant EPSRC research awards in 2009-10, included:                                                ous efforts in the UK
£333k to John Harding and Karl Travis, as part of a                                                    to vitrify ILW. It has
£750k programme of research aimed at understand-                                                       therefore generated
ing the chemistry of ceramic materials under irradia-                                                  considerable interest
tion; £567k to Neil Hyatt as part of the £4.3M DIAMOND                                                 from the wider nuclear
University research consortium, to investigate glass                                                   industry. Project
and ceramic wasteform performance; £80k to Michael                                                     Engineering Lead, Dr
Ojovan, Günter Möbus and Karl Travis for detection of                                                  Steve Kenney from
radiation-induced nanoscale stress wave emission in                                                    Magnox South com-
crystalline wasteforms using acoustic emission; and                                                    mented “Innovation by
                                                                                                       the Magnox South – ISL
                                                                                                       partnership is leading
                                                                 Figure 5.8.2: Hinkley Point ‘A’ Power the way for safe immo-
                                                                 Station in Somerset, courtesy of      bilisation of legacy
                                                                 Magnox Electric.                      wastes at Hinkley Point.

                                                                 Further information regarding the ISL is available from
Figure 5.8.1: Laser melting technique applied at Institute for   Mrs. Karen Burton or by vis-
Transuranium elements (ITU), Karlsruhe to investigate the        iting the ISL website
U-C phase diagram.

30                                                                            Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                         Research in Progress 2010

5.9 The Polymer Centre
The Polymer Centre of the University of Sheffield           The former Polymer centre man-
brings together over 40 academic staff, 50 postdoctoral     ager, Dr Malcolm Butler has recently
research fellows and approximately 100 postgraduate         taken the roll of Director of Faculty
research students across the Faculties of Engineering,      Operations in Engineering and was
Science and Medicine, Dentistry and Health. Established     succeeded by Dr Liam Sutton. Liam now combines this
in 2001, it provides an interdisciplinary opportunity for   role with the Management of the nascent “Sheffield
collaboration in the field of polymeric materials. The      Science Gateway”, a Knowledge Transfer initiative based
Centre has its origins in the long and distinguished        on the “Sheffield Engineering Gateway” model.
research and teaching in the Department of Engineering
Materials (dating from 1963), the appointments of Prof      Collaboration with colleagues in Leeds, Bradford and
Tony Ryan (Chemistry), Prof Richard Jones (Physics)         Durham has continued in the form of the Polymer IRC
and the transfer of the Polymer Group led by Prof John      and continues to be a focus for polymer research across
Ebdon from the University of Lancaster.                     the 4 universities. The IRC in Polymers/Polymer Centre
                                                            held its most recent showcase meeting at the English
The Centre’s business development team tailor technol-      institute of Sport in Sheffield in September 2009. The
ogy and training opportunities for industry: short-term     sports theme resulted in presentations ranging from
consultancy; short- to medium-term contract R&D             Composites in Formula One Motorsports to Tissue
(through spin-out FaraPack Polymers); longer term           Engineering for Cartilage Repair.
research projects carried out as PhD or postdoctoral
projects; and IOM3-accredited CPD courses. The team         The Polymer IRC series of annual short courses in poly-
have maintained their “Customer First” accreditation        mers continued this year. Prof F R Jones with Prof C
since 2006, a quality assurance standard for Business       Soutis made their usual excellent contributions to the
Support.                                                    1-day course on Composites and Multiphase Materials
                                                            and a new module in Organic Electronics was intro-
The current Director of the Sheffield Polymer Centre is     duced, presented by Polymer Centre colleagues from
Prof Steve Armes (Chemistry). The Steering Group con-       Physics and Chemistry.
sists of Profs Richard Jones (Physics and Astronomy),
Peter Styring (Chemical and Process Engineering) and        For further details, please visit the website www.
Paul Hatton (School of Dentistry) and Drs Alma Hodzic where a number of animations
(Mechanical Engineering), Xiangbing Zeng (Engineering       illustrating the interdisciplinary work of the centre are
Materials) Simon Jones (Chemistry) and Mark                 given.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                      31
Research in Progress 2010

5.10 E-Futures: Doctoral Training Centre in Interdisciplinary Energy Research
Background                                                  Progress to Date

In December 2008, the University of Sheffield, led by       In its first year, E-Futures has been highly successful in
Prof. Tony West, was successful in a bid to attract £7.3M   attracting skilled and highly motivated graduates. The
funding from ESPRC for E-Futures, a Doctoral Training       first cohort of 21 students contains scientists, engineers
Centre (DTC) in Interdisciplinary Energy Research. The      and social scientists, all of whom have either a First
collaborative grant draws together world-class research     Class or Upper Second Class honours degree.
within 16 academic departments, across the three facul-
ties of Engineering, Pure Science and Social Science.       As part of efforts to interact with industry, an open day
                                                            in October 2009 attracted over 50 industry delegates
Aims                                                        and a call for two-month mini-projects shortly after-
                                                            wards resulted in over 40 industrial projects. Fourteen
E-Future brings together diverse areas of expertise to      students will undertake mini-projects for ten organisa-
train engineers and scientists with the skills, knowl-      tions. It is expected that some of these mini-projects
edge and confidence to tackle today's evolving issues       will lead to sponsored PhDs.
regarding energy generation, management and supply.
E-Futures also represents a new working culture, fos-
tering relationships between teams in universities and
forging lasting links with industry and other external

Over the 8 years of funding, 100 students will receive
a formal programme of taught coursework to develop
and enhance their technical interdisciplinary knowledge,
and broaden their set of skills. Alongside this they will
undertake a challenging and original research project at
PhD level.

Departmental Contribution

The Department of Engineering Materials has contrib-
uted a refurbished laboratory (M7) where students are
co-located in their first year. A number of materials-
related lectures have been delivered by staff and a new
module on ‘Materials for Energy Applications’ has been
developed for E-Futures and for the wider student body.

                                                            Figure 5.10.1: Student visit to Advanced Manufacturing Park.

32                                                                       Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                             Research in Progress 2010

5.11 Advanced Metallic Systems Centre for Doctoral Training
The Advanced Metallic Systems Centre for Doctoral             In the first year students develop
Training was established in 2009 with a £6.3M grant           a core understanding of materials
from the EPSRC as one of 45 new centres providing             topics through MSc-level courses,
research training across science and engineering. The         case studies, projects and indus-
CDT is jointly hosted by the Department of Engineering        trial visits. After nine months students are able to make
Materials at Sheffield and the School of Materials at         an informed choice of PhD topic and develop a PhD
Manchester building on our complementary expertise in         project proposal with CDT staff members. This then
metallic materials and state of the art facilities.           forms the basis of their doctoral thesis project over the
                                                              next 3 years. The majority of projects are carried out
The Metallics CDT aims:                                       in collaboration with industry to ensure relevance and
                                                              enhanced training.
  •	 To provide a stimulating multidisciplinary training
     experience.                                              In parallel to the technical programme, students under-
  •	 To teach topical courses that balance cutting edge       take a range of other activities including transferable
     technologies with fundamental principles and core        skills training, public engagement projects, international
     concepts.                                                summer schools and conferences and the CDT seminar
  •	 To develop professional transferable skills in lead-     series. This leads to a Diploma in Professional Skills over
     ership, business and research management.                the course of the four year programme.
  •	 To foster innovative, internationally leading
  •	 To work in partnership with industry to provide
     industrial experience and maintain relevance.

A PhD with a Difference

Our students come from a range of science and engi-
neering backgrounds. The 2009 cohort includes chem-
ists, physicists and mechanical and civil engineers, as
well as some students returning to university after time
spent in industry.

                                                              Figure 5.11.2: Peter and Andrew try their hand at sand casting.

Figure 5.11.1: 2009 Metallics CDT cohort at a visit to TWI.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                         33
Research in Progress 2010

5.12 Nuclear FiRST Doctoral Training Centre
The DTC for Nuclear Fission Research, Science and            Our first event was a team building
Technology (Nuclear FiRST) was established in January        activity, during orientation week in
2009, with a £7.1M investment from the Engineering and       September 2009, in which both staff
Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). The DTC          and students successfully navigated the
is led by Dr Neil Hyatt in the Department of Engineering     tree top adventure course at Go Ape in
Materials at The University of Sheffield and Prof. Francis   Buxton (below). Following 12 weeks of
Livens at the School of Chemistry at The University of       intensive problem based learning activi-
Manchester. The DTC is supported by over 20 industrial       ties, students were examined by viva
and international research organisations.                    voce examination in December. Our first
                                                             DTC Winter School, held in the Barcelo
Nuclear FiRST aims to underpin UK Energy and Defence         Palace Hotel in Buxton, was a great success, with special
strategy by addressing a growing doctoral skills gap in      guest lectures given by Prof. Nik Kaltsoyannis (UCL, UK),
nuclear science and engineering. We offer an exciting        Prof. Melissa Denecke (INE Karlsruhe) and Prof. Gerry
and interdisciplinary approach to postgraduate research      Lander (ILL, France). The DTC cohort and staff also
training combining a three year Doctoral level thesis        worked with designer Zoe Papadopoulou, to create an
project with a foundation year to develop research skills    interactive exhibit for the EPSRC sponsored IMPACT!
and a broad knowledge of nuclear science and engi-           exhibition at the Royal College of Art between 16 and
neering. This is supplemented by training in professional    21 March 2010. Using knowledge drawn from the DTC
skills and project placements in industry, research insti-   programme, the exhibit aims to stimulate thinking of
tutes and public bodies in the UK and overseas.              how nuclear technology could boost economic growth,
                                                             reduce CO2 emissions, and enhance the environment of
Our 2009 cohort is drawn from a range of physical sci-       host communities. The table display features a Vaseline
ence and engineering backgrounds, including: earth           glass cake stand, upon which is served a selection of
and environmental science, physics, chemistry, and           yellow cakes, which are naturally radioactive as a conse-
mechanical, chemical and civil engineering. Competition      quence of the high content of K-40.
for entry to the DTC was extremely strong with over 50
applications for the 10 places available.

                                                             Figure 5.12.2: the DTC Nuclear Dialogues exhibit
                                                             shown at the Royal Academy of Art, March 2009.
Figure 5.12.1: Cohort 2009 at the first DTC
team building event.

34                                                                        Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                        Research in Progress 2010

6. Research Highlights
6.1 Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
“Dip and Dry” Anti-inflammatory Biomaterial                 tide attached to different linking tethers (poly(ethylene
Coatings, Mirren Charnley, Kathryn Fairfull-Smith,          glycol), PEG 350, octanoic acid or cholesterol) for
Saubhik Haldar, Richard Elliott, Sally L. McArthur,         the ability to inhibit inflammatory signalling. Findings
Nicholas H. Williams & John W. Haycock.                     showed that a glycine-lysine-proline-D-valine sequence
                                                            inhibited inflammatory signalling most effectively when
There is an increase in the use of implantable medi-        attached to a PEG 350 tether. The second stage com-
cal devices for the repair of soft and hard tissue in the   prised of synthesising the MSH peptide attached to
developed world. However many of these devices can          resorcinarene groups via a PEG tether and immobilising
initiate an acute inflammatory response, triggered by       it onto glass coverslips. X-ray photoelectron spectrosco-
both the initial injury and by the presence of biomate-     py (XPS) indicated the presence of a surface attached
rial itself. Acute inflammation has been associated with    peptide. The ability of the immobilised peptide to inhibit
implant degradation and “stress cracking”, which can        inflammatory signalling was then determined by cultur-
lead to failure of the device, such as restenosis after     ing RN22 Schwann neuronal cells and human dermal
stent implantation or failure of electronic devices such    fibroblast cells on functional surfaces and measuring
as pacemakers[3] and defibrillators. The aim of the         an NF-kB/p65 inflammatory transcription factor activa-
present work conducted between John Haycock’s group         tion. Significant inhibition of inflammatory signalling
and Nick Williams in Chemistry was to immobilise short      was observed in cells cultured on functional surfaces. In
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) anti-inflam-           conclusion, this work supports the development of new
matory peptide sequences onto a model surface using         approaches enabling the rapid immobilisation of short
resorcinarenes, which are known to attach to a wide         biologically active peptides, with the potential for gen-
variety of hydrophilic materials. The first stage com-      erating a 'dip and dry' approach for altering the surface
prised the biological evaluation of a synthetic MSH pep-    properties of biomaterial and medical devices [72].

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                 35
Research in Progress 2010

6.2 Ceramics
The influence of octahedral tilting on the micro-             room temperature is ~ 4 o for BLN and ~ 9 o for SLN.
wave dielectric properties of A3LaNb3O12 hexago-              The presence of an octahedral tilt transition (Ttilt) at
nal perovskites (A=Ba, Sr)' Ritesh Rawal, Andrew J.           465 K in BLN from R3 to R3m has been discovered from
McQueen, Lisa J. Gillie, Neil C. Hyatt, Emma E. McCabe,       a combination of high temperature ND data and fixed
Antonio Feteira, Ian M. Reaney and Derek C. Sinclair.         frequency permittivity measurements, Figure 6.2.2. Ttilt
                                                              is estimated to be much higher at ~ 720 K for SLN. The
The constant demand for miniaturisation of electronic         large difference in the RT temperature coefficient of
circuitry in applications such as mobile telecommunica-       the resonant frequency (tf), -100 ppm/K for BLN com-
tions has led to the development of ‘high relative per-       pared to -5 ppm/K for SLN, is attributed to the closer
mittivity’ (er) ceramics (er > 30) for microwave dielectric
resonators and filters. These materials are required to
have high permittivity, low dielectric losses and exhibit
negligible temperature variation of the resonant fre-
quency (tf ~ 0 ppm/K). 	tf is related to the temperature
dependence of the permittivity (te) and the linear ther-
mal expansion coefficient of the material (aL), by the
equation tf = -1/2[te	+	aL)].	To date, most microwave
dielectric ceramics are predominantly based on 3C-type
ABO3 perovskites, such as Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 (er ~ 30), with
crystal structures based exclusively on cubic close pack-     Figure 6.2.2: Relative permittivity at 1 MHz vs temperature for
ing (ccp) of AO3 layers. Recently, we have been inves-        (a) Ba3LaNb3O12 and (b) Sr3LaNb3O12.
tigating the potential of hexagonal perovskites such as
A4B3O12 as alternative dielectric materials.                  proximity of Ttilt to RT for BLN. 	tf in these 12R-type hex-
                                                              agonal perovskites can therefore be tuned by controlling
                                                              the tolerance factor (e.g the size of A-site cation) and
                                                              therefore Ttilt in a manner similar to that used for many
                                                              Ba- and Sr-based 3C-type ABO3 perovskites. This is the
                                                              first report in the literature [182] of the influence of an
                                                              octahedral tilt transition on the dielectric properties of
                                                              hexagonal perovskites.

                                                              The origin(s) of the giant permittivity effect in
                                                              CaCu3Ti4O12, Matthew Ferrarelli, Ming Li, Derek C
                                                              Sinclair and Anthony R West.

                                                              The cubic perovskite-related material CaCu3Ti4O12
                                                              (CCTO) is one member of a family of AA’3Ti4O12 phases
                                                              with the cubic Im3 structure. In CCTO, the three dimen-
                                                              sional TiO6 corner sharing octahedral framework is
                                                              substantially tilted (a+a+a+, Glazer notation) to accom-
                                                              modate the size difference of the Ca2+ and Cu2+ ions
                                                              which are ordered on the A- and A’-sites in a ratio
                                                              of 1:3, respectively, see inset in Figure 6.2.3. The Ca2+
Figure 6.2.1: (a) Schematic representation of the 12R-type    ions occupy a body centred arrangement in a doubled
A4B3O12 structure viewed along the close packing direction,   perovskite-type cubic cell, whereas the Cu2+ ions are
projection along the c-axis showing the tilting of the NbO6   located on the face and edge centres of the cell. Due
octahedra from one octahedral sheet to the next for (b)       to its unusual perovskite-related structure, the electri-
Ba3LaNb3O12 and (c) Sr3LaNb3O12.                              cal properties of CCTO single crystals, thin films and
                                                              ceramics have attracted considerable attention in
The crystal structure of 12R-type A4B3O12 perovskites         recent years. In each case, the effective permittivity, eeff,
can be described as consisting of ccp perovskite blocks,      (where eeff = C/eo where C is the measured capacitance
three corner-sharing octahedra thick, separated by lay-       at radio frequencies corrected for sample geometry
ers of vacant octahedra; successive blocks are shifted        and eo is the permittivity of free space) near room tem-
by a ⅓ <01-10>H vector, Figure 6.2.1 (a). The space group     perature (RT) has been reported to exceed 10,000 and
adopted is either R3m if the octahedra are untilted           to exhibit little temperature dependence in the range ~
(Glazer notation, a0a0a0) or R3 if octahedral tilting is      150 – 400 K, Figure 6.2.3. This has made CCTO a poten-
present. In this case, the tilt system of the ccp blocks      tial candidate for capacitor-based applications. It is now
can be described as a-a-a-. Rietveld refinement of room       generally accepted that the intrinsic (or relative) per-
temperature (RT) Neutron Diffraction (ND) data reveals        mittivity (er) of CCTO is ~ 100 and therefore the giant
12R-type hexagonal perovskites Ba3LaNb3O12 (BLN) and          eeff is an extrinsic effect; however, much debate remains
Sr3LaNb3O12 (SLN) to adopt space group R3 with tilted         about the mechanism(s) responsible for this phenom-
NbO6 octahedra, Figures 1 (b) and (c). The tilt angle at      enon. In particular, it is unclear whether the high eeff

36                                                                         Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                             Research in Progress 2010
arises from the same polarisation mechanism(s) in each      of a particular component (or region) as it is geometry-
case or whether different mechanisms dominate the           independent; this makes it particularly useful when
various forms of CCTO.                                      comparing data collected on samples of different physi-
                                                            cal forms, eg single crystals, thin and thick films and
                                                            ceramics with various ceramic microstructures. From
                                                            our IS results the magnitude and temperature depend-
                                                            ence of t	 associated with the giant permittivity effect
                                                            (t2) are different for the single crystal compared to the
                                                            ceramic, Figure 6.2.4. This demonstrates the origin of

Figure 6.2.3: Typical permittivity versus
temperature profile for CCTO single crys-
tals with Au metal electrodes. Inset shows
the crystal structure of CCTO. Green
octahedra are TiO6 units, red, blue and
black spheres represent Oxygen, Calcium
and Copper atoms, respectively.

We have undertaken an Impedance Spectroscopy (IS)
study of CCTO single crystals to complement our previ-
ous studies on CCTO ceramics in an attempt to resolve       Figure 6.2.4: Arrhenius-type plot of t2 for single crystal (filled
this issue [95]. IS is a useful technique to characterise   symbols) and ceramic (open symbols) CCTO.
electrically heterogeneous materials and can, in many
circumstances, be used to identify and separate intrin-     the giant eff for CCTO single crystals and ceramics to be
sic (eg. bulk) and extrinsic (eg, grain boundary, non-      different. In the case of single crystals it is associated
ohmic electrode contact) effects. A particular useful but   with a non-ohmic electrode contact to the semicon-
often under-utilized parameter in the analysis of IS data   ducting CCTO crystals, whereas in ceramics it is associ-
is the time constant or relaxation time, t. This param-     ated with a resistive grain boundary effect (to produce
eter depends only on the permittivity and conductivity      a so-called Internal Barrier Layer Capacitor, IBLC).

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                           37
Research in Progress 2010

6.3 Glasses, Cements and Waste Immobilisation
A compendium of viscosity models was given includ-              Table 6.3.1: Viscosity and bond geometries of amorphous
ing recent data on viscous flow model based on net-             materials.
work defects in which thermodynamic parameters of
configurons - elementary excitations resulting from             Temperature T < Tg                     T > Tg
broken bonds - were found from viscosity-temperature            State           Solid (glassy)         Liquid (melt)
relationships (Figure 6.3.1) [M.I. Ojovan. Viscosity and
                                                                Hausdorff       D=3                    D=2.55±0.05
Glass Transition in Amorphous Oxides, Advances in
Condensed Matter Physics, 2008, Article ID 817829, 23
                                                                of bonds
pages (2008)].
                                                                Viscosity       Continuous decreasing function
                                                                                of temperature
                                                                                Activation energy      Activation energy
                                                                                high                   low

                                                                It was concluded that transitions in disordered media
                                                                from glassy to liquid states are universal and reflect
                                                                changes in the bonding system. Because of that the con-
                                                                figuron model of glass transition can be used to provide
                                                                insights on embrittlement of materials composed of
                                                                microcrystalls at low temperatures as well as on such
                                                                natural phenomena as quick sand formation. In all such
                                                                cases formation of additional bonds between elemen-
                                                                tary particles which constitute the material e.g. microc-
                                                                rystals or sand grains leads to their solid-like behaviour
Figure 6.3.1: Temperature behaviour of viscosity of amorphous   at lower temperatures or denser packing.

The viscosity is a continuous function of temperature
whereas the glass-liquid transition is accompanied by
explicit discontinuities in the derivative parameters such
as the specific heat or thermal expansion coefficient.
Glass-liquid transition phenomena were described
including the configuron model of glass transition
which shows a reduction of Hausdorff dimension of
bonds at glass-liquid transition (Table 6.3.1) [M.I. Ojovan.
Configurons: thermodynamic parameters and symmetry
changes at glass transition. Entropy, 10, 334-364 (2008)].

38                                                                          Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                                      Research in Progress 2010

6.4 Magnetics
Organic Spintronics, N A Morley and M R J Gibbs.                      Thin Magnetostrictive Films, N A Morley and M R J Gibbs.

Organic spintronics is an exciting new research area,                 Thin magnetostrictive films are of great interest for
which studies the spin transport within organic semi-                 use in Magnetic Microelectrical Mechanical systems
conductors. There are two different types of organic                  (MagMEMS) such as sensors and actuators. The on-
semiconductor, small molecules (e.g. tris 8-hydroxyqui-               going research has studied two different highly magne-
noline aluminium (Alq3)) and polymers (e.g poly(3-hexyl               tostrictive thin films: FeCo [6.4.5] and FeGa [6.4.7-9].
thiophene) (P3HT)), both of which have been studied                   The magnetostriction constant along the <100> direction
in spintronic devices. The basic spintronic device is the             in single crystals of Fe1-xGax increases with Ga concen-
spin-valve, which consists of two different magnetic                  tration, with the peak magnetostriction constant of
electrodes, with a non-magnetic transporting layer                    230ppm occurring at x=19. For further increases in Ga,
between them. A current is applied to the bottom mag-                 the magnetostriction constant decreases due to the
netic electrode, which injects spin carriers into the                 appearance of the D03 phase.
non-magnetic layer, which are then extracted by the top
magnetic electrode. The magnitude of the resistance                   For the FeGa films, a specially commissioned deposition
across the device depends on the direction of the elec-               system from Kurt J Leskers, was purchased [6.4.7]. The
trode’s magnetisation. This difference in resistance as a             deposition system consists of a dc magnetron to sputter
function of magnetic field is known as the magnetore-                 the Fe and a high temperature evaporator to evaporate
sistance (MR) (Figure 6.4.1).                                         the Ga. This gives good control of the composition of
                                                                      the FeGa films. It was found that all the films fabri-
                                                                      cated had (110) texture out of plane, with the thicker
                                                                      films having columnar growth. In collaboration with Dr
                                                                      Tad Szumiata (Radom University, Poland), conversion
                                                                      Mossbauer spectroscopy (CMOS) measurements were
                                                                      made to determine that none of the films contained any
                                                                      D03 structure. It was found that the magnetostriction
                                                                      constant depended on the fabrication parameters, i.e.
                                                                      magnetron power, chamber pressure and Ga rate and
                                                                      seemed to be independent of the calculated magneto-
                                                                      striction constants from the bulk single crystal values.

Figure 6.4.1: MR of the 80 nm RR-P3HT device prepared with
xylene as solvent. Arrows represent the direction of each electrode
magnetization. Inset: I-V characteristics of the device.

In collaboration with Dr Martin Grell (Dept. Of Physics,
University of Sheffield), spin-valves containing the poly-
mers RR-P3HT and RRa-P3HT were studied [6.4.1]. It
was found that the interface played a big role in the
injection and extraction of the spin carriers to and
from the polymer [6.4.2]. It was also found that the
solvent used to spin coat the polymer onto the bottom
electrode affected the magnitude of the MR of the spin-               Figure 6.4.2: Effective saturation magnetostriction constant
valve. The largest MRs measured at 300K, were for the                 (λeff) as a function of Ga composition for Fe100-xGax thin films
P3HT layers which were spin-coated with solvents with                 varying RGa (△), varying PFe, (●), varying pAr. (▲). The plotted
boiling points higher than 150K, as it allowed the P3HT               lines are calculated saturation magnetostriction for isotropic
to form a crystalline layer [6.4.3]. In collaboration with            (solid) or textured (dashed) films.
Dr Alan Drew and Dr Bill Gillin (Queen Mary, University
of London), the spin transport in Alq3 spin-valves has                References:
been studied, using low energy muons [6.4.4,5]. This                  [6.4.1] N A Morley, A Rao, D Dhandapani et al., Journal of
involved using the muons to measure the spin diffusion                Applied Physics 103, 07F306 (2008).
length within the Alq3. It was also found that the MR of              [6.4.2] D Dhandapani, A Rao, N A Morley et al., IEEE Trans.
the devices depended on the additional layers added at                Mag. 44 (11), 2670 (2008).
the interfaces between the magnetic electrode and the                 [6.4.3] D Dhandapani, A Rao, N A Morley et al., Journal of
Alq3 layer.                                                           Applied Physics 105, 07C702 (2009).
                                                                      [6.4.4] A J Drew, F L Pratt, J Hoppler et al., Physical
                                                                      Review Letters 100, 116601 (2008).

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                                  39
Research in Progress 2010
[6.4.5] A J Drew, J Hoppler, L Schultz et al., Nature             devices. The vortex frequency can be controlled by an
Materials 8, 109 (2008).                                          applied current, an applied field and the geometry of
[6.4.6] N A Morley, S Rigby, and M R J Gibbs, Journal             the structure, see Figure 6.4.3. These experimental and
of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials 1 (2), 109              theoretical findings were published in Physical Review
(2009).                                                           Letters 100, 257201, 2008. Such magnetic oscillators can
[6.4.7] N A Morley, S-L Yeh, S Rigby et al., Journal of           be used to replace conventional RF oscillators used in
Vacuum Science and Technology A 20 (4), 581 (2008).               today’s telecommunication.
[6.4.8] A Javed, N A Morley, and M R J Gibbs, Journal
of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 321 (18), 2877                Global geometry optimization for magnetic record-
(2008).                                                           ing heads, Thomas Schrefl.
[6.4.9] N A Morley, A Javed, and M R J Gibbs, Journal of
Applied Physics 105, 07A912 (2009).                               Geometrical optimization is an important tool for the
                                                                  optimization of magnetic devices. Its main purpose
Magnetic Spin torque driven devices, G Hrkac.                     is to concentrate the magnetic field in a well defined
                                                                  area, whereby a sharp field gradient shall separate the
Gino Hrkac investigates Spin Transfer Effects in                  region of high field from the rest. One way to achieve
Magnetic Nanometre Scale Devices in an active field               geometric optimization is to combine finite element
with applications in direct current driven nanometre              micromagnetic simulation with general purpose optimi-
microwave oscillators and high density, low power                 zation software. In this work Thomas Schrefl combined
magnetic random access memory. The spin angular                   the micromagnetics method with a global optimization
momentum of electrons interacts with a spin polarized             method based on a response surface model for the
current, exerting a torque on a ferromagnet within the            optimization of the pole tip shape of single pole write
device. Gino Hrkac designs and models spin torque in              heads. Within the framework of this method at each
nano scale microwave generated oscillators as part of             iteration step a response surface model of the objec-
his Royal Society Research grants and his collaboration           tive function, the product of write field with the field
with Thomas Schrefl (advanced numerical methods).                 gradient, is constructed in the current search region.
He combines basic electromagnetic theory with finite              The surface model is used to find the next best trial
element and boundary element methods to simulate                  step. For the current optimal point the true objective
realistic nano pillars and point contact devices with             function is evaluated and the result of the computation
experimental samples that are provided by SIngulus,               is used to refine the response surface. This optimiza-
fabricated at IMEC (Liesbet Lagae) and measured at                tion techniques works for non-differential as well as for
CNRS Paris Claude Chapperts group. The nano pillar                stochastic objective functions. By creating a hierarchical
point contact device and the magnetic tunnel junction             decomposition of the parameter space, the global mini-
consist of three layers: a magnetic free layer, a metallic        mum can be found. The pole tip shape and write gap
layer and a magnetic fixed layer. By applying a current           strongly influence the characteristics of the write field.
through a point contact which is on top of the free layer         Optimization is necessary, in order to design writers for
a polarized current exerts a torque on the magnetiza-             magnetic recording at densities beyond 6 Tbit/in2. Using
tion in the free layer and leads to steady state high             a head that is perfectly adjusted to the switching prop-
frequency precession. Changing the current through                erties of the media may help to push recording towards
the point contact or lead in case of the magnetic tun-            higher densities without the need of energy assist tech-
nel junction can vary the frequency. Furthermore it is            nology. In this work he focused at writer designs for
possible to form and excite a vortex in such nano pillar          exchange spring or composite media. Here the optimal
                                                                  write field angle is in about 20 degrees. In order to opti-
                                                                  mize the pole tip region of the writer. The free param-
                                                                  eters for the optimization are trailing angle, the distance
                                                                  between the pole tip and the trailing shield, the side
                                                                  angle, and the shield thickness. This work was presented
                                                                  as an invited talk at the latest The Magnetic Recording
                                                                  Conference TMRC in Tuscaloosa, Alabama 2009. He also
                                                                  has filed a patent (US-Patent Application: 07/27/2009
                                                                  "Magnetic Storage Device", Serial Number 12/509,540).

Figure 6.4.3: (left) (a) SEM and (b) AFM image of point con-
tact. (c) Low frequency power spectra measured at H = 0.21
T for several applied currents. The field and film geometry is
shown in the inset of (c). (right) (a) Color map of experimen-
tal power spectral density (PSD) as a function of current for
H = 350 mT. Solid squares represent results of micromagnet-
ics simulations. (b) Top view of vortex magnetisation probe
obtained from simulation. (c) In-plane component of mag-
netisation represented in a graylevel (black for my = +1, white   Figure 6.4.4: Finite element mesh of the pole tip region and
for my = -1) for the entire simulation area. Also shown are the   objective function as function of the number of field evalua-
contact and the vortex orbit.                                     tions during global optimization of the geometry.

40                                                                             Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                              Research in Progress 2010
Anti-ferromagnetic domains in metallic thin films,               Tensor Grids for Fast Field Computation for
Thomas Schrefl and Julian Dean.                                  Magnetic Writer Design, Thomas Schrefl and
                                                                 Alexander Goncharov.
Julian Dean a Postdoctoral researcher with Prof Thomas
Schrefl developed in this project a quantitative method-         Alexander Goncharov is a Postdoctoral researcher with
ology for indirect mapping of anti-ferromagnetic (AF)            Prof Thomas Schrefl has developed a new framework
domains at the nanometer scale in metallic thin films            for large-scale micromagnetic simulations, where tra-
used for spin electronic devices. The methodology is             ditionally used methods for fast field evaluations (FFT,
based on the development of micromagnetic simula-                FMM, H-matrices) become infeasible is developed. In
tions for AF thin films exchanged biased to an amor-             the new method the Kronecker product approximation
phous ferromagnetic layer using a new surface integral           of the pointfunction demagnetizing tensor is used. The
technique. The development of the algorithm was possi-           clear advantage of this technique can be seen as fol-
ble due to links with experimental input and comparison          lows. If in large-scale three-dimensional simulations one
with micromagnetic and structural data from Lorentz              space dimension is discretized by N cells, then a total
and analytical TEM, respectively provided by Amit Kohn           number of cells is N3. Standard algorithms will scale
at Oxford University. Fingerprint micromagnetic stud-            with a total number of cells squared giving N6 for the
ies have been created, including their temporal tem-             full N3 x N3 matrix. The Kronecker approximation allows
perature evolution with applied magnetic field. This has         us to store only O(N2) entries, which is less than the
allowed the correlation between microstructure and               order of the original matrix. The advantage of this type
micromagnetic properties to observed experimentally              of approximation compared to other techniques is its
phenomena, most notably the importance of grain thick-           superlinear compression property.
ness, interlayer exchange and intergranular importance
on exchange bias, training effects and 360° domain               Kronecker product approximation can be applied to
wall formation. This work will be published in Applied           complex geometries such as magnetic recording head
Physics Letters and Physical Review B and was pre-               by using a hierarchical tensor structure or by wrapping
sented at the latest Joint Intermag/MMM conference in            the whole geometry into the cartesian grid. Hierarchical
Washington DC.                                                   tensor can be seen as a hierarchical matrix on a tensor
                                                                 product grid where each matrix block represented in
                                                                 a tensor form, but admissible blocks are stored in the
                                                                 Kronecker format. This new technique allows to reduce
                                                                 the memory usage for numerical calculations from
                                                                 GBits down to MBits or even Kbits. Meaning that simula-
                                                                 tions that are normally done on computer clusters can
                                                                 be done on stand-alone machines. This new method
                                                                 was presented by Alexander Goncharov as an invited
                                                                 talk at the latest Joint Intermag/MMM conference in
                                                                 Washington DC.

                                                                 Calcite crystallization on self-assembled monolayers,
                                                                 Colin Freeman, John Harding (Sheffield) David Quigley,
                                                                 Mark Rodger (Warwick), Dorothy Duffy (UCL).

                                                                 We show that recent developments in the ability of
                                                                 simulation methods to study long timescale processes
                                                                 (metadynamics) permit the direct simulation of crystal-
                                                                 lization. This makes it possible to predict the orientation
                                                                 of crystals grown on self-assembled monolayers. In con-
                                                                 trast to previous studies, the method allows for dynamic
                                                                 treatment of the organic component and the inclusion
                                                                 of explicit surface water without the need for computa-
                                                                 tionally intensive interfacial energy calculations or previ-
                                                                 ous knowledge of the interfacial structure. The method
                                                                 is applied to calcite crystallization on carboxylate termi-
Figure 6.4.5: Shows the simulated Fresnel image of a 360°        nated alkanethiols arrayed on Au (111). We demonstrate
domain wall formation as a function of field and waiting time.   that a dynamic treatment of the monolayer is suffi-
This highlights many features observed experimentally such
                                                                 cient to reproduce the experimental results of Joanna
as the magnetisation ripple, the width of the domain walls
and the shape and structure.                                     Aizenberg’s group (Harvard) without the need to impose
                                                                 epitaxial constraints on the system – compare the bot-
                                                                 tom left and top right configurations in the diagram. We
                                                                 also observe an odd-even effect in the variation of selec-
                                                                 tivity with organic chain length (top and bottom right),
                                                                 reproducing experimentally observed orientations in
                                                                 both cases. The analysis of the ordering process in our
                                                                 simulations suggests a cycle of mutual control in which

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                        41
Research in Progress 2010
both the organic and mineral components induce com-
plementary local order across the interface, leading to
the formation of a critical crystalline region. We can also
show the importance of solution chemistry, in particular
the effect of pH, in controlling the ionization of the mon-
olayer and thus the crystallisation behaviour.

Figure 6.4.6: Top left: starting configuration with amor-
phous CaCO3. Bottom left: Rigid template: crystals with
(00.1) orientation. Top right: Flexible template: crystals
with (01.2) orientation. Bottom right: Length of mol-
ecules in template changed by one CH2 unit but still
flexible: poor crystallisation with (11.6) orientation.

42                                                            Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                               Research in Progress 2010

6.5 Metallurgy
High-speed machining of titanium alloys, M Jackson,             analysis that slip has occurred along the basal plane; in
M Thomas and S Turner (AMRC).                                   both cases, the grains have a Schmid factor approach-
                                                                ing 0.5 for {0 0 0 2}[1 1 _2 0] basal slip. Additionally, slip
A traditional metallurgical approach has been applied           traces aligned with the {1 0 _1 1} crystallographic plane
to the high-speed machining of aero-structural titanium         can be observed in grain C, corresponding to the acti-
alloys. If component manufacturers are to meet the              vation of a secondary slip system, {1 0 _1 1}[1 1 _2 0]
supply demands of the aerospace industry, machin-               pyramidal slip, which has a Schmid factor of 0.46. For
ing at high speeds is a critical requirement. Traditional       more details with regard to deformation modes please
surface integrity practice applied by mechanical engi-          refer to Meurig Thomas, Sam Turner, Martin Jackson.
neers characterizes macroscopic features such as sur-           Microstructural damage during high-speed milling of
face tearing, chip smearing and general deformation             titanium alloys, Scripta Materialia 62 (2010) 250-253.
of grains in the direction of cutting. Until now, there
has been very little emphasis placed on the subsurface          As the near-surface micro-texture has a direct effect
microstructural response during high-speed machin-              on slip band characteristics in the alpha phase follow-
ing processes. Collaborative research between the               ing high-speed milling, a better understanding of the
Department of Engineering Materials and the Advanced            upstream thermomechanical processing of the near-
Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) determined                 surface micro-texture could potentially aid downstream
the microstructural damage arising during the high              machining operations. A combinatorial improvement
speed milling operation. High speed milling trials              in forging practices and milling tool parameters, via the
were performed at the AMRC on near-a alloy Ti-834.              development of through-process models by mechanical
Microstructural characterisation was performed at the           and metallurgical engineers at Sheffield will eventually
Department of Engineering Materials.                            permit much high production rates (>200 m min-1) of
                                                                aero-structural titanium components.
Figure 6.5.1 shows the effect of the high degree of sub-
surface plastic strain imparted on Ti-834, during milling
at a speed of 200 m per.min. The plastic strain is prin-
cipally accommodated by dislocation slip of the alpha
phase to sub-surface depths of 30 μm. The slip bands
(regions of intense dislocation density) can be observed
using scanning electron microscopy due to electron
channelling contrast. Such microstructural features are
concerning, as they have been reported to be crack ini-
tiation sites during fatigue loading.

                                                                Figure 6.5.2: Electron backscatter diffraction results of high
Figure 6.5.1: Backscattered electron micrographs showing        speed milled Ti-834 (200 m.min-1). The area analysed is imme-
deformation in the form of intense slip bands below the high-   diately below the machined surface and the machining coor-
speed milled surface in Ti-834.                                 dinates with reference to figure 6.5.2 are labelled. The data is
                                                                presented in the form of a crystal disorientation map refer-
From the disorientation map and corresponding stere-            enced against the grain average orientation in a) and a pat-
ographic projections in Figure 6.5.2, two observations          tern quality (band contrast) map of the region demarcated in
can be made. The first is that multiple slip systems            a) is given in b).
are activated during milling; the second is that there is
variation in slip intensity, including slip band spacing,
between neighbouring grains. Grains C and D are of sim-
ilar crystallographic orientation and show the highest
intensity of slip, with the slip band traces closely aligned
with the machining direction. It is evident from the trace

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                           43
Research in Progress 2010
Application of combined discrete/finite element                   ond inside the roll bite. It is known that the tribological
multiscale method for modelling of magnesium                      conditions at the roll/stock interface during process-
redistribution during hot rolling of aluminium,                   ing, such as state of lubrication, position of the neutral
Michal Krzyzanowski and W Mark Rainforth.                         point, roughness of the rolls and the roll speed, are key
                                                                  variables in the surface layer formation. Therefore, the
The hot rolling of aluminium results in the formation of          most appropriate route in understanding is to model
a nanocrystalline surface layer, which comprises three            the interaction of the surface of the metal with the work
main features, namely, nanoscale fragmented oxide                 roll. Numerical modelling of the stock surface layer for-
particles mechanically mixed from the original surface            mation has been carried out on the rolling of the Al-Mg-
into the metal; a fine subgrain structure, and a signifi-         Mn aluminium alloy AA3104 using a two-high laboratory
cant difference in chemical composition to the bulk.              mill. The results of a parallel experimental programme
Understanding the mechanisms of formation of such                 have demonstrated that the structure, morphology and
layers is difficult as it takes place in fractions of a sec-      the filiform corrosion susceptibility of the subsurface

                                                                  Figure 6.5.6: Displacement of the discrete element blocks (a)
                                                                  and Mg redistribution in the surface layer (b-f) predicted dur-
                                                                  ing hot rolling of aluminium.

                                                                  layer appears to be strongly dependent on both the
Figure 6.5.3: Bright field TEM micrograph of the                  depth of the Mg enrichment formed during reheating
nanocrystalline surface layer on a hot rolled                     and redistribution of this near-surface metallic element
AA3104 alloy.                                                     during hot rolling. The numerical problem is effectively
                                                                  a matter of discrete rather then continuum numerical
                                                                  analysis. The applied combined finite-discrete element
                                                                  method merges finite element tools and techniques
                                                                  with discrete element-based transient dynamics, con-
                                                                  tact detection and contact interaction solutions. Linking
                                                                  of the modelling scales is based on transferring of the
                                                                  corresponding boundary conditions from the macro
                                                                  model to the representative cell, considered as the
                                                                  meso-level model. This meso-model consists of a large
                                                                  number of deformable bodies that interact with each
                                                                  other. Each individual discrete element is of a general
                                                                  shape and size, and can be discretised into finite ele-
Figure 6.5.4: Schematic representation of the meso- model.
                                                                  ments to analyse deformability and diffusion. The trans-
                                                                  fer processes in the thin surface layer are described
                                                                  by the system of diffusion and the motion equations
                                                                  for particles integrated in time. The numerical analysis
                                                                  indicated that, under the rolling conditions, the redis-
                                                                  tribution of Mg content can arise mainly due to one or
                                                                  a few of the following reasons, namely: by removal of
                                                                  some of the thin oxide layer by abrasion and adhesion to
                                                                  the work roll surface; by intermixing of the small oxides
                                                                  (Mg) into the subsurface layer of a few microns depth;
                                                                  and by diffusion. Further analysis should be carried out
                                                                  to validate the modelling approach and to establish the
                                                                  predominant mechanisms of the surface layer formation
                                                                  and influence of the key hot rolling parameters.

Figure 6.5.5: Displacement of the discrete element particles/
blocks in Y (a, b) and in X (c) direction predicted in the sub-
surface layer during hot rolling of aluminium.

44                                                                             Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                              Research in Progress 2010

6.6 Nanomaterials and Nanoengineeering
Real-time observation of surface wear using a TEM               Welding of individual nanoobjects using nanoscale
triboprobe, B J Inkson, A J Lockwood and J J Wang.              solder, B J Inkson and Y Peng.

As part of the NanoLAB Basic Technology Nanorobotics            One of the central challenges for the bottom-up con-
programme we have developed a mechanical triboprobe             struction, integration and repair of nanoscale systems
miniaturized to fit inside a TEM. The TEM tribological          is to develop reliable methods of joining individual
probe can be used for nanofriction and nanofatigue              nanoobjects together and to substrates. In this work we
testing of individual nanostructures, with 3D control of        have developed a new nanoscale electrical welding tech-
the loading direction and simultaneous TEM imaging of           nique, using nanovolumes of metal solder, which radi-
the nanoobjects. Using the TEM triboprobe a technique           cally improves the spatial resolution, flexibility and con-
to quantify in real-time the microstructural changes            trollability of welds between individual nanowires and
occurring during mechanical nanoscale fatigue of                nanoobjects. At the weld sites, nanoscale volumes of a
ultrathin surface coatings has been developed. It is dem-       chosen metal are deposited using a sacrificial nanowire,
onstrated that fracture of 10-20nm thick amorphous              which ensures that the nanoobjects to be bonded retain
carbon films by a single nanoscale shear impact results         their structural integrity.
in the formation of <10nm diameter amorphous carbon
filaments. Failure of the same carbon films after cyclic        We demonstrate by welding both similar and dissimi-
nanofatigue, however, results in the formation of carbon        lar materials, that the use of nanoscale solder is clean,
nanostructures with a significant degree of graphitic           controllable and reliable, and ensures both mechanically
ordering, including a carbon onion [214].                       strong and electrically conductive contacts. The use of
                                                                solder to bond the nanoobjects together also offers the
                                                                opportunity to tailor the weld’s mechanical and func-
                                                                tional properties by controlling the chemistry, structure
                                                                and volume of solder material used, and nanoscale weld
                                                                resistances of just 20Ω have been achieved by using Sn

Figure 6.6.1: Real-time imaging of the nanoscale tribology of   Figure 6.6.2: (a) Method for welding nanostructures together
carbon thin films.                                              using nanovolumes of solder (b) Nanowriting using welded

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                         45
Research in Progress 2010

6.7 Polymers and Composites
Polymer composites research has continued to focus on          repeat healing capability by minimising resin shrinkage
the fields of self-sensing and self-healing of composite       during repeated heating cycles. Work is also continuing
damage and in the study of group-interaction modelling         to investigate the healing of new resin systems whose
to predict polymer and composite properties from their         chemistry differs significantly from the anhydride or
chemical constituents. Work on plasma polymerisation           amine cured epoxies that we have healed to date.
for surface functionality control is also on-going. In asso-
ciation with the Department of Mechanical Engineering,         Group Interaction Modelling
and through the Composite Systems Innovation Centre
(CSIC), work is also on-going in the field of nanocom-         The Polymers and Composites group is pioneering work
posites and on biodegradable and recycled polymers for         in the field of Group Interaction Modelling which pre-
both structural and packaging applications. Highlights         dicts polymer properties from molecular structure in a
in two areas, those self-sensing and self-healing and of       fraction of the time required for tradition methods. Dr
group interaction modelling are given below.                   Joel Foreman and Dr David Porter have developed the
                                                               method to predict strain rate and temperature depend-
Self-sensing and self-healing                                  ent properties from dynamic mechanical measurements
                                                               of the secondary phase transitions that occur in viscoe-
The self-sensing work has concentrated on two prin-            lastic polymers. The predicted properties of a typical
ciple techniques, these being optical self-sensing and         aerospace epoxy resin matrix are used as input for a
electrical self-sensing of damage in composites. The           finite element prediction of the impact a fibre failure has
well established electrical sensing work has progressed        on surrounding fibres. This information is then used to
in the use of flexible printed circuit board to deliver the    predict the statistical propagation of fibre failure events
contacts necessary to enable the localised resistance          through a typical composite system. The method is cur-
of the composite to be determined. This has facilitated        rently being developed into the dedicated software pro-
more-rapid manufacture of self-sensing composite and           grams GIMprops and FFC (
has the potential, given further work to enable deploy-
ment of the sensor system in a production environment.         The Group Interaction Modelling method is also being
                                                                                      extended within the department
                                                                                      to predict the properties of many
                                                                                      different kinds of polymers.
                                                                                      Previously, amorphous, isotropic
                                                                                      thermosets such as epoxy res-
                                                                                      ins have been studied but the
                                                                                      technique is being developed to
                                                                                      predict the properties of semi-
                                                                                      crystalline, orthotropic polymers
                                                                                      such as Ultra-High Molecular
Figure 6.7.1: Self-sensing composite produced using a modi-
fied commercial epoxy resin system and commercial woven        Weight Polyethylene. Additionally, we are investigating
e-glass fabric, a) before impact showing full transmission     how to incorporate extremely high strain rate impact
across the panel width and b) showing reduced transmission     events, the influence of moisture on properties and the
in the centre of the panel following an impact event.          prediction of properties as a function of cure schedule.

Optical self-sensing, using e-glass reinforcing fibres, is
a new departure for the research group and has shown
significant promise. The use of reinforcing fibres as
light-guides is not new, however, in the past it has been
necessary to employ a specially selected low refrac-
tive index resin to enable the fibres to guide light.
Unfortunately these resins are generally unsuitable for
use in structural composites, as they are designed pri-
marily as optical adhesives. In our work, we have used
conventional resin blending techniques, and readily
available additives to modify a commercial aerospace
approved resin system, such that its refractive index
is sufficiently low that the fibres can guide light. Using
commercially available woven glass cloth, we have suc-         Figure 6.7.2: The compressive modulus and yield
cessfully manufactured composite panels using this             stress of a 50:50 blend of two amine cured epoxy
resin and shown them to be capable of sensing damage           resins (TGDDM and TGAP cured with DDS) as a
to the composites structure (Figure 6.7.1).                    function of strain rate. The experimental values
                                                               compare extremely well with those predicted by
Work on the solid-state self-healing resin system is con-      Group Interaction Modelling.
tinuing with studies to improve the processibility of the
resin, by reducing its viscosity, and also to improve the

46                                                                          Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                           Research in Progress 2010

6.8 Surface Engineering and Tribology
Pulse Current Plasma Assisted Electrolytic Cleaning of
AISI 4340 Steel, A Yerokhin, A Pilkington and A Matthews.

Surface cleaning is an important step of most manu-
facturing processes. It is essential in the manufacture
of steel components that are prone to formation of
mill-scales, pigmented films and rust spots during prior
processing and in-process storage. Well known clean-
ing treatments include mechanical (abrasive blasting
and tumbling), chemical (molten salt, acid etching or
pickling), electrochemical (electrolytic acid pickling
or alkaline cleaning), solvent and emulsion cleaning
processes. To enhance cleaning efficiency, individual
treatments are combined into hybrid and multistage
procedures. New cleaning technology based on electro-
lytic plasma processing (EPP) was studied in ref [6.8.1].
The method relies upon intensification of conventional      Figure 6.8.2: Effect of pulse current EPP cleaning on surface
electrolytic alkaline cleaning by a plasma discharge that   roughness (Ra).
is initiated at the surface of a cathodically polarised
workpiece (Figure 6.8.1). Plasma processes enhance
cathodic reduction with thermally and mechanically
activated removal of contaminants. A risk of decrease
in mechanical properties can be mitigated by the appli-
cation of the pulse current mode. A specially designed
and instrumented EPP facility was used, which allowed
for an adjustable inter-electrode gap, controlled sample
movement, electrolyte temperature and flow as well as
independent control of the pulse frequency f and duty
cycle d from DC to 32 kHz.

Figure 6.8.1: Typical appearance of plasma dis-
charge during EPP treatment.
                                                            Figure 6.8.3: Surface SEM micrographs showing
It was observed (Figure 6.8.2) that the pulse current       typical surface morphology of EPP cleaned steel
EPP cleaning leads to a decrease in the surface rough-      compared to that of the untreated steel.
ness of treated samples, compared with both the             The cleaning quality was estimated by glow discharge
untreated and the DC treated specimens. Moreover, the       optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). Typical surface
roughness decreases with an increase in frequency and       profiles of oxygen for the untreated and EPP treated
a decrease in duty cycle.                                   surfaces are presented in Figure 6.8.4. The untreated
                                                            sample shows a near surface broad peak oxygen profile
SEM observations of the original surface morphology,        attributed to residual oxide scale resulting from the
revealed partly contaminated grinding ridges, whereas       sample manufacturing and storage. The breadth of the
EPP-cleaned surface featured by a crater-like morphol-      O peak and extended tail profile indicated an effect due
ogy due to discharge events accompanying the cleaning       to surface roughness, where the surface material in val-
process (Figure 6.8.3). With an increase in frequency       leys was sputtered at a lower rate than the asperities.
and a decrease in duty cycle of the pulsed current, the     The EPP cleaned surfaces had a significantly lower sub-
feature size reduced, making the surface profile particu-   surface O profile indicating that the EPP process had
larly suitable for subsequent coating treatments.           successfully removed or reduced surface oxides, which
                                                            together with reduced surface roughness, resulted in a

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                          47
Research in Progress 2010
lower near-surface O content. It is also evident that the      consequent limitations in the process control and auto-
pulse current EPP cleaning treatment is as effective in        mation. This problem can be resolved if the frequency
removing surface oxide as the DC process. These com-           response (FR) of the system is known and applied for
positional changes are likely to be responsible for slight     process diagnostics. A research discussed in ref [172]
enoblement of the surface corrosion potential, which is        was dedicated to FR measurements during PEO of Al in
attributable to an increased rate of cathodic processes,       the small signal mode corresponding to small perturba-
as revealed by potentiodynamic corrosion tests.                tions of voltage signal around large DC values (Figure

Figure 6.8.4: GDOES profiles of iron and oxygen in untreated
and EPP treated steels.

Mechanical tests have demonstrated negligible reduction
in hardness and no reduction in toughness due to hydro-
gen embrittlement induced by EPP treatments. At the
same time, rotating bending beam fatigue tests indicated
a noticeable reduction in fatigue life, which could how-
ever be offset by a shot peening pre-treatment. Overall,
optimal process parameters for pulse current EPP clean-
ing were identified at δ = 0.8 and f = 100 to 10000 Hz.

[6.8.1] A. Yerokhin, A. Pilkington, A. Matthews, Pulse
Current Plasma Assisted Electrolytic Cleaning of AISI
4340 Steel, J. Mat. Proc. Technol., 210 (2010) 54-63.
                                                               Figure 6.8.6: Temporal dependencies of
                                                               FR components at U = 500 V (a) – admit-
Small Signal Frequency Response Studies for                    tance modulus and (b) – phase angle.
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, E V Parfenov*
A Yerokhin and A Matthews (*Ufa State Aviation Technical       The study was carried out during PEO of Al at DC volt-
University, 12 Karl Marx Street, Ufa 450000, Russia).          ages which were varied from 450 to 600V. The FR
                                                               obtained is a frequency dependent admittance of the
Plasma assisted electrochemical treatments provide             PEO electrolyser; this complex number is represented
new possibilities in surface modification of various           by a modulus and a phase angle (Figure 6.8.6). It was
materials including light weight alloys. However, their        shown that, under potentiostatic conditions, the modu-
large-scale application is still restricted, mainly due to     lus evolution strongly correlates with the average cur-
poor understanding of the process mechanism and                rent value; therefore, it bears insufficient amounts
                                                                         of independent information. The FR phase
                                                                         angle measured within this study was never
                                                                         obtained before. Depending on the frequency,
                                                                         it varies between 0 and 70 deg in the capaci-
                                                                         tive domain. One of the most notable features
                                                                         of this characteristic is low values at 500 to
                                                                         5000 Hz when microdischarges appear during
                                                                         PEO. The other feature is a correlation with
                                                                         the coating growth. As a result, a new diag-
                                                                         nostic tool was developed and shown to be
                                                                         effective for evaluation of microdischarges and
                                                                         surface properties during the treatment, thus
                                                                         decreasing the uncertainty in the system.

Figure 6.8.5: Voltage and current waveforms for PEO treat-
ment of Al.

48                                                                         Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                              Research in Progress 2010
The effect of superfinishing and PVD/CVD coatings              function as a barrier to adhesive interactions between
on torque and temperature of SAE52100 rolling ele-             the raceway and rolling element, thereby increasing
ment ball bearings under starved lubrication condi-            bearing life.
tions, J. Eichler, A. Matthews, G.L. Doll, A. Leyland.

Investigation into the rolling contact behaviour of coated
and uncoated counterfaces under lubrication starvation
conditions has been carried out. Cr2N and WC/a-C:H
coatings deposited by PVD and hybrid PVD-CVD proc-
esses respectively were tested. In addition, the effect
of vibratory superfinishing on rolling contact, both in
isolation and as a surface pre-treatment prior to PVD
coating was investigated. The results illustrate the ben-
efits provided by surface modifications under these
extreme operating conditions and their ability to delay
the onset of catastrophic bearing failure in the event of
lubrication starvation. The findings of this investigation
were presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC
2009) conference held in Santa Clara, California, USA,         Figure 6.8.8: An example of a torque/temperature curve
May 2009 [92].The main findings from this paper are            from a modified bearing running under lubricant starva-
summarised below.                                              tion conditions.

The raceways from thrust ball bearings (shown below            Evidence of carbonaceous material on the rolling ele-
in Figure 6.8.7) were modified with either chromium            ments was found. This transferred material is likely to
nitride (Cr2N), tungsten carbide/amorphous hydrogen-           act as a solid lubricant, delaying bearing failure under
ated carbon (WC/a-C:H), or vibratory superfinishing.           boundary lubricated conditions. The performance of
Superfinishing was also used as a surface treatment            the superfinished specimens was unexpectedly low.
before the deposition of a PVD coating to produce a            Superfinishing alone did not provide an appreciable
‘duplex’ surface treatment.                                    improvement in performance and it also reduced the
                                                               performance of the WC/a-C:H coating when used as
                                                               a surface pre-treatment. The superfinished substrate
                                                               topography is unlikely to have caused poor coating
                                                               adhesion. However, the modified raceway surface will
                                                               result in a larger contact area which could increase the
                                                               spin of the rolling elements, increasing frictional torque
                                                               and shear stress in the coating. Experimentation with
                                                               the ceramic media size, type and process duration is
Figure 6.8.7: (a) A photograph of a WC/a-C:H coated            likely to yield better results and will be the subject of
raceway, (b) an SEM micrograph of the WC/a-C:H coat-           future investigations.
ing before testing.

The treated raceways were re-assembled into thrust
bearings and initially lubricated with a solution of ISO
VG10 mineral oil and hexane. After evaporation of the
volatile solvent, a film of lubricant with repeatable thick-
ness remains on the components of the bearing. The
bearings were loaded to 6.2 kN (maximum Hertzian
contact stress of approximately 1 GPa) and rotated at
4000 RPM until the frictional torque exceeded 1 Nm or
the raceway temperature exceeded 110°C. The bearing
lives were analysed using a Weibull statistical method.

As illustrated in Figure 6.8.8, the bearings exhibited a
rapid increase in torque as the speed and load were            Figure 6.8.9: The effect of surface modification on L50
increased. After approximately one minute the torque           life under lubrication starvation conditions.
decreases to a plateau level where it remains until fail-
ure commences. This ‘running-in’ process results in a
reduction of the temperature gradient. The onset of fail-
ure is indicated by a sharp increase in torque, followed
by a delayed increase in heat generation.

In this investigation, the WC/a-C:H coating offered the
best performance under lubrication starvation condi-
tions (as shown in Figure 6.8.9). This coating is likely to

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                       49
Research in Progress 2010
Degradation of a C/CrC PVD coating after annealing                microscopy coupled with electron energy filtered map-
in Ar+H2 at 700°C studied by Raman spectroscopy                   ping. Raman spectroscopy suggested the presence of
and transmission electron microscopy, Z Zhou, IM                  graphitic carbon in the coating after annealing, together
Ross, WM Rainforth, A Cavaleiroa,                                 with a trace of Cr2O3 associated with coating growth
A Ehiassarianb, P Hovsepianb (aMechanical Engineering             defects, Figure 6.8.11. TEM investigation of the cross sec-
Department, University of Coimbra,
3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal, bMaterials
Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield
Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB UK).

Recently, there has been increasing
interest in the development of nano-                              Figure 6.8.11: Bright field image and energy filtered TEM maps of
composite carbon based coatings due to their excellent            C, Cr and O at the top of the coating after exposure at 700°C.
tribological properties. These coatings typically consist
of an amorphous carbon phase (a-C:H, but could be                 tions of annealed coating revealed regions of C enrich-
diamond like carbon) and a hard crystalline metal or              ment at the very top (~40nm) and bottom (~10nm) of
metal carbide phase (usually Ti, Ta, W and Cr carbides).          the coating, which was confirmed by Raman spectrosco-
The prevailing synthesis methods to produce the coat-             py. However, the central region of the coating retained
ings have been to sputter metal targets in a mixture of           its composite C/CrC multilayer structure, Figure 6.8.12.
hydrocarbon (e.g. C2H2, CH4) and inert gas (usually Ar).          Tentative mechanisms of the coating degradation, in
Despite the reduction of internal stresses by alloying            particular the C enrichment are proposed in reference
with transition metals, the large amount of hydrogen,             [6.8.2].
up to 20-50at%, incorporated in the resultant coatings
undermines the coatings’ thermal stability. Nanoscale
hydrogen free C/Cr coatings have been produced by
unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr
metal targets with structure and properties strongly
dependent on the substrate bias voltage. The coat-
ings evolve from an amorphous (-65V to -95V) through
an ‘onion-like’ carbon structure (-120V) to nanoscale
multilayer structure (-350V and -450V) and finally a
uniform fine grain structure (-550V). The current work
looked at the thermal stability of a hydrogen free C/
CrC coating. The coating was deposited by unbalanced
magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr metal targets
in a non-reactive argon atmosphere with high ion irra-
diation conditions. The coating possessed a nanocom-              Figure 6.8.12: High resolution TEM image of a carbon nanopar-
posite structure with amorphous carbon embedded                   ticle in the chromium carbide matrix.

                                                                  [6.8.2] Z Zhou, I M Ross, W M Rainforth, A Cavaleiro,
                                                                  A Ehiassarian, P Hovsepian, “Degradation of a C/CrC
                                                                  PVD coating after annealing in Ar+H2 at 700°C studied by
                                                                  Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron micros-
                                                                  copy”, Materials at High Temperature, 26 (2009) 169-176.

Figure 6.8.10: Energy filtered TEM micrographs of the as-
deposited coating. (a) zero loss bright field image. (b) carbon
map. (c) chromium map.

in a metastable NaCl (B1) structure CrC matrix, Figure
6.8.10. Chromium carbides are well known to have three
stable phases of Cr3C2, Cr7C5 and Cr23C6. It is believed
that a stable CrC with NaCl (B1) structure cannot be
produced on the basis of Hagg’s empirical rules, rc/rme
<0.59, where rc is the single bond radius of carbon and
rme is the considered transition metal (rc/rcr = 0.61).
The nanometre amorphous carbon clusters formed lay-
ers within the CrC matrix, producing a self-assembled
multilayer structure. Degradation was evaluated by
annealing at 600 and 700°C in Ar+5%H2 atmosphere
for 30 minutes. Microstructures of the as-deposited
and annealed coating were characterised using Raman
spectroscopy and cross sectional transmission electron

50                                                                              Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                                   Research in Progress 2010

7. Publications, 2008/2009
7.1 Publications 2008
1.    E Amsterdam, R Goodall, A Mortensen, P R Onck               14. J Fu, M Kobayashi and J M Parker “Terbium-activated
and J Th M De Hosson “Fracture behaviour of low-density           heavy scintillating glasses”, J Luminescence, 128 (2008)
replicated aluminium alloy foams”, Mat Sci Eng A, 496 (2008)      99-104.
                                                                  15. J Fu, M Kobayashi, S Sugimoto and J M Parker “Eu3+-
2.   M Audronis, A Matthews and A Leyland “Pulsed-bias            activated heavy scintillating glasses”, Mat Res Bulletin, 43
sputter deposition of chromia and alumina films at low sub-       (2008) 1502-1508.
strate temperature”, Society of Vacuum Coaters, 51st Annual
Tech Conf Proc (2008) ISSN 0737-5921, 14-19.                      16. B Glettner, F Liu, X Zeng, M Prehm, U Baumeister,
                                                                  M Walker, M A Bates, P Boeseck, G Ungar and C
3. P B S Bailey, S A Hayes, R J Hand and B Zhang                  Tschierske “Liquid-crystalline kagome”, Liquid Crystals,
“Chemical monitoring of composite matrices by evanescent          Angew Chem Int Ed, 47 (2008) 9063-9066.
wave spectroscopy”, Adv Sci and Technol, 56 (2008) 298-302.
                                                                  17. T Gnanavel, Z Saghi, Y Peng and G Möbus
4.   A S Barinov, G A Varlakova, S V Stefanovsky and M I          “Nanofabrication by 3D E-beam cutting”, Micro Micro, 14
Ojovan “Changes of structure and properties of vitrified radio-   (2008) DOI: 10.1017/S1431927608085413, 2pp.
active wastes during long-term storage in an experimental
repository”, Atomic Energy, 105(2) (2008) 110-117.                18. V Hearnden, G Battaglia, C Murdoch, M Thornhill
                                                                  and S MacNeil “Imaging of polymersome penetration into 3D
5.     A S Barinov, G A Varlakova, I V Startceva, S V             tissue engineered models of oral mucosa and head and neck
Stefanovsky, M I Ojovan and B P McGrail “Corrosion dura-          cancer”, Euro Cells and Mat, 16 (2008) 58.
bility of NPP vitrified radioactive waste”, Radiation Safety
Issues, 3 (2008) 22-33.                                           19. W H Howie, F Claeyssens, H Miura and L M Peter
                                                                  “Characterization of solid-state dy-sensitized solar cells utiliz-
6. M A Bashir, T Schrefl, J Dean, A Goncharov, G Hukac,           ing high absorption coefficient metal-free organic dyes”, J Am
S Bance, D Allwood and D Suess “Microwave-assisted mag-           Chem Soc, 130 (2008) 1367-1375.
netization reversal in exchange spring media”, IEE Trans Magn,
44(11) (2008) 3519-3522.                                          20. G Hrkac, T Schrefl, S Bance, D Allwood,
                                                                  A Goncharov, J Dean and D Suess “Mutual phase locking in
7.    O G Batyukhnova, A E Arustamov, S A Dmitriev,               high-frequency microwave nano-oscillators as a function of
V V Agrinenko, M I Ojovan and Z Drace “Training activities        field angle”, J Magn Magn Mat, 320 (2008) L111-L115.
on radioactive waste management at Moscow SIA “Radon”:
Experience, practice, theory”, Proc WM’08 Conference, 24th-       21. J M Juoi, M I Ojovan and W E Lee “Microstructure and
28th February 2008, Phoenix Arizona, WM-8164, 8pp.                leaching durability of glass composite wasteforms for spent
                                                                  clinoptilolite immobilisation”, J Nucl Mater, 372 (2008) 358-
8. I Betancourt, G Hrkac and T Schrefl “Micromagnetic             366.
simulation of domain wall dynamics in permalloy nanotubes
at high frequencies”, J Appl Phys, 104 (2008) 023915-1 –          22. P Kapranos “Thixoforming: From automotive to aero-
023915-6.                                                         space”, APT Aluminium, Process and Product Technology, 5(1)
                                                                  (2008) 39-44.
9. K J Briston, Y Peng, N Grobert, A G Cullis and B J
Inkson “Field emission from iron-filled carbon nanotubes          23. O K Karlina, V L Klimov, G Yu Pavlova and M I Ojovan
observed in-situ in the scanning electron microscope”, Proc       “Thermodynamic simulation and experimental study of irra-
EMC 2008 14th Euro Microcopy Congress, 1st-5th September          diated reactor graphite waste processing with REE oxides”,
2008, Aachen, Germany, Vol 2: Materials Science, 169-170.         Mater Res Soc Symp Proc, 1107 (2008) 109-116.

10. S J Brookes, D J Searles and K P Travis “The effect of        24. S Kelly, E M Regan, J B Uney, A D Dick, J P McGeehan,
confinement and wall structure on the kinetics of isomerisa-      The Bristol Biochip Group, E J Mayer and F Claeyssens
tion of n-butane”, Molecular Simulation, (2008) 1-14, ISBN        “Patterned growth of neuronal cells on modified diamond-like
0892-7022 print/ISSN 1029-0435 online.                            carbon substrates”, Biomaterials, 29 (2008) 2573-2580.

11. B Burakov, V Gribova, A Kitsay, M Ojovan, N Hyatt             25. A J Lockwood, J J Wang, R Gay and B J Inkson
and M Stennett “Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for acti-       “Characterising performance of TEM compatible nanomanipu-
nide immobililsation”, Proc 11th Int Conf Envir Remed Rad         lation slip-stick inertial sliders against gravity”, J Phys: Conf
Waste Manage, ICEM’07, 2nd-6th September 2007, Oud Sint-Jan       Series, 126 (2008) 012096-1 – 012096-4.
Hospital Conference Center, Bruge, Belgium. ICEM07-7047,
5pp ASME (2008).                                                  26. A Matthews and A Leyland “Materials related aspects
                                                                  of nanostructured tribological coatings”, Society of Vacuum
12. J Dean, M A Bashir, A Goncharov, G Hrkac, S Bance, T          Coaters, 51st Annual Tech Conf Proc Proc (2008) ISSN 0737-
Schrefl, A Cazacu, M Gubbins, R W Lamberton and D Suess           5921, 56-62.
“Thermally induced adjacent track erasure in exchange spring
media”, Appl Phys Lett, 92 (2008) 142505-1 – 142505-3.            27. Q Mistral, M van Kampen, G Hrkac, J-V Kim,
                                                                  T Devolder, P Crozat, C Chappert, L Lagac and T Schrefl
13. J P Foreman, S Behzadi, D Porter, P T Curtis and F R          “Current-driven vortex oscillation in metallic nanocontacts”,
Jones “Hierarchical modelling of a polymer matrix composite”,     Phys Rev Lett, 100 (2008) 257201-1 – 257201-4.
J Mater Sci, 43 (2008) 6642-6650.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                                51
Research in Progress 2010
28. G Möbus, G Yang, Z Saghi, X Xu, R J Hand, A Pankov            42. D C Sayle, S Seal, Z Wang, B C Mangili, D W Price,
and M I Ojovan “Electron irradiation and electron tomogra-        A S Karakoti, S V T N Kuchibhatla, Q Hao, G Möbus, X Xu
phy studies of glasses and glass nanocomposites”, Mater Res       and T X T Sayle “Mapping nanostructure: A systematic enu-
Soc Symp Proc, 1107 (2008) 239-244.                               meration of nanomaterials by assembling nanobuilding blocks
                                                                  at crystallographic positions”, Am Chem Soc, 2(6) (2008)
29. M I Ojovan “Configurons: thermodynamic param-                 1237-1251.
eters and symmetry changes at glass transition entropy”,
10 (2008) 334-364; http://www.mdpi-org/entropy/list08.            43. A Sittichokechaiwut and G C Reilly “Development
htm#e10030334;                of a Culture System to Modulate Tissue Engineered Bone
e10030334.pdf.                                                    Formation by Varying Loading Conditions”, Proc 7th Intl
                                                                  Confon Manufacturing Research 2009. 8pp.
30. M I Ojovan “Viscosity and glass transition in amor-
phous oxides”, Advances in Condensed Matter Physics (2008)        44. L M Spasova, F G F Gibb and M I Ojovan
Article ID 817829, 23pp;       “Characterisation of partial melting and solidification of
aspx?doi=10.1155/2008/817829.                                     granite E93/7 by acoustic emission technique”, Mater Res Soc
                                                                  Symp Prov, 1107 (2008) 75-82.
31. M I Ojovan and F G F Gibb “Exploring the earth’s crust
and mantle using self-descending, radiation-heated, probes        45. L M Spasova and M I Ojovan “Characterisation of Al
and acoustic emission monitoring”, Chapter 7 in: Nuclear          corrosion and its impact on the mechanical performance of
Waste Research: Siting, Technology and Treatment. Editor:         composite cement wasteforms by the acoustic emission tech-
Arnold P Lattefer, ISBN 978-1-60456-184-5, Nova Science           nique”, J Nucl Mater, 375 (2008) 347-358.
Publishers Inc (2008) 207-220.
                                                                  46. L M Spasova, M Ojovan, M Hayes and H Godfrey
32. M I Ojovan, J M Juoi, A R Boccaccini and W E Lee              “Acoustic emission monitoring of cementitious wasteforms”,
“Glass composite materials for nuclear and hazardous waste        Proc 11th Int Conf Envir Remed Rad Waste Manag ICEM’07, 2nd-
immobilisation”, Mater Rest Soc Symp Proc, 1107 (2008) 245-       6th September 2007, Out Sint-Jan Hospital Conference Center,
252.                                                              Bruges, Belgium, ECEM07-7049, ASME (2008) 8pp.

33. M I Ojovan, J M Juoi and W E Lee “Application of glass        47. L Wang, X Nie, J Housden, E Spain, J C Jiang, E I
composite materials for nuclear waste immobilisation”, J Pak      Meletis, A Leyland and A Matthews “Material transfer phe-
Mater Soc, 2 (2008) 72-76.                                        nomena and failure mechanisms of a nanostructured Cr-Al-N
                                                                  coating in laboratory wear tests and an industrial punch tool
34. J M Parker article on glass flow in “Do polar bears get       application”, Surf Coat Technol, 203 (2008) 816-821.
lonely?” New Scientist, (2008) 41-45.
                                                                  48. X J Xu, A Lockwood, W Guan, R Gay, Z Saghi, J J
35. Y Peng, T Cullis and B Inkson “Accurate electrical test-      Wang, Y Peng, B J Inkson and G Móbus “MRT Letter: Full-
ing of individual gold nanowires by in situ scanning electron     tilt electron tomography with a piezo-actuated rotary drive”,
microscope nanomanipulators”, Appl Phys Lett, 93 (2008)           Microsc Res Tech 71 (2008) 773-777.
183112-1 – 183112-3.
                                                                  49. X Xu, Z Saghi, G Yang, R Gay and G Möbus “Electron
36. L Perlin, S MacNeil and S Rimmer “Production and              tomography of CeO2 nanostructures”, J Phys: Conf series, 126
performance of biomaterials containing RGD peptides”, Soft        (2008) 012016-1 – 012016-4.
Matter, 4 (2008) 2331-2349.
                                                                  50. G Yang, R Hand and G Möbus “EELS studies of nano-
37. M Prades, H Beltrán, N Masó, N Masó, E Cardoncillo            precipitates in borosilicate glasses”, J Phys: Conf Series, 126
and A R West “Phase transition hysteresis and anomalous           (2008) 012021-1 – 012021-4.
Curie-Weiss behaviour of ferroelectric tetragonal tungsten
bronzes Ba2RETi2Nb3O15:RE=Nd, Sm”, J Appl Phys, 104 (2008)
104118-1 – 104118-7.

38. M Prehm, F Liu, X Zeng, G Ungar and C Tschierske
“2D and 3D ordered columnar liquid crystal phases by bundles
of bolaamphiphiles and swallow-tail side chains”, J Am Chem
Soc, 130 (2008) 14922-14923.

39. M Rosso, D Ugues, E Torres, M Perucca and
P Kapranos “Performance enhancements of die casting tools
trough PVD nanocoatings”, Int J Mater Form, DOI 10.1007/
s12289-008-0 - 131 z, Springer/ESAFORM 2008.

40. Z Saghi, X Xu and G Möbus “Three-dimensional metrol-
ogy and fractal analysis of dendritic nanostructures”, Phys Rev
B, 78 (2008) 205428-1 – 205428-5.

41. Z Saghi, T Gnanavel, Y Peng, B J Inkson, A G Cullis,
M R Gibbs and G Möbus “Tomographic nanofabrication of
ultrasharp three-dimensional nanostructures”, Appl Phys Lett,
93 (2008) 153102-1 – 153102-3.

52                                                                              Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                                   Research in Progress 2010

7.2 Publications 2009
51. D A Allwood, J Dean, M T Bryan and A Baker “Bringing            64. I. Betancourt and H A Davies “Exchange coupled nano-
science research into secondary schools”, Phys Ed, 44(6)            composite hard magnetic alloys”, Intl Journal of Materials
(2009) 627-632.                                                     Engineering and Technology, 1(1) (2009) 53-92.

52. P S Anderson, S Guerin, B E Hayden, Y Han, M Pasha,             65. R Bhagat, M Jackson, D Inman and R Dashwood
K R Whittle and I M Reaney “Optimization of synthesis of            “Production of Ti-W alloys from mixed oxide precursors via the
the solid solution, Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 on a single substrate using a    FFC Cambridge Process”, J Electrochem Soc, 156(1) (2009)
high-throughput modified molecular-beam epitaxy technique”,         E1-E7.
J Mater Res, 24(1) (2009) 164-172.
                                                                    66. P A Bingham, A J Connelly, R J Hand, N C Hyatt and
53. M Audronis, O Jimenez, A Leyland and A Matthews                 P A Northrup “Incorporation and speciation of sulphur in
“The morphology and structure of PVD ZrN-Cu thin films”,            glasses for waste immobilisation”, Glass Technol, Eur J Glass
J Phys D: Appl Phys, 42 (2009) 085308-1 – 085308-10.                Sci Technol A, 50(3) (2009) 135-138.

54. D A A Aziz, I Sterianou and I M Reaney “(1–x)CaTiO3-            67. P A Bingham, R J Hand, O M Hannant, S D Forder
                for ultra-small dielectrically loaded antennas”,    and S H Kilcoyne “Effects of modifier additions on the
J Mater Sci, 44(23) (2009) 6247-62500.                              thermal properties, chemical durability, oxidation state and
                                                                    structure of iron phosphate glasses”, J Non-Cryst Solids, 355
55. A Baker, M Billiard, K Brown, A Boadsby, S Green,               (2009) 1526-1538.
C Howard, S Kodippili, A Newton, X Ning, M Stead,
L Vallance, L Zang, D A Allwood, M T Bryan and J Dean               68. P A Bingham, N C Hyatt, R J Hand and C R Wilding
“A study of hard:soft layer ratios and angular switching in         “Glass development for vitrification of Wet Intermediate Level
exchange coupled media”, J Appl Phys, 106 (2009) 053902-1 –         Waste (WILW) from decommissioning of the Hinkley Point
053902-4.                                                           “A” site”, Mater Rest Soc Symp Proc, 1124 (2009) Materials
                                                                    Research Society 1124-Q03-07 6pp.
56. R Baker, G Möbus and P D Brown eds J Phys Conf Ser,
126 (2008) IoP Publishing.                                          69. P Bredell, Z Drace, S Hudson, D Janenas, L Jova-Sed,
                                                                    F King, G Linsley, M Lust, I Mele, I D Metcalfe, S D Misra,
57. A S Barinov, G A Varlakova, L V Startceva, S V                  L Nachmilner, M Ojovan, J Rowat and G Siraky “Policies
Stafanovsky and M I Ojovan “Infrared spectroscopy structur-         and strategies for radioactive waste management”, IAEA
al analysis of corroded nuclear waste glass K-26”, in: Scientific   Nuclear Energy Series, NW-G-1.1, STI/PUB/1396, IAEA, Vienna
Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXXII, edited by R B             (2009) 68pp;
Rebak, N C Hyatt, D A Pickett (Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 1124,        PDF/Pub1396_web.pdf.
Warrendale, PA, 2009) Q03-08, 7pp.
                                                                    70. E Buixaderas, I Gregora, S Kamba, P Kuzel and
58. M A Bashir, T Schrefl, D Suess, J Dean, A Goncharov,            I Reaney “Phonon anomalies in Pb1-xLax(Zr0.9Ti0.1)O3 ceramics”,
G Hrkac, S Bance, D A Allwood and J Fidler “Exchange                Appl Phys Lett, 94(5) (2009) 052903-1 – 052903-3.
coupled bit patterned media under the influence of RF-field
pulses”, IEEE Trans on Magn, 45(10) (2009) 3851-3854.               71. I Cantón, R McKean, M Charnley, K A Blackwood,
                                                                    C Fiorica, A J Ryan and S MacNeil “Development of an ibu-
59. S Basu, P W Fry, M R J Gibbs, T Schrefl and D A                 profen-releasing biodegradable PLA/PGA electrospun scaffold
Allwood “Control of the switching behavior of ferromagnetic         for tissue regeneration”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering
nanowires using magnetestatic interactions”, J Appl Phys, 105       (2009) 13pp.
(2009) 083901-1 – 083901-6.
                                                                    72. M Charnley, K Fairfull-Smith, S Haldar, R Elliott, S L
60. O G Batyukhnova, A E Arustamov, S A Dmitriev,                   McArthur, N H Williams and J W Haycock “Generation of
M I Ojovan and Z Drace “Key Issues of Personnel Education           bioactive materials with rapid self-assembling resorcinarene-
and Training in the Context of Changing Radioactive Waste           peptides”, Adv Mater, 21 (2009) 2909-2915.
Management Conception”, Proc. WM’09 Conference, 1st-5th
March 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, WM – 9053, (2009) 7pp.                73. W-T Chen, A J Williams, L Ortega-San-Martin, M Li,
                                                                    D C Sinclair, W Zhou and J P Attfield “Robust antiferromag-
61. O G Batykhnova and M I Ojovan “Tribochemical treat-             netism and structural disorder in BixCa1-xFeO3 perovskites”,
ment for immobilisation of radioactive wastes”, in: Scientific      Chem Mater, 21 (2009) 2085-2093.
Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXXII, edited by R B
Rebak, N C Hyatt, D A Pickett (Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 1124,        74. C-J Chung, P-Y Hsieh, C-H Hsiao, H-I Lin, A Leyland,
Warrendale, PA, (2009) Q007-20, 6pp.                                A Matthews and J-L He “Multifunctional arc ion plated TiO2
                                                                    photocatalytic coatings with improved wear and corrosion
62. A J Beck, Y A Gonzalvo, A Pilkington, A Yerokhin                protection”, Surf Coat Technol, 203 (2009) 1689-1693.
and A Matthews “Positive ion mass spectrometry during an
atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polymersa”, Plasma         75. C-J Chung, H-I Lin, P-Y Hsieh, K-C Chen, J-L He,
Process Polym, 6 (2009) 9pp.                                        A Leyland and A Matthews “Growth behaviour and micro-
                                                                    structure of arc ion plated titanium dioxide”, Surf Coat
63. K Bertal, J Shepherd, C W I Douglas, J Madsen,                  Technol, 204 (2009) 915-922.
A Morse, S Edmonson, S P Armes, A Lewis and S MacNeil
“Antimicrobial activity of novel biocompatible wound dress-         76. F Claeyssens, J N Hard, N L Allan and J M Oliva “Solid
ings based on triblock copolymer hydrogels”, J Mater Sci, 44        phases of phosphorus carbide: An ab initio study”, Phys Rev B,
(2009) 6233-6246.                                                   79 (2009) 134115-1 – 134115-14.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                               53
Research in Progress 2010
77. F Claeyssens, E A Hasan, A Gaidukeviciute,                      91. Z Drace and M I Ojovan “The behaviours of cementi-
D S Achilleos, A Ranella, C Reinhardt, A Ovsianikov,                tious materials in long term storage and disposal: An over-
X Shizhou, C Fotakis,, M Vamvakaki, B N Chichkov and                view of results to the IAEA co-ordinted research project”, Mater
M Farsari “Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fab-          Res Soc Symp Proc 1193, (2009) 663-672.
ricated by two-photon polymerization”, Langmiur, 25 (2009)
3219-3223.                                                          92. J W Eichler and A Matthews “The effect of superfinish-
                                                                    ing and PVD/CVD coatings on torque and temperature of SAE
78. M Dapor, M A E Jepson, B J Inkson and C Rodenburg               52100 rolling element ball bearings under starved lubrication
“The effect of oxide overlayers on secondary electron dopant        conditions”, Society of Vacuum Coaters, 52nd Annual Tech Conf
mapping”, Microsc Microanal, 15 (2009)237-243.                      Proc, Santa Clara, CA, (2009) ISSN 0737-5921, 614-620.

79. M d’Aquino, C Serpico, G Bertotti, T Schrefl and I D            93. F Elfallagh and B J Inkson “3D analysis of crack mor-
Mayergoyz “Spectral micromagnetic analysis of switching             phologies in silicate glass using FIB tomography”, J Euro
processes”, J Appl Phys, 105 (2009) 07D540-1 – 07D540-3.            Ceram Soc, 29 (2009) 47-52.

80. H Davies “Challenges in the further development of pow-         94. M C Ferrarelli, D C Sinclair and A R West “Possible
der processed rare earth-iron-boron magnets”, Proc Elsevier         incipient ferroelectricity in Mn-doped Na1/2Bi1/2Cu3Ti4O12”, Appl
Conf: PM Asia 2009, Shanghai, China, 32pp; http://www.pma-          Phys Lett, 94 (2009) 212901-1 – 212901-3.
                                                                    95. M C Ferrarelli, D C Sinclair, A R West, H A
81. P Day, L V Interrante and A R West “Toward defining             Dabkowska, A Dabkowski and G M Luke “Comment on the
materials chemistry” (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl            origin(s) of the giant permittivity effect in CaCu3Ti4O12 single
Chem, 81(9) (2009) 1707-1717.                                       crystals and ceramics”, J Mater Chem, 19 (2009) 5916-5919.

82. J S Dean, M T Bryan, D A Allwood, S Bance, M A                  96. A Feteira and D C Sinclair “The influence of nanometric
Bashir, G Hrkac, A Goncharov and T Schrefl “Tailoring               phase separation on the dielectric and magnetic properties of
domain-wall dynamics with uniaxial anisotropy in nanowires”,        (1 – x)BaTiO3-xLaYbO3 (O ≤ x ≤ 0.60) ceramics”, J Mater Chem,
IEEE Trans Magn, 45(10) (2009) 4067-4069.                           19 (2009) 356-359.

83. P Deshpande, M Notara, N Bullett, J T Daniels, D B              97. I A Figueroa, H A Davies and I Todd “High glass form-
Haddow and S MacNeil “Development of a surface-modified             ability for Cu-Hf-Ti alloys with small additions of Y and Si”,
contact lens for the transfer of cultured limbal epithelial cells   Philosphical Magazine, 89(27) (2009) 2355-2368.
to the cornea for ocular surface diseases”, Tissue Engineering:
Part A, 15 (2009) 14pp.                                             98. E Filová, N A Bullett, L Bačaková, L Grausová, J W
                                                                    Haycock, J Hlučilova, J Klima and A Shard “Regionally-
84. D Devaprakasam, P V Hatton, G Möbus and B J                     selective cell colonization of micropatterned surfaces prepared
Inkson “Nanoscale tribology, energy dissipation and failure         by plasma polymerization of acrylic acid and 1,7-octadiene”,
of nano- and micro-silica particle-filled polymer composites”,      Physiol Res, 58 (2009) 669-684.
Tribol Lett, 34(11-19) (2009) 11-19.
                                                                    99. P Fiorenza, R L Nigro, P Delugas, V Raineri, A G
85. T Devolder, J-V Kim, P Crozat, C Chappert,                      Mould and D C Sinclair “Direct imaging of the core-shell
M Manfrini, M van Kampen, W Van Roy, L Lagae, G Hrkac               effect in positive temperature coefficient of resistance-BaTiO3
and T Schrefl “Time-resolved zero field vortex oscillations in      ceramics”, Appl Phys Lett, 95 (2009) 142904-1 – 142904-3
point contacts”, Appl Phys Lett, 95 (2009) 012507-1 – 012507-3.
                                                                    100. C L Freeman, I Asteriadis, M Yang and J H Harding
86. D Dhandapani, A Rao, N A Morley, A Das, M Grell                 “Interactions of organic molecules with calcite and magnesite
and M R J Gibbs “Effect of polymer processing on spin mag-          surfaces”, J Phys Chem C, 113 (2009) 3666-3673.
netoresistance in organic structures”, J Appl Phys, 105 (2009)
07C702-1 – 07C702-3.                                                101. J Fu, M Kobayashi, S Sugimoto and J M Parker
                                                                    “Scintillation from Eu2+ in nanocrystallized glass”, J Am Ceram
87. F Diologent, R Goodall and A Mortensen “Creep of                Soc, 92(9) (2009) 2119-2121.
aluminium-magnesium open cell foam”, Acta Materialia, 57
(2009) 830-837.                                                     102. N F Garza-Montes-de-Oca and W M Rainforth “Wear
                                                                    mechanisms experienced by a work roll grade high speed steel
88. F Diologent, E Combaz, V Laporte, R Goodall,                    under different environmental conditions”, Wear, 267 (2009)
L Weber, F Duc and A Mortensen “Processing of Ag-Cu alloy           441-448.
foam by the replication process”, Scripta Materialia, 61 (2009)
351-354.                                                            103. L Gilmore, S MacNeil and S Rimmer “Phosphate func-
                                                                    tional core-shell polymer nanoparticles for the release of vas-
89. F Diologent, Y Conde, R Goodall and A Mortensen                 cular endothelial growth factor”, Chem Bio Chem, 10 (2009)
“Microstructure strength and creep of aluminium-nickel open         2165-2170.
cell foam”, Philosophical Magazine, 89:13 (2009) 1121-1139.
                                                                    104. S González, I A Figueroa, H Zhao, H A Davies,
90. F Diologent, R Goodall and A Mortensen “Surface                 I Todd and P Adeva “Effect of mischmetal substitution on
oxide in replicated microcellular aluminium and its influence       the glass-forming ability of Mg-Ni-La bulk metallic glasses”,
on the plasticity size effect”, Acta Materialia, 57 (2009) 286-     Intermetallics, 17 (2009) 968-971.
                                                                    105. Y Han, I M Reaney, D S Tinberg and S Trolier-
                                                                    McKinstry “(111)p microtwinning in SrTuO3 thin films on
                                                                    (001)p LaAlO3”, Acta Cryst B, 65 (2009) 694-698.

54                                                                                Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                                    Research in Progress 2010
106. A J Hand, T Sun, D C Barber, D R Hose and S MacNeil            121. A Javad, N A Morley and M R J Gibbs “Structure, mag-
“Automated tracking of migrating cells in phase-contrast            netic and magnetostrictive properties of -as-deposited Fe-Ga
video microscopy sequences using image registration”,               thin films”, J Magn Magn Mat, 321 (2009) 2877-2882.
J Microscopy, 234(1) (2009) 62-79.
                                                                    122. M A E Jepson, B J Inkson, C Rodenburg and D C
107. O M Hannant, S D Forder, P A Bingham and R J Hand              Bell “Dopant contrast in the helium ion microscope”, EPL, 85
“Structural studies of iron in vitrified toxic wastes”, Hyperfine   (2009) 46001-1 – 46001-4.
Ineract, 192 (2009) 37-42.
                                                                    123. M A E Jepson, B J Inkson, X Liu, L Scipioni and
108. J N Hart, F Claeyssens, N L Allan and P W May                  C Rodenburg “Quantitative dopant contrast in the helium ion
“Carbon nitride: Ab initio investigation of carbon-rich phases”,    microscope”, EPL (2009) 26005-1 – 26005-5.
Phys Rev B, 80 (2009) 174111-1 – 17411113.
                                                                    124. A C Johnson, S A Hayes and F R Jones “Data reduction
109. S Hashimoto, T Asano, K Inoue, S Honda, Y Iwamoto              methodologies for single fibre fragmentation test: Role of the
and S Zhang “Sintering and mechanical properties of complex         interface and interphase”, Composites: Part A, 40 (2009) 449-
carbides in the Al-Si-C System”, J Tech Assoc Refract, Japan,       454.
29(1) (2009) 21-25.
                                                                    125. F R Jones and N T Huff “Structure and properties of
110. S Hashimoto, T Ishihara, K Inoue, S Honda,                     glass fibres” in: Handbook of tensile properties of textile
Y Iwamoto and S Zhang “Synthesis and mechanical proper-             and technical fibres, ed A R Bunsell, Woodhead Publishing in
ties of Al8B4C7”, J Ceram Soc Japan, 117(1) (2009) 18-21.           Textiles, No. 91, ISBN 978-1-84569-387-9 (2009) 539-573.

111. J W Haycock, S Botchway, J Weinstein and                       126. F R Jones and N T Huff “Structure and properties of
G Williams “Long-life fluorescent imaging of cells in real          glass fibres” in: Handbook of textile fibre structure, Volume 2:
time”, SPIE (DOI: 10.1117/2.1200906.1684).                          Natural, regenerated, inorganic and specialist fibres,
                                                                    ed S J Eichhorn, J W S Hearle, M Jaffe and T Kikutani,
112. V Hearnden, H Lomas, S MacNeil, M Thornhill,                   Woodhead Publishing ISBN 978-1-84569-730-3 (2009) 307-352.
C Murdock, A Lewis, J Madsen, A Blanazs, S Armes ad
G Battaglia “Diffusion studies of nanometer polymersomes            127. N G Jones, R J Dashwood, D Dye and M Jackson “The
across tissue engineered human oral mucosa”, Pharmaceutical         flow behaviour and microstrcutrual evolution of Ti-5Al-5Mo-
Research, 26(7) (2009) 1718-1728.                                   5V-3Cr during substransus isothermal forging”, Met Mat Trans
                                                                    A, 40A (2009) 1944-1954.
113. R G Hill, R V Law, M D O’Donnell, J Hawes, N L
Bubb, D J Wood, C A Miller, M Mirsaneh and I Reaney                 128. N G Jones, R J Dashwood, M Jackson and D Dye
“Characterisation of fluorine containing glasses and glass-         “β phase decomposition in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr”, Acta
ceramics by 19F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic reso-         Materialia, 57 (2009) 3830-3839.
nance spectroscopy”, J Euro Ceram Soc, 29(11) (2009) 2185-
2191.                                                               129. N G Jones, R J Dashwood, M Jackson and D Dye
                                                                    “Development of chevron-shaped a precipitates in Ti-5Al-5Mo-
114. S Hopkins, S R Carter, J W Haycock, N J Fullwood,              5V-3Cr”, Scripta Materialia, 60 (2009) 571-573.
S MacNeil and S Rimmer “Sub-micron poly/N-isopropy-
lacrylamide) particles as temperature responsive vehicles for       130. P Kapranos and D H Kirkwood “Thixoforming M2 tool
the detachment and delivery of human cells”, Soft Matter, 5         steel – A study of different feedstock routes”, Proc Int Conf Hot
(2009) 4928-4937.                                                   forming of steels and product properties, Grado, Italy, 13th-16th
                                                                    September 2009, pp7.
115. G Hrkac, T Schrefl, J Dean, A Goncharov, S Bance,
D Allwood, D Suess and J Fidler “Micromagnetics of single           131. S Karimi, I M Reaney, Y Han, J Pokorny and
and double point contact spin torque oscillators”, J Appl Phys,     I Sterianou “Crystal chemistry and domain structure of rare-
105 (2009) 083923-1 – 083923-8                                      earth doped BiFeO3 ceramics”, J Mater Sci, 44 (2009) 5102-
116. G Hrkac, T Schrefl, J Dean, A Goncharov, S Bance,
D Suess and J Fidler “Internal effective field sources for spin     132. S Karimi, I M Reaney, I Levin and I Sterianou
torque nanopillar oscillators”, J Appl Phys, 105 (2009) 053901-     “Nd-doped BiFeO3 ceramics with antipolar order”, Phys Lett,
0 – 053901-6.                                                       94(11) (2009) 112903-1 – 112903-3.

117. G Hrkac, T Schrefl, A Goncharov, S Bance,                      133. R Kieffer, M Prehm, K Pelz, U Baumeister, F Liu,
D Allwood, D Sues and J Fidler “Micromagnetics of single            H Hahn, H Lang, G Ungar and C Tschierske “Siloxanes and
and double point contact spin torque oscillators”, J Appl Phys,     carbosilanes as new building blocks for T-shaped bolaam-
105 (2009) 08923-1 – 08923-8.                                       phiphilic LC molecules”, Soft Matter, 5 (2009) 1214-1227.

118. B K Jackson, M Jackson, D Inman, D Dye and R J                 134. A Kovács, A Kohn, J Dean, T Schrefl, A Zeltser and
Dashwood “Optimization of the FFC Cambridge Process for             M J Carey “Reversal mechanism of exchange-biased CoFeB/
NiTi Production”, ECS Transactions, 16(49) (2009) 211-219.          IrMn Bilayers observed by Lorentz Electron Microscopy”, IEEE
                                                                    Trans Magn, 45(11) (2009) 3873-3876.
119. M Jackson “Light metals in the steel city”, Materials
Technology, 24(3) (2009) 1-3.                                       135. P Krone, D Makarov, T Schrefl and M Albrecht “Effect
                                                                    of the anisotropy distribution on the coercive field and switch-
120. M Jackson, N G Jones, D Dye and R J Dashwood                   ing field distribution of bit patterned media“, J Appl Phys, 106
“Effect of initial microstructure on plastic flow behaviour dur-    (2009) 103913-1 – 103913-5.
ing isothermal forging of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al”, Mat Sci Eng A, 501
(2009) 248-254.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                                 55
Research in Progress 2010
136. N Krstajic, S J Matcher, D Childs, W Steenbergen,              150. Z W Liu, D C Zeng, R V Ramanujan, X C Zhong and
R Hogg and R Smallwood “Evaluation of a cheap ultrasonic            H A Davies “Exchange interaction in rapidly solidified nanoc-
stage for light source coherence function measurement, opti-        rystalline RE-(Fe/Co)-B hard magnetic alloys”, J Appl Phys, 105
cal coherence tomography and dynamic focusing”, Meas Sci            (2009) 07A736-1 – 07A736-3.
Technol, 20 (2009) 107002-1 – 107002-5.
                                                                    151. Z W Liu, Y Liu, P K Deheri, R V Ramanujan and H A
137. M Krzysanowski and W M Rainforth “Application of               Davies “Improving permanent magnetic properties of rapidly
combined discrete/finite element multiscale method for mod-         solidified nanophase RE-TM-B alloys by compositional modifi-
elling of Mg redistribution during hot rolling of aluminium”,       cation”, J Magn Magn Mat, 321 (2009) 2290-2295.
Computer Methods in Materials Science, Informatyka w
Technologli Materialów, 9(2) (2009) 271-276.                        152. A J Lockwood and B J Inkson “In situ TEM nanoinden-
                                                                    tation and deformation of Si-nanoparticle clusters”, J Phys D:
138. J Lee, D Suess, T Schrefl, J Dean and J Fidler                 Appl Phys, 42 (2009) 035410-1 – 035410-5.
“Increases in effective head field gradients in exchange spring
media”, Appl Phys Lett, 95 (2009) 172509-1 – 172509-3.              153. L Ma, W M Rainforth, D Sun, J A Wharton and R J K
                                                                    Wood “A ‘3-body’ abrasion wear study of bioceramics for total
139. J Lee, D Suess, T Schrefl, K H Oh and J Fidler “Grain          hip joint replacements”, Wear, 267 (2009) 2122-2131.
geometry induced reversal behaviour alteration”, J Phs D: Appl
Phys, 42 (2009) 045005-1 – 045005-6.                                154. X Ma and A Matthews “Evaluation of abradable seal
                                                                    coating mechanical properties”, Wear, 267 (2009) 1501-1510.
140. J Lee, D Suess, T Schrefl, E S Yu, Y S Lee, K H Oh and
J Fidler “Contribution of convex surfaces to magnetostatic          155. Y Ma, B Qi, Y Ren, G Ungar, J K Hobbs and W Hu
interaction in granular medium”, IEEE Trans Magn, 45(6)             “Understanding self-poisoning phenomenon in crystal growth
(2009) 2655-2658.                                                   of short-chain polymers”, J Phys Chem B, 113 (2009) 13485-
141. I Levin, V Krayzman, J C Woicik, J Karapetrova,
T Proffen, M G Tucker and I M Reaney “Structural changes            156. J Madsen, S P Armes, K Bertal, S MacNeil and
underlying the diffuse dielectric response in AgNbO3”, Phys Rev     A L Lewis “Preparation and aqueous solution properties of
B, 79(10) (2009) 104113-1 – 104113-14,                              thermoresponsive biocompatible AB diblock copolymers”,
                                                                    Biomacromolecules, 10 (2009) 1875-1887.
142. M Li, A Feteira and D C Sinclair “Relaxor ferroelectric-
like high effective permittivity in leaky dielectrics/oxide semi-   157. M Mantini, T Devolder, J-V Kim, P Crozat,
conductors induced by electrode effects: A case study of CuO        N Zerounian, C Chappert, W Van Roy, L Lagae, G Hikac
ceramics”, J Appl Phys, 105 (2009) 114109-1 – 114109-8.             and T Schrefl “Agility of vortex-based nanocontact spin
                                                                    torque oscillators”, J Phys Lett, 95 (2009) 192507-1 – 192507-3.
143. M Li, Z Shen, M Nygren, A Feteria, D C Sinclair and
A R West “Origin(s) of the apparent high permittivity in            158. S P H Marashi, A Abedi, S Kaviani, S H Aboutalebi,
CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics: clarification on the contributions from       M Rainforth and H A Davies “Effect of melt-spinning roll
internal barrier layer capacitor and sample-electrode contact       speed on the nanostructure and magnetic properties of stoi-
effects”, J Appl Phys, 106 (2009) 104106-1 – 104106-8.              chiometric and near stoichiometric Nd-Fe-B alloy ribbons”, J
                                                                    Phys D: Appl Phys, 42 (2009) 115410-1 – 115410-8.
144. S Li, B Livshitz, H N Bertram, M Schabes, T Schrefl,
E E Fullerton and V Lomakin “Microwave assisted magneti-            159. S J Matcher “A review of some recent developments
zation reversal in composite media“, Appl Phys Lett, 94 (2009)      in polarization-sensitive optical imaging techniques for the
902509-1 – 902509-3.                                                study of articular cartilage”, J Appl Phys, 105 (2009) 102041-1
                                                                    – 102041-11.
145. X M Liu, J L Thomason and F R Jones “The concentra-
tion of hydroxyl groups on glass surfaces and their effect on       160. S Miao, J Pokorny, U M Pasha, O P Thakur, D C
the structure of silane deposits”, Silanes and Other Coupling       Sinclair and I M Reaney “Polar order and diffuse scatter
Agents, Vol 5 (2009) 25-38.                                         in Ba(Ti1-xZrx)O3 ceramics”, J Appl Phys, 106 (2009) 114111-1 –
146. X M Liu, J L Thomason and F R Jones “XPS and AFM
study of the structure of hydrolysed aminosilane on E-glass         161. L Miranda, A Feteira, D C Sinclair, K Boulahya,
surfaces”, Silanes and Other Coupling Agents, Vol 5 (2009)          M Hernando, J Ramirez, A Varela, J M González-Calbert
39-50.                                                              and M Parras “Composition-structure-property relationships
                                                                    of 5H- and 12R-type hexagonal Ba(Mn, Ti)O3-δ perovskites”,
147. Y Liu and A R West “Ho-doped BaTiO3: Polymorphism,             Chem Mater, 21 (2009) 1731-1742.
phase equilibria and dielectric properties of BaTi1-xHoxO3-x/2:
0 ≤ x ≤ 0.17”, J Euro Ceram Soc, 29 (2009) 3249-3257.               162. L Miranda, D C Sinclair, M Hernando, A Varela,
                                                                    A Wattiaux, K Boulahya, J M González-Calbert and M
148. Y Liu, E E McCabe, D C Sinclair and A R West                   Parras “Mn-rich BaMn1-xFexO3-δ perovskites revisited: struc-
“Synthesis, structure and properties of the hexagonal per-          tural, magnetic, and electrical properties of two new 5H poly-
ovskite, h-BaTi1-xHoxO3-x/2”, J Mater Chem, 19 (2009) 5201-5206.    types”, Chem Mater, 21 (2009) 5272-5283.

149. Z W Liu and H A Davies “Intergranular exchange inter-          163. C E Mohn, N L Allan and J H Harding “Ultrathin oxide
action in nanocrystalline hard magnetic rare earth-iron-boron-      films and heterojunctions: CaO layers on BaO and SrO”, Phys
based melt-spun alloy ribbons”, J Phys D: Appl Phys, 42 (2009)      Chem Chem Phys, 11 (2009) 3217-3225.
1450061 – 145006-14.
                                                                    164. N A Morley, A Javed and M R J Gibbs “Effect of a form-
                                                                    ing field on the magnetic and structural properties of thin
                                                                    Fe-Ga films”, J Appl Phys, 105 (2009) 07A712-1 – 07A712-3.

56                                                                                Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                                  Research in Progress 2010
165. N A Morley, S Rigby and M R J Gibbs “Anisotropy and           178. J D Plummer, I A Figueroa, R J Hand, H A Davies and
magnetostriction constants of nanostructured Fe50Co50 films”,      I Todd “Elastic properties of some bulk metallic glasses”,
J Optoelectronics and Adv Matls – Symposia, 1(2) (2009) 109-       J Non-Cryst Solids, 355 (2009) 335-339.
                                                                   179. K Polychronopoulou, M A Baker, C Rebholz, J
166. M I Ojovan “Radiation-induced decrease of viscosity of        Neidhardt, M O’Sullican, A E Reiter, K Kanakis, A Leyland,
silicate glasses on electron irradiation”, in: Modern problems     A Matthews and C Mitterer “The nanostructure, wear and
of chemical and radiation physics, Ed I G Assovskiy, A A Berlin,   corrosion performance of arc-evaporated CrBxNy nanocom-
G B Manelis and A G Merzhanov, Moscow, Chernogolovka OIHF          posite coatings”, Surf Coat Technol, 204 (2009) 246-255.
RAN (2009) 336-338.
                                                                   180. R C Pullar, S J Penn, X Wang, I M Reaney and
167. M I Ojovan “Radioactive waste immobilisation:                 N McN Alford “Dielectric loss caused by oxygen vacancies in
Russian (SIA RADON) Experience”, in Decomissioning and             titania ceramics”, J Euro Ceram Soc, 29 (2009) 419-424.
Radioactive Waste Management, IBC’s 25th Annual Residential
Summer School, 29th June – 3rd July 2009, Christ’s College,        181. D Quigley, P M Rodger, C L Freeman, J H Harding and
Cambridge;              D M Duffy “Metadynamics simulations of calcite crystalliza-
uct/1238379109217/brochure.htm.                                    tion on self-assembled monolayers”, J Chem Phys, 131 (2009)
                                                                   094703-1 – 094703-11.
168. M I Ojovan “Radiation-Induced Fluidity and Glass-Liquid
Transition in Irradiated Amorphous Materials”, Proc. WM’09         182. R Rawal, A J McQueen, L J Gillie, N C Hyatt, E E
Conference, 1st-5th March 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, WM – 9082,       McCabe, K Samara, N McN Alford, A Feteira, I M Reaney
(2009) 10pp.                                                       and D C Sinclair “Influence of octahedral tilting on the micro-
                                                                   wave dielectric properties of A3LaNb3O12 hexagonal perovskites
169. M I Ojovan and G Möbus “On radiation induced fluidiza-        (A = Ba, Sr)”, Appl Phys Lett, 94 (2009) 192904-1 – 192904-3.
tion (quasi-melting) of silicate glasses”, Mater Res Soc Symp
Proc, 1193 (2009) 663-672.                                         183. M Redpath, C Marques, C Dibden, A Waddon, R Lalla
                                                                   and S MacNeil “Ibuprofen and hydrogel released ibuprofen in
170. M Z Omar, H V Atkinson, A A Howe, E J Palmiere,               the reduction of inflammation induced migration in melanoma
P Kapranos and M J Ghazali “Solid-liquid structural break-         cells”, British Journal of Dermatology, 161(1) (2009) 25-33.
up in M2 tool steel for semi-solid metal processing”, J Mater
Sci, 44 (2009) 869-874.                                            184. A Rico, J Rodriguez, E Otero, P Zeng and W M
                                                                   Rainforth “Wear Behaviour of nanostructured alumina-titania
171. E V Parfenov, R R Neviantseva, A A Bybin, A L                 coatings deposited by atmospheric plasma spray”, Erst. 267
Yerokhin and A Matthews, "Method of evaluation of the              (2009) 1191-1197.
termination point for the plasma electrolytic oxidation proc-
ess", Patent:  Russian Federation, RU 2366765 C1, Published        185. J Rodrigues, A Rico, E Otero and W M Rainforth
10/09/2009 (Bulletin No.25).                                       “Indentation properties of plasma sprayed Al2O3-13% TiO2
                                                                   nanocoatings”, Acta Materialia, 57 (2009) 3148-3156.
172. E V Parfenov, A Yerokhin and A Matthews “Small sig-
nal frequency response studies for plasma electrolytic oxida-      186. B M Rosen, D A Wilson, C J Wilson, M Peterca, B C
tion”, Surf Coat Technol, 203 (2009) 2896-2904.                    Won, C Huang, L R Lipski, X Zeng, G Ungar, P A Heiney and
                                                                   V Percec “Predicting the structure of supramolecular den-
173. J M Patterson, A J Bullock, S MacNeil and C R                 drimers via the analysis of libraries of AB3 and constitutional
Chapple “Methods to reduce the contraction of tissue engi-         isomeric AB2 biphenylpropyl ether self-assembling dendrons”,
neered buccal mucosa for use in substitution urethroplasty”,       J Am Chem Soc, 131 (2009) 17500-17521.
European Urology Supplements, 8(4) (2009) 186.
                                                                   187. Z Saghi, X Xu and G Möbus “Model based atomic
174. P Pawlik, K Pawlik, H A Davies, J J Wyslocki and              resolution tomography”, J Appl Phys, 106 (2009) 024304-1 –
W Kaszuwara “Nanocrystalline (Pr,Dy)-(Fe,Co)-Zr-Ti-B mag-          024304-8.
nets produced directly by rapid solidification”, J Phys: Conf
Series, 144 (2009) 012060-1 – 012060-4.                            188. Z Saghi, X Xu and G Möbus “Transition from quantita-
                                                                   tive to geometric tomography”, J Phys: Conf Series, 126 (2006)
175. Y Peng, T Cullis and B Inkson “Bottom-up nanocon-             012063-1 – 012063-4.
struction by the welding of individual metallic nanoobjects
using nanoscale solder”, Nano Letters, 9(1) (2009) 91-96.          189. J M Schofield, P A Bingham and R J Hand “The immo-
                                                                   bilisation of a chloride containing actinide waste surrogate in
176. Y Peng, T Cullis, G Möbus, X Xu and B Inkson                  calcium aluminosilicate glasses”, Ceramic Trans, 207 (2009)
“Conductive nichrome probe tips: fabrication, characterization     69-80.
and application as nanotools”, nanotechnology, 20 (2009)
395708-1 – 395708-7.                                               190. T Schrefl, G Hrkac, A Goncharov, J Dean, S Bance,
                                                                   M A Bashir, D Suess, “Finite element/boundary element sim-
177. A Phongphiphat, A Leyland, V N Sharifi and                    ulation of future hard disk recording” Conference Information:
J Swithenbank “High temperature corrosion of the super-            Applied Computing Conference 2008, COMPUTATIONAL
heater systems in an energy-from-waste plant: Effects of flue      METHODS AND APPLIED COMPUTING (2008) 430-435.
gas characteristics, alloy temperature and particle deposi-
tion”, World Renewable Energy Congress 2009 – Asia. The 3rd        191. M Selim, A J Bullock, S MacNeil and C R Chapple
Int Conf on Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2009),         “Evaluation of sterilization methods on biological and mechan-
18th-23rd May 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, 6pp.                        ical properties of a synthetic biodegradable electrospun scaf-
                                                                   fold for the creation of tissue engineered buccal mucosa for
                                                                   clinical use”, European Urology Supplements, 8(4) (2009) 185.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                              57
Research in Progress 2010
192. M A Shcherbina, X Zeng, T Tadjiev, G Ungar, S H                 206. C E Thorn, S J Matcher, I V Meglinski and A C
Eichhorn, K E S Philips and T J Katz “Hollow six-stranded            Shore “Is mean blood saturation a useful marker of tissue
helical columns of a helicene”, Angew Chem Int Ed, 48 (2009)         oxygenation?” Am J Phisiol Heart Circ Physiol, 296 (2009)
7837-7840.                                                           H1289-H1295.

193. J Shepherd, I Douglas, S Rimmer, L Swanson and                  207. D Tricker, M Jackson and R Dashwood “Direct extru-
S MacNeil “Development of three-dimensional tissue-engi-             sion of titanium alloy powder”, Mat Tech, 24(3) (2009) 174-179.
neered models of bacterial infected human skin wounds”,
Tissue Engineering: Part C, 15(3) (2009) 475-484.                    208. N Ugryumova, J Jacobs, M Bonesi and S J Matcher
                                                                     “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3D ori-
194. A Sittichochechaiwut and G C Reilly “Development                entation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence
of a culture system to modulate tissue engineered bone               angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography”,
formation by varying loading conditions”, Proc 7th Intl Conf         Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 17 (2009) 33-42.
Manufacturing Research (ICMR09), University of Warwick, UK,
8th-10th September 2009, pp6.                                        209. G Ungar, V Tomasic, F Xie and X Zeng “Structure of
                                                                     liquid crystalline aerosol-OT and its alkylammonium salts”,
195. A Sittichochechaiwut, A M Scutt, A J Ryan, L F                  Am Chem Soc, Langmuir, 25(18) (2009) 11067-11072.
Bonewald and G C Reilly “Use of rapidly mineralising oste-
oblasts and short periods of mechanical loading to accelerate        210. G A Varlackova, Z I Golubeva, A S Barinov, S V
matrix maturation in 3D scaffolds”, Bone, 44 (2009) 822-829.         Roschagina, S A Dmitriev, I A Sobolev and M I Ojovan
                                                                     “Evaluation of the cemented radioactive waste with prolonged
196. A Skaropoulou, S Tsivilis, G Kakali, J H Sharp and              tests in mount dype repository”, Atomic Energy, 107(1) (2009)
R N Swamy “Long term behavior of Portland limestone                  32-38.
cement mortars exposed to magnesium sulphate attack”,
Cem Conc Comp, 31 (2009) 628-636.                                    211. G A Varlakova, Z I Golubeva, A S Barinov, I A Sobolev
                                                                     and M I Ojovan “Properties and composition of cemented
197. A Skaropoulou, S Tsivilis, G Kakali, J H Sharp and              radioactive wastes extracted from the mound-type reposi-
R N Swamy “Thaumasite form of sulphate attack in limestone           tory”, in: Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXXII,
cement mortars: A Study on long term efficiency of mineral           edited by R B Rebak, N C Hyatt, D A Pickett (Mater Res Soc
admixtures”, Const and Build Matls, 23 (2009) 2338-2345.             Symp Proc 1124, Warrendale, PA, 2009) Q05-07, 7pp.

198. L M Spasova and M I Ojovan “Acoustic emission char-             212. M E Viney, A J Bullock, M J Day and S MacNeil
acterisation of cementitious wasteforms under three-point            “Co-culture of intestinal epithelial and stromal cells in 3D col-
bending and compression”, in: Scientific Basis for Nuclear           lagen-based environments”, Regen Med, 4(3) (2009) 397-406.
Waste Management XXXII, edited by R B Rebak, N C Hyatt,
D A Pickett (Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 1124, Warrendale, PA,           213. F Wang, Y Zhang, G Chen and H A Davies “Tensile and
2009) Q07-21, 8pp.                                                   compressive mechanical behavior of a CeCrCuFeNiAl0.5 high
                                                                     entropy alloy”, Intl J Modern Phys B, 23 (2009) 1254-1260.
199. I Sterianou, D C Sinclair, I M Reaney, TP Comyn and
A J Bell “Investigation of high Curie temperature (1-x)BiSc1-        214. J J Wang, A J Lockwood, Y Peng, X Xu, B S Bobji and
yFeyO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics”, J Appl Phys, 106 (2009)      B J Inkson “The formation of carbon nanostructures by in situ
084107-1 – 084107-6.                                                 TEM mechanical nanoscale fatigue and fracture of carbon
                                                                     thin films”, Nanotechnology, 20 (2009) 305703-1 – 305703-8.
200. A M Stoneham and J H Harding “Mesoscopic model-
ling: materials at the appropriate scale”, Mat Sci Technol,          215. J C Walker, I M Ross, C Reinhard, W M Rainforth and
24(4) (2009) 460-465.                                                P Eh Hovsepian “High temperature tribological performance
                                                                     of CrAlYN/CrN nanoscale multilayer coatings deposited on
201. T Sun, S Adra, R Smallwood, M Holcombe and                      γ-TiAl”, Wear, 267 (2009) 965-975.
S MacNeil “Exploring hypotheses of the actions of TGF-β1 in
epidermal wound healing using a 3D computational multi-              216. Y Wu, D Pasero, E E McCabe, Y Matsushima and A R
scale model of the human epidermis”, PLoS One, 4(12) (2009)          West “Formation of disordered and partially ordered LixCo1-xO”,
Available Online, pp13.                                              J Mater Chem, 19 (2009) 1443-1448.

202. T Sun, R Smallwood and S MacNeil “Development of                217. Y Wu, D Pasero, E E McCabe, Y Matsushima and A R
a mini 3D cell culture system using well defined nickel grids        West “Partial cation-order and early-stage, phase separation
for the investigation of cell scaffold interactions”, J Mater Sci:   in phase W, LixCO1-xO: 03075 ≤ x ≤ 0.24-0.31”, Proc R Soc A, 465
Mater Med, (2009) 20(7):1483-1493.                                   (2009) 1829-1841.

203. R J Talling, R J Dashwood, M Jackson and D Dye                  218. F L Xiong and C K Chong “Numerical study of the influ-
“On the mechanism of superelasticity in gum metal”, Acta             ence of anastomotic configuration on hemodynamics in Miller
Materialia, 57 (2009) 1188-1198.                                     Cuff models”, Annals of Biomed Eng, 17(2) (2009) 301-314.

204. R J Talling, R J Dashwood, M Jackson and D Dye                  219. K Yamada, N Shinagawa, M Sogame, I A Figueroa
“Compositional variability in gum metal”, Scripta Materialia,        and H A Davies “Structural Relaxation Process in CuHfTi
60 (2009) 1000-1003.                                                 Amorphous Alloys”, Defect and Diffusion Forum, 283-286
                                                                     (2009) 533-538.
205. M Thomas, T Lindley and M Jackson “The microstruc-
tural response of a peened near-a titanium alloy to thermal          220. F Yan, I Sterianou, S Miao, I M Reaney, M O Lai and
exposure”, Scripta Materialia, 60 (2009) 108-111.                    L Lu “Magnetic, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of
                                                                     Bi(Sc0.5Fe0.5)O3-PbTiO3 thin films”, J Appl Phys, 105 (2009)
                                                                     074101-1 – 074101-6.

58                                                                                 Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                               Research in Progress 2010
221. G Yang, G Möbus, P A Bingham and R J Hand
“Electron beam induced structure changes in borosilicate and
borophosphate glasses: a comparison by energy loss spec-
troscopy”, Phys Chem of Glasses: Eur J Glass Sci and Technol
Part B, 50(6) (2009) 378-383.

222. M Yang, P M Rodger, J H Harding and S L S Stipp
“Molecular dynamics simulations of peptides on calcite sur-
face”, Molec Simul, 35 (2009) 547-553.

223. B Zalinska, M Mirsaneh and I M Reaney “BiNbO4-
based glass-ceramic composites for microwave applications”,
J Am Ceram Soc, 92(9) (2009) 19851-1985.

224. X Zeng, F Liu, A G Fowler, G Ungar, L Cseh, G H Mehl
and J E Macdonald “3D ordered gold strings by coating nan-
oparticles with mesogens”, Adv Mater, 21 (2009) 1746-1750.

225. S Zhang “Low temperature molten salt synthesis of com-
plex oxide and carbide powders and coatings for refractory
applications”, Refractories World Forum, 1 (2009) 140-144.

226. S Zhang, L Yuan and J Yu “Low temperature molten
salt-mediated preparation of porous ceramics”, Interceram,
06 (2009) 374-377.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                   59
Research in Progress 2010

8. PhD Awards, 2008/2009
PhD Awards, 2008                                           13. Feng Liu, “Complex supramolecular self-assembly
                                                           of T- and X-shaped amphiphiles”. Supervisors: Dr X
1. Vincent Aerts, “Influence of interfacial morphol-       Zeng and Prof G Ungar.
ogy on the strength of bonded joints”. Supervisor: Prof
F R Jones.                                                 14. Aiden Lockwood, “In situ nanoindentation in a
                                                           transmission electron microscope”. Supervisor: Dr B J
2. Wenting Zhang, “Self healing epoxy resins and           Inkson.
composites”. Supervisors: Dr S A Hayes and Prof F R
Jones.                                                     15. Nima Nasseri, “Microstructure and crystallo-
                                                           graphic texture evolution in TIMETAL 6-2-4-6 billet”.
PhD Awards, 2009                                           Supervisors: Dr B P Wynne and Prof W M Rainforth.

1. Mohamed Mohamed Zaky Ahmed, “The devel-                 16. Stephen Roberts, “Anti-inflammatory effects of
opment of thick section welds and ultra-fine grain         intracellular responses triggered by melanocortin recep-
aluminium using friction stir welding and processing”.     tor-agonist binding”. Supervisor: Dr J W Haycock.
Supervisor: Dr B P Wynne.
                                                           17. David Robinson, “Investigating glycosaminoglyc-
2. Simon G Bance, “Data storage and processing             en-protein interactions: the “sugar chip””. Supervisor:
using magnetic nanowires”. Supervisor: Prof T Schrefl.     Dr G Battaglia.

3. Michael Blackmore, “Strain path effects on              18. Zineb Saghi, “Tomography methods for 3D char-
Timetal 834 under hot working conditions”. Supervisor:     acterization of nanostructures”. Supervisor: Dr G
Dr B P Wynne.                                              Möbus.

4. Peter S Davies, “An investigation of microstructure     19. Nanette Scutt, “Investigations into the cell biology
and texture evolution in the near-alpha titanium alloy     of tendon and ligament derived cells”. Supervisor: Prof
Timetal 834”. Supervisor: Prof W M Rainforth and Dr B      A R West.
P Wynne.
                                                           20. Anuphan Sittichokechaiwut, “Dynamic
5. Pallavi Deshpande, “Development of a cell delivery      mechanical stimulation for bone tissue engineering”.
system for limbal epithelial cells for the treatment of    Supervisor: Dr G Reilly.
ocular surface diseases”. Supervisor: Prof S MacNeil.
                                                           21. Jody Turner, “The effect of strain path on strain
6. Arghya Dey, “Effect of steel composition on             induced precipitation in a model microalloyed steel”.
the behaviour of inclusions during steelmaking”.           Supervisor: Prof W M Rainforth and Dr B P Wynne.
Supervisor: Dr R P Thackray.
                                                           22. Yun Wu, “Li-doped CoO: Structure and properties”.
7. Andrew G Donovan, “Synthesis and characterisa-          Supervisor: Prof A R West.
tion of Bi-based electroceramics”. Supervisor: Prof D C
Sinclair.                                                  23. Muhamad Azizi Mat Yajid, “Chemical map-
                                                           ping techniques for nanoscale multilayer coatings”.
8. Fathi El Fallagh, “3D analysis of indentation dam-      Supervisor: Dr G Möbus.
age by FIB tomography and TEM”. Supervisor: Dr B J
Inkson.                                                    24. Baodong Zhang, “Development of novel chalcoge-
                                                           nide glasses for sensing applications”. Supervisor:
9. Matthew Ferrarelli, “Structure-composition-             Dr R J Hand.
property relations in the ACu3Ti4O12 structure-type”.
Supervisor: Prof D C Sinclair.                             25. Na Zhu, “Studies of synthesis, stability and
                                                           properties of a new ferroelectric ceramic, BaTi2O5”.
10. Henry Foxhall, “Computer modelling of radiation        Supervisor: Prof A R West.
damage in plutonium containing ceramics for nuclear
waste immobilisation”. Supervisor: Dr K P Travis.          26. Jorge Zuno-Silva, “Microstructural evolution
                                                           of a multiphase steel microalloyed with vanadium”.
11. Ian Hickman, “Chromium segregation and the             Supervisor: Prof W M Rainforth.
effect on crystallisation processing green soda-lime-
silica glass”. Supervisor: Prof J M Parker.

12. Raja H U Khan, “Characteristics and stress state
of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings”. Supervisors:
Prof A Matthews and Dr A Yerokhin.

60                                                                     Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                     Research in Progress 2010

9. Current Research Sponsors
The Department of Engineering Materials is very          Corus Steel Strip Products
grateful to the organisations listed below for their     Cutting and Wear Resistant Developments Ltd
material support of our research. Our level of           Cytec Engineering Materials
research activity would have been impossible with-
out their generous contributions.                        Danieli Davy Distington Ltd
                                                         Dan Spray
ACTINET                                                  Delphi Diesel Systems Ltd
Advanced Composites Group Ltd                            DERA, Malvern
Advantica Tech Ltd                                       DeWalt/Black and Decker UK Limited
Aggregate Industries Ltd                                 DGP Group
Airbus UK Ltd                                            Doncasters plc
Alcan Chemicals Ltd                                      Dormer Tools Ltd
Alcan International plc                                  Dow Corning Ltd
Allvac Ltd                                               Dowding and Mills Ltd
Alstom Drives and Controls Ltd                           DSTL
American Chemical Society                                DSM, Gelen, The Netherlands
Andrew Carnegie Scholarship                              DTI
Anglo-Platinum SA                                        Dynamic Ceramic
Arcam                                                    EADS (UK and Germany)
Armourers and Brasiers’ Company                          Egide UK
Asian Development Bank                                   Ekspan Ltd, Sheffield
AT Poeton Ltd                                            Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Atomising Systems Ltd, Sheffield                         (EPSRC)
Avesta Polarit                                           Environment Agency
AVX, Coleraine                                           EU-ALFA Programme
                                                         EU-Brite Euram
BAe Systems Plc                                          European Regional Development Fund Objective 1
Biocompatibles                                           EU-Framework VI Initiative
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council   EU-INTAS Programme
Boeing                                                   EU-NVOTO Programme
BP Exploration                                           European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
British Aerospace Defence Ltd                            European Owens Corning
British Coal Utilisation Research Association
British Council                                          FEI Company, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
British Energy Generation Ltd                            Filtronic Comtek
British Glass                                            First Subsea Ltd
Brook Hansen Ltd                                         Firth Rixon plc, Rotherham
Brookhaven National Laboratory                           Flow Science Inc.
Building Research Establishment
                                                         GEC-Marconi Research Centre
CAPES Programme, Brazilian Government                    General Electric (ex Rare Earth Products (GE) Ltd, Widnes)
Caterpiller Inc                                          George Greensmith and Co Ltd, Sheffield
CBMM                                                     Glass Technology Services (GTS)
Ceramaspeed Ltd, Kidderminster                           Glass Training Ltd
CENIM, Madrid                                            Government of Iran
Chinese Government                                       Government of Libya
Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Taiwan   Government of Malaysia
Colipa                                                   Government of Mexico
CONACYT, Mexico                                          Government of Pakistan
Cookson Matthey Ceramics plc                             Government of Spain
Corus plc                                                Government of Thailand
Corus Aluminium Rolled Products                          Government of Turkey
Corus, Construction and Industrial
Corus Engineering Steels Ltd, Rotherham                  Health and Safety Laboratory
Corus, Research, Development and Technology,             Hereans Electro-Nite UK Ltd
(Corus Teesside Technology Centre)                       Hitatchi Global Storage Technologies
Corus Research Development and Technology,               Holset Turbochargers
Ijmuiden (Netherlands)                                   Hydro Aluminium
Corus Rail
Corus, Research, Development and Technology
(Corus Swinden Technology Centre)

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                               61
Research in Progress 2010
Innoval Technology Ltd                                    Reference Metals Company Inc., USA
Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining               regeNer8
Intercytex Limited                                        Renold Chain Ltd
International Atomic Energy Agency                        The Research Council UK (RCUK)
International Centre for Diffraction Data, USA            Research Institute for Solid State Physics, Budapest,
Ion Coat Ltd                                              Hungary
Ironmongers Company                                       Rolls-Royce plc
                                                          Reiter Automotive Management AG
Johnson Matthey plc                                       Royal Society of Chemistry
                                                          Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
K B Alloys Inc
Keronite Ltd                                              Sabic, The Netherlands
King Mongkuts University, Thailand                        SAIT, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
Kirkstall Ltd                                             Sandvik Osprey
                                                          Sarante Ltd
Lawrence Livermore Laboratory                             Sellafield Limited
Leverhulme Trust                                          Sheffield Forgemasters Group, Sheffield
London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co Ltd, Rotherham   SIDERAR, Argentina
Lynwood Products                                          Silberline, Leven, UK
                                                          Siemens Industrial Turbines Ltd
Magnesium Electron Ltd                                    Siemens VAI plc
Magnox Electric plc                                       SIRIM, Malaysia
Maharashra Institute of Technology, India                 Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ibaraki, Japan
Mandeville of London Ltd                                  Symmetry Medical
Materialise BV                                            Synchrotron Radiation Source
Merck Ltd
Metalysis Limited                                         Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd, India
Minelco Minerals                                          Technical Fibre Products, Kendal, UK
Ministry of Defence                                       Technology Strategy Board (TSB)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan                        Technology Strategy Consultants
Morgan Advanced Ceramics                                  Tecvac Ltd
Morgan Electroceramics Ltd                                Thai Government
National Environmental Research Council                   The Royal Society
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)             Timet
National Nuclear Laboratory                               Timken Inc
National Physical Laboratory                              Tinsley Wire, Sheffield
National Synchrotron Light Source                         Top Box
NGF Europe Ltd                                            Toyobo Limited, Japan
Nippon Sheet Glass                                        TWI
Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA)                   UNAM, Mexico City
Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa                United States Air Force
Nuclear Technology Education Consortium                   United States Department of Energy
                                                          University of Malaysia
Orla Protein Technologies                                 University of Sheffield, Proof of Concept Fund
Osaka Institute of Technology, Japan                      USA Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses
Outokumpu Stainless
Owens Corning Fibreglass RV, Belgium                      Vesuvius Premier

Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC)   Wallwork Heat Treatment Ltd
Pilkington plc                                            WBB plc
Plasso Technology Ltd                                     White Rose Consortium
POSCO, Pohang Steel Company, Korea                        Worshipful Company of Ironmongers
Precision Products Ltd                                    WRAP (Waste and Resources Action Plan, UK Government)
PSI, Hailsham, East Sussex                                Wuhan Iron and Steel Company (WISCO)

Q Coat Ltd                                                Yorkshire Forward
Qinetiq Plc, Farnborough                                  York Pharma
Qinetiq, Malvern
Qinetiq MAST Innovative

62                                                                    Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                                Research in Progress 2010

10. Grants and Contracts Awarded 2009
Awarding Body                 Grant Holder           Project Title                                          Value of Award

Sensata Technologies Ltd Dr D A Allwood and To develop an automotive turn sensor                                355,142.00
                         Prof M R J Gibbs

EPSRC                         Dr D A Allwood,        Magnetoresistive sensors for magnetic domain wall          493,144.00
                              Prof T Schrefl,        technologies, in collaboration with University of
                                                     Leeds and Seagate Technology (Ireland)

EPSRC                         Dr D A Allwood,        To develop magnetic nanowire atom traps                    714,282.00
                              Prof T Schrefl and
                              Prof M R J Gibbs

Sheffield Exchange            M Asif Bashir with     To visit Technical University of Vienna, Austria             1,000.00
Excellence Scheme             Prof T Schrefl and
                              Dr D Allwood

EPSRC                         Dr G Battaglia         Targeting the CNS                                         2,173,198.00

The Royal Academy of          Dr P Bingham           Travel Grant to give invited presentation at the              700.00
Engineering                                          12th Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline

Magnox Electric Ltd           Dr P A Bingham,        Provision of Glass Wasteforms                                4,317.00
                              Dr N C Hyatt and
                              Dr R J Hand

Magnox Electric Ltd           Dr P Bingham,          Prepartino of simulated glass wasterforms for the           17,870.00
                              Dr N C Hyatt and       Hinkley Point "A" Wet Intermediate Level Waste
                              Dr R J Hand            Thermal Vitrification Project

KTP Fund                      Dr F Claeyssens        Engineering cell-silicon interfaces for neural               9,990.00

The Royal Society             Dr F Claeyssens        Research Grant                                              14,990.00

National Nuclear              Dr Nick Collier and To study techniques to accelerate the aging of                 15,323.00
Laboratory (NNL)              Dr Neil Milestone   cemented nuclear wasteforms

EPSRC                         Prof J Fisher, Prof DTC in Regenerative Medicine                                 5,897,317.00
                              E Ingham, Prof Hin,
                              Prof J Southgate
                              and Prof S MacNeil

Yorkshire Forward Proof       Prof M R J Gibbs       Magnetic MEMS sensor platform                              60,000.00
of Concept Fund

The Royal Society             Dr R Goodall with      Assessment of metallic foams as novel stirling              15,000.00
                              Dr R Woolley           engine regenerator material
                              (Mech Eng)

Savannah River National       Dr R J Hand            Liquidus testing for Savannah River Nuclear                 28,079.00
Laboratory (SRNL)                                    Solutions

National Nuclear              Dr R J Hand            Study in viscosity measurements                             42,108.00
Laboratory (NNL)

EPSRC                         Prof J H Harding       Understanding the chemistry of ceramic materials           333,211.00
                              and Dr K P Travis      under radiation

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                      63
Research in Progress 2010

BBSRC                   Dr J W Haycock      Time-resolved emission imaging microscopy with                  147,280.00
                        with Dr J Weinstein long-lived pt(II) complexes: a new approach to
                        (Chem Dept,         autofluorescence-free imaging of tissues
                        Sheffield) and Dr
                        G Williams (Chem
                        Dept, Univ Durham)
COLIPA                  Dr J W Haycock and Construction of an immuno-competent                               231,142.00
                        Prof S MacNeil     3-dimensional human skin cell model to investigate
                                           the allergenic potential of novel chemicals

EPSRC                   R A Hogg (EEE) and Next generation swept laser sources for optical                   113,230.00
                        S J Matcher        coherence tomography

Royal Society           Dr G Hrkac           Fundamentals of spin-torque induced magnetization              421,275.00

DTC                     Dr N C Hyatt         Nuclear Fission Research, Science and Technology            6,300,000.00
                                             (Nuclear FIRST): Underpinning UK Energy and
                                             Defence Strategies

DTC                     Dr N C Hyatt         IDC – Engineering Doctoral Centre in Nuclear                 7,100,000.00
                        with Manchester      Engineering
                        University (Lead
                        Grant Holder)

EPSRC                   Dr B J Inkson and    Cerium metamaterial                                            271,604.00
                        Dr G Möbus

EPSRC                   Dr B J Inkson, Dr   Basic technology translation                                    742,026.00
                        G Möbus, Prof B H
                        Beton (Notts Univ),
                        A G Cullis (EEE)
                        and Prof P V Hatton
KTP Fund                Dr M Jackson         To carry out continuous extrusion (Conform) of                  10,000.00
                                             titanium powder with the aim of demonstrating a
                                             low cost solid state processing route

Technical Strategy Board Dr M Jackson and    Solid state downstream processing of titanium alloy            80,000.00
                         Dr I Todd           powder from the FFC Cambridge process

Metalysis Ltd           Dr M Jackson         Next generation high value titanium production in               84,623.00
                                             the UK

The Royal Academy of    Dr Mark Jepson       Travel Grant                                                       600.00

Airbus UK               Prof F R Jones and   Initial Scooping and Trials for AIRSTREAM (123936)               20,217.00
                        Dr S A Hayes         Project

Defence Science and     Prof F R Jones with Sample project Eng Mat study                                    260,891.00
Technology Laboratory   Dr J L Foreman

Cyprus RPF (Research    Dr A Leyland and     Collaborative nationally-funded project, Univ Cyprus            15,250.00
Promotion Foundation)   Prof A Matthews      (DLC coating testing and characterisation)

KTP Fund                Dr A Leyland,        Project with Technicut Ltd                                      150,137.00
                        Dr A Yerokhin and
                        Prof A Matthews

TSB Technology          Dr A Leyland and     Part of £1.9M project with Tecvac, Airbus UK,                  368,273.00
Programme(Sustainable   Prof A Matthews      Alstom, NMB-Minebea and NPL
Materials Call)

64                                                                    Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                               Research in Progress 2010

The Worshipful Company L Ma                          Travel Award                                                 700.00
of Armourers and Brasiers

Kirkstall Limited             Prof S MacNeil         Multicomponent bireactor technology for chemical           38,742.00

Sheffield Hospitals           Prof S MacNeil         Development of protocols for the translation of a         49,769.00
Charitable Trust                                     synthetic urethroplasty scaffold to the clinic

Sheffield Training            Prof S MacNeil         Burns Service Grant "Developing tissue engineered         56,750.00
Hospitals NHS Trust                                  skin for burns patients"

Framework 7                   Prof S MacNeil         CASCADE                                                   64,376.00

TSB                           Intercyclex,           Investigation of transport conditions for cell based      183,822.00
                              University of          products
                              Sheffield and
                              University of
                              (Award to
                              S MacNeil
Wellcome Affordable           Prof S MacNeil et al Development of a synthetic biodegradable cell              685,000.00
Healthcare in India                                carrier membrane for the transplantation of
                                                   cultured cells or freshly excised autologous tissue
                                                   (limbal segments or oral mucosa) for diseases of
                                                   the cornea

BBSRC                         Prof S MacNeil et al Doctoral Training Grant                                    763,459.00

DTC                           Prof S MacNeil with Tissue Engineering                                        6,000,000.00
                              Leeds and York

Yorkshire Forward             Prof A Matthews        Capacity Building project. Surface Engineering            79,640.00
                              and Dr A Leyland       Group (SEF), Year 4 follow-on funding

National Nuclear              Dr N B Milestone       Cement accelerated aging techniques                        17,000.00
Laboratory (NNL)

EPSRC                         Dr M I Ojovan, Dr G Feasibility study on monitoring of radiation-induced         80,029.00
                              Möbus and Dr K P nanoscale stress wave acoustic emission from
                              Travis              crystalline wasteforms

KTP Fund                      Dr E J Palmiere        with Noel Village (Steel Founder) Ltd                    144,468.00

EPSRC                         Prof I M Reaney and Bi0.8Nd0.2FeO3: A new PbO-free antiferroelectric            299,065.00
                              Prof D C Sinclair   ceramic

The N8 Molecular          Dr G Reilly with           A nanobiotechnology approach to the development           49,850.00
Engineering Translational Orla Protein               and trial of novel in vitro cell culture products
Research Centre           Technologies Ltd

Seagate Technology            Prof T Schrefl         Collaboration with Seagate Technology                      12,143.00

EPSRC                         Prof T Schrefl         Exchange spring magnetic thin films: The future           80,487.00
                                                     recording media

SMEA                          Mr L Sun               Travel Award for Thermec’09 Conference, Berlin               350.00

Siemens VAI                   Dr R P Thackray        PhD Studentship                                           36,000.00

Johnson Matthey               Dr I Todd              Ti-Pd injection moulding                                 100,000.00

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                    65
Research in Progress 2010

KTP Fund                 Dr I Todd              Project with PMS Diecasting Ltd and Beckett                     143,252.00
                                                Plastics Ltd

KTP Fund                 Dr I Todd/Dr R P       Project with LPW                                                133,000.00

EPSRC                    Dr I Todd with         SAMULET Project 5: Processing advanced materials                305,507.00
                         Prof K Ridgway
                         (Mech Eng)

Micro Metalsmiths        Prof P Tsakiropoulos                                                                   189,618.00

EPSRC                    Prof P Tsakiropoulos Structural metallic systems for advanced gas                      504,153.00
                                              turbine applications

EPSRC                    Prof P Tsakiropoulos Advanced Metallic Systems: Challenges in Global                6,300,000.00
                         and Dr B P Wynne Competitiveness
                         with Manchester

DTC                      Prof A R West          Sheffield Training in Interdisciplinary Energy               7,600,000.00
                                                Research (E-Futures)

BBSRC                    Prof P Wright and      Network in Synthetic Biology. MATEs - Microbial                 128,458.08
                         Prof R Poole           applications to tissue engineering: An exemplar of
                                                synthetic biology

Timet UK Ltd             Dr B P Wynne           Project Grant                                                    77,000.00

EPSRC - funded Structural Dr S Zhang            Preparation and Characterisation of Novel Carbons                67,383.00
Ceramics Centre at                              for Refractory Applications
Imperial College London

EPSRC                    Dr S Zhang             In-situ shock performance of lightweight ceramic                135,281.00

GRAND TOTAL                                                                                                 50,817,521.08

66                                                                        Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                       Research in Progress 2010

11. Department Highlights, 2009
11.1 Personal Highlights, 2009
Dr Dan Allwood                                              Dr Alison Beck
 • Visited the Advanced Light Source synchrotron in          • Presented “Positive ion mass spectrometry detec-
    Berkeley, California 7th-14th December 2008, with           tion from the atmospheric pressure plasma treat-
    Dr Matthew Bryan, Dr Tom Hayward and Placide                ment of polymers”, co-authored with Y Aranda
    Fundi. They had five days of beamtime to perform            Gonzalvo (Hiden Analytical Ltd), A Pilkington, A
    magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy measure-             Yerokhin and A Matthews, at the International
    ments of magnetic nanostructures. These included            Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC19), July
    imaging of interacting magnetic domain walls in             2009, Bochum, Germany.
    patterned Ni80Fe20 nanowires of the type being           • Co-authored “Influence of Implementation of
    developed for data storage and sensor applications.         Composite Materials in Civil Aircraft Industry
    While there, Dan Allwood gave a seminar presenta-           on Reduction of Environmental Pollution
    tion, “Patterned nanoscale magnetic field sources”.         and Greenhouse Effect”, with Alma Hodzic,
 • Attended the 53rd Magnetism and Magnetic                     Constantinos Soutis, Chris W Wilson, which was
    Materials conference in Austin, Texas 10th - 14th           presented at Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing
    November 2008. He gave an invited talk, “Magnetic           (TRAM09), Sheffield
    positioning of nerve cells”.
 • Gave an invited talk, “Magneto-optical Kerr effect       Dr Paul Bingham
    measurements of magnetic thin films and nanos-           • Gave an Invited Presentation, "Modified iron phos-
    tructures”, at the Institute of Physics Magnetism           phate glasses for waste immobilisation: advan-
    Group Postgraduate Workshop on 9th July 2008, at            tages and limitations" at the 12th Conference on
    The University of Manchester.                               the Physics of Non-Crystalline Materials in Iguassu
 • Attended the European Congress and Exhibition                Falls, Brazil, 6th-11th September. He also presented
    on Advanced Materials and Processes (EUROMAT),              a poster, "Speciation of sulphur in silicate glasses
    Glasgow, UK (7th - 10th September 2009).                    by X-ray absorption and X-Ray emission spectro-
 • Has been running a project with post-16 students at          scopies". The Crystallisation conference series took
    King Edward VII School every Wednesday afternoon            place after the PNCS conference and Dr Bingham,
    from October 2008 on next-generation magnetic               as a representative of the University of Sheffield,
    hard drive materials. The project is designed to            contributed a short presentation on Prof Peter
    allow students to use computer modelling to per-            James, in memory of whom a special session of the
    form research and learn from the model outcomes.            conference had been organised.
    One project aim is to produce a peer-reviewed            • Attended Materials Science and Technology 2009
    research paper that includes the students as                (MS&T'09), 25th-29th October, Pittsburgh, USA with
    authors.                                                    postgraduate student, Mohamed Salem and Daniel
                                                                Reid. Dr Bingham’s presentation, "An overview of
Asif Bashir                                                     recent UK glass development for ILW and HLW
 • Is author of the invited paper, “Concepts of 3D              immobilisation", was particularly well received and
     and multilayer recording media”, presented at              generated considerable discussion and debate.
     The Magnetic Recording Conference (TMRC) in                Mohamed Salem gave a presentation, “The effect of
     Singapore, 29th-31st July 2008.                            processing conditions and cooling rate on API-70
 • Research visit to Seagate Technologies Ireland, 26th         and X-100 grade steels” and Daniel Reid presented
     February 2009.                                             a paper at the “Materials Solutions for the Nuclear
 • Visited the Technical University of Vienna and St.           Renaissance” symposium at the conference,
     Polten University of Applied Sciences, Austria, 2nd-       “Synthesis and structures of Gd2(Zr2-xCex)O7: A
     11th March 2009, to conduct research with groups           model ceramic system for plutonium disposition”.
     in Austria. This visit was funded by the “Exchange
     Excellence Scheme”, awarded by the University of       Dr Matthew Bryan
     Sheffield.                                              • Visited the Advanced Light Source synchrotron in
 • Visited Seagate Technologies, Londonderry on 6th             Berkeley, California 7th-14th December 2008, with
     July 2009 with Professor Thomas Schrefl and David          Dr Dan Allwood, Dr Tom Hayward and Placide
     Hahn to discuss project ideas for magnetic record-         Fundi. They had five days of beamtime to perform
     ing up to 2.5 Tbit/in2.                                    magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy measure-
 • Attended IEEE Magnetics Society meeting at the               ments of magnetic nanostructures. These included
     University of Cardiff, 9th July 2009, and presented        imaging of interacting magnetic domain walls in
     a talk, “Microwave-assisted multilayer magnetic            patterned Ni80Fe20 nanowires of the type being
     recording for 3Tbit/in2”.                                  developed for data storage and sensor applications.
 • Visited Corus Steel, Scunthorpe, 29th July 2009, to       • Presented a talk, "Schwann cell alignment for nerve
     attend a poster prize ceremony.                            repair using magnetic microbeads", at the IEEE
 • Research visit to St. Polten University of Applied           Magnetics Society meeting, Sheffield, UK, 23rd July
     Sciences, Austria, 11th-17th October 2009.                 2008.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                               67
Research in Progress 2010
 • Attended the Joint European Magnetics                   Dr Joel Foreman
   Symposium, Dublin, Rep. Ireland (14th-19th               • Attended a conference (Composites 2009, 1st-3rd
   September 2008) and presented talks on                      April) and gave a presentation, “Modelling the Yield
   "Magnetic positioning of nerve cells" and "Geometry         Properties of a Trifunctional Epoxy Resin Based
   dependence of domain wall velocity in magnetic              Composite”.
   nanowires".                                              • Attended Thermosets 2009, Berlin, October, with
 • Attended the White Rose Work in Progress                    Prof Frank Jones.
   Meeting, Sheffield (18th Dec 2008) and presented
   a talk, "Magnetic positioning of nerve cells".          Emeritus Prof Fergus Gibb
 • Attended the European Congress and Exhibition            • Continued as a member of the Committee on
   on Advanced Materials and Processes (EUROMAT),             Radioactive Waste Management, whose remit is to
   Glasgow, UK (7th-10th September 2009) and pre-             provide advice to the Government and the Nuclear
   sented talks, "Effect of Permalloy Wire Dimensions         Decommissioning Authority on matters relating to
   on Domain Wall Dynamics" and "Positioning of               nuclear wastes.
   Schwann cells with Magnetic Microbeads".                 • Attended the Micro Analysis, Processes and
 • Attended the Condensed Matter and Materials                Time (MAPT) Conference, Edinburgh 31st August-
   Physics (CMMP) conference, University of                   2nd September where he Chaired the session
   Warwick, UK (15th-17th December 2009) and pre-             on “Mineralogy of Nuclear Waste”. This was an
   sented a talk, "Controlling transverse domain wall         international conference jointly organised by The
   chirality using nucleation pad structure" and a            Mineralogical Society of Great Britain, the Deutsche
   poster, "Reduced domain wall mobility due to inter-        Minealogische Gesellschaft, the Societe Français
   action with a superparamagnetic bead".                     de Mineralogie et de Crystallographie and the
 • Global Education Outreach (on-line, http://www.            International Association of Geoanalysts. "Improving your            • As a member of the Government’s advisory
   memory - Magnetic data storage" (talk)                     Committee on Radioactive Waste Management
                                                              (CoRWM), participated in a joint meeting of
Emeritus Prof Hywel Davies                                    CoRWM and the US Nuclear Waste Technical
 • Presented an invited keynote lecture, “Challenges          Review Board to discuss “matters of mutual inter-
   in the Further Development of Powder Processed             est relating to nuclear waste management and dis-
   Rare Earth-Iron-Boron Magnets” at the Elsevier PM          posal”.
   Asia 2009 Conference, Shanghai, China, 6th-8th April
   2009.                                                   Prof Mike Gibbs
 • Visited the South China University of Technology         • Attended the Programme Committee Meeting
   in Guangzhou (Canton), 10th-15th April 2009, where,         for INTERMAG 09, Sacramento, January. He was
   in a formal ceremony conducted by Prof Min Zhu,             involved in refereeing digests in the areas of mag-
   Vice President for Research, he was appointed               netic sensors and soft magnetic materials.
   Consulting Prof in the School of Materials Science       • Was elected to the grade of Senior Member of
   and Engineering. Prof Davies presented two                  the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic
   research lectures in the Department of Metallic             Engineers), the citation reading that this is "in rec-
   Materials Science and Engineering, entitled:                ognition of professional standing".
   “Influence of refractory metal additions on the          • Session chair at INTERMAG 09, Sacramento, USA.
   magnetic properties of nanocomposite hard mag-           • European Advisory Committee for INTERMAG 2014.
   nets” and “High glass forming ability for Cu-Hf-Ti       • Invited to join the Editorial board of IEEE Magnetics
   alloys with small additions of Y and Si”.                   Letters.
 • Presented an invited lecture, “The Future                • Hosted 3-month visit from Prof Ji-Bing Sun, Heibei
   of Nanocomposite Magnets for Practical                      University of Technology, China.
   Exploitation”, at a Symposium on Materials for a
   Sustainable Future, Birmingham University,              Dr Russell Goodall
   11th September.                                          • Recorded an invited online lecture on the
 • Prof Davies attended a dinner at Birmingham                 Mechanical Properties of Metals, for the European
   University to celebrate jointly Prof Rex Harris’ 70th       Space Agency as part of the European FP6
   birthday and Prof Ray Smallman’s 80th birthday.             IMPRESS Project. This lecture can be accessed on:
 • Chaired the first session of a Symposium on Bulk  
   Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Materials as part             &dm=1&PID=impresslect.
   of programme for the 2009 E-MRS Fall Meeting             • Attended meetings of the management committee
   held at Warsaw University of Technology in Poland           for the FP7 European Integrated project IMPRESS,
   on 14th-18th September. He also presented an                looking at TiAl intermetallics for turbine blades, in
   invited lecture, “The Influence of Heterogeneous            Les Diablerets, Switzerland and Budapest, Hungary.
   Nucleation on the Prediction of Glass Formability        • Attended EUROMAT 09 is Glasgow, where he had
   in Metallic Materials”, co-authored with Dr Ignacio         contributed to a keynote lecture and poster pres-
   Figueroa, Mr John Plummer and Dr Iain Todd.                 entation.

68                                                                     Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                         Research in Progress 2010
Dr Russell Hand                                              Dr John Haycock
 • Was appointed chair of Technical Committee                 • Was appointed as the new Director of the
    6 (Mechanical Properties of Glasses) of the                  University Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue
    International Commission on Glass.                           Engineering in 2009, taking over from Prof Sheila
 • Gave an invited lecture entitled “Silicate glasses:           MacNeil, who was its director from 2003. John’s
    hydration, chemistry and defects” (co-authored by            first few tasks in 2010 will be to re-vamp the centre
    Damir Tadjiev) EFONGA workshop "Glass surfaces               with a new website, re-focus the future direction
    and stress corrosion mechanisms at the nanos-                the centre and start a new programme of themed
    cale", held in Montpellier, France, 23rd-25th February       seminars.
    2009.                                                     • Was appointed as the Associate Director of the
 • Gave an invited lecture, "Stresses and stress meas-           Kroto Research Institute at the end of 2009. The
    urement", at the International Commission on Glass           primary role of the AD is to assist the Director
    advanced course on Strength of Glass, Erlangen,              (Prof. Steve Banwart) in research policy and imple-
    Germany, 25th-26th May 2009.                                 mentation and to represent the interests of staff in
 • Gave an invited talk “Interaction of glasses with a           the Kroto Research Institute at board meetings.
    GDF environment” at the RWIN XI meeting held in           • Was appointed as an external examiner for another
    Sheffield, UK, 23rd April 2009.                              year at the University of Manchester for the M.Res
 • Attended the Society of Glass Technology Annual               (Hons) postgraduate degree in TERM (Tissue
    Meeting in Lancaster, 16th-18th September 2009               Engineering and Regenerative Medicine). This is a
    where he gave an oral presentation entitled “The             1-year research and taught degree programme run
    (near surface) mechanical properties of durable              by the Medical School at Manchester.
    and non-durable silicate glasses” (co-authored by         • Ran an Expertissues short course at the University
    Damir Tadjiev).                                              of Oxford with Prof. Paul Hatton (Dental School,
                                                                 Sheffield) on the subject of “Biological and
Prof John Harding                                                Biomimetic Scaffold Materials” in June 2009. This
 • Was the senior organiser of a symposium                       was a residential course for 50 delegates, which
    “Molecular biomimetics and materials design” at              had a number of external invited speakers includ-
    the 2009 Fall Meeting of the Materials Research              ing Prof. Anthony Hollander (Bristol University) and
    Society at Boston, 30th November - 4th December              Dr David Knight (Oxford University and Director
    2009 where Colin Freeman presented a paper,                  of Oxford Biomaterials Ltd). Practical workshops
    "Simulating orientational specificity in the growth          and design problems were also integrated in to the
    of calcite on self-assembled monolayers". Prof               programme.
    Harding and Colin Freeman presented three post-           • Was elected to the UK TCES (Tissue and Cell
    ers; two in the area of biomineralisation and one in         Engineering Society) Executive Committee at
    the area of ferroelectrics on the role of defects in         the TCES Annual Meeting (which was held at the
    BaTiO3 (together with Hung-Ru Chen, Ben Lui Bin              University of Glasgow in June 2009).
    and Prof Derek Sinclair).                                 • Gave invited talks:
 • Organised a symposium on the theme of                         − “Confocal and 2-Photon Microscopy for 3D Skin
    Biominerals and Biomineralization at the MRS Fall              and Nerve Models”, at the Expertissues course
    Meetings (Boston) in December 2009 and present-                on “Preclinical Models and Imaging” in Radstadt,
    ed a couple of posters at the meeting.                         Salzburg, Austria (Organised by the Ludwig
 • Gave five invited talks at conferences:                         Boltzman Institute, Vienna, Austria), March 2009.
    − Nucleation and growth: a multiscale problem                − “Scaffolds and Surface Modification for
      (keynote: ICNAM May 2009), Bahrain.                          Bioengineering Peripheral Nerve”, at the
    − Simulating the role of amorphous and crys-                   Expertissues short course on ‘Biological and
      talline phases in biomineralisation (Max                     Biomimetic Scaffold Materials’ at the University of
      Planck Workshop – BioAmorPhys; Schloss                       Oxford, June 2009.
      Neuhardenberg, June 2009.                                  − “Creating Biological Structures and Function with
    − What can simulation contribute to the under-                 Scaffolds and Surface Chemistry”, at the UKSAF
      standing of biomineralisation? (13th IACIS                   (UK Surface Analysis Forum) Annual Meeting at
      International Conference on Surface and Colloid              the University of Nottingham, June 2009.
      Science; New York, June 2009).                             − “Bioengineering Nerves and the Fabrication of
    − Simple models for metal-ceramic interfaces                   Bioactive Surfaces” at the SHIC (Sheffield Health
      (CECAM Workshop, Zurich, July 2009).                         Innovation Centre) at the University of Sheffield,
    − Controlling crystal growth using organic mol-                October 2009.
      ecules, biomolecules and arrays (238th ACS                 − “Confocal and 2-photon Imaging for Cell and
      National Meeting and Exposition; Washington,                 Tissue Engineering – Applications in Nerve and
      August 2009).                                                Skin”, at the combined Krebs Institute and Kroto
    − Gave invited lecture at TU Eindhoven “The chal-              Research Institute Symposium on “Microscopy
      lenge of biomaterials to simulation”.                        and Imaging”, October 2009.
 • Overall organiser of the CCP5 International                   − “Bioreactors for Peripheral Nerve Tissue
    Summer School in Molecular Simulation                          Engineering”, at the University of Keele short
    (Sheffield, July 2009) and gave some lectures                  course on “Bioreactors”, November 2009.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                 69
Research in Progress 2010
   − “Research in to Tissue and Bioengineering”, at          • Attended the IMMPETUS Colloquium, Sheffield, 7th-
     the University of Durham (Biophysical Sciences            8th April 2009.
     Research Institute), November 2009.                     • Was Expert Member of the European Commission/
 • John’s group attended the TCES Annual Meeting at            RFCS annual TGS6 meeting, “Physical metallurgy
   the University of Glasgow in June 2009, with talk           and design of new generic steel grades”, Portugal,
   and poster presentations given on scaffolds for             5th-7th May 2009.
   nerve tissue engineering and the use of stem cells        • Attended the IPTME Research Day, Loughborough
   for nerve repair.                                           University, Leicester, 9th June 2009.
 • Was invited to lead a discussion group (together          • Attended the SMEA Conference, Sheffield, “Alloys
   with Dr Gwen Reilly) on the subject of ‘Tissue              for critical applications”, 7th-8th July 2009.
   Engineered Models as Alternatives to Animal               • Was participant at the HEFCE/Impact of Research
   Testing’ at the Medical Innovation Forum held at            (REF) discussion day, London, 13th July 2009.
   Harrogate International Centre in December 2009.          • Presented an invited talk at the Thermec 2009
 • Was invited to become an editor for a Methods in            Conference, Berlin, 25th-29th August 2009.
   Molecular Biology book entitled 3D Cell Culture, by       • Was European Commission RFCS/TGS6 proposal
   the original creator of the MiMB series Prof. John          evaluator, “Physical metallurgy and design of new
   Walker. MiMB books are recognised worldwide                 generic steel grades”, Brussels, 23rd-27th November
   as essential academic method texts and over 200             2009.
   different book topics have been published to date.        • Attended the M2i Conference, “Materials to inno-
   Much of 2009 was devoted to the creation of 3D              vate industry and society”, Noordwijkerhout,
   Cell Culture which, after the goodwill of 56 authors        Netherlands, 7th-8th December 2009.
   contributing 20 chapters, is now with the publish-
   ers at Humana Press (New York).                          Dr Gino Hrkac
                                                             • Was invited to give four invited talks on magnetic
Dr Simon Hayes                                                  spintronics one at the American Physical Society
 • Presented a paper, “Novel interlayers for self-heal-         Meeting in the USA, one at NIMS in Japan and two
    ing sandwich structures”, at the 2nd International          at UNAM in Mexico.
    Conference on Self-Healing Materials in Chicago in          − “Current driven vortex oscillations in metallic
    July.                                                         nano contacts”, co-authored with T Schrefl,
                                                                  Q Mistral, M van Kampen, Joo-Von Kim,
Dr Tom Hayward                                                    T Devolder, P Crozat, C Chappert, L Lagae, at the
 • Visited the Advanced Light Source synchrotron in               American Physical Society APS meeting March 2009.
    Berkeley, California 7th-14th December 2008, with           − “Micromagnetics of spin torque nano-oscilla-
    Dr Dan Allwood, Dr Matthew Bryan and Placide                  tors”, at the International Center for Materials
    Fundi. They had five days of beamtime to perform              Nanoarchitronics and Magnetic Materials, NIMS,
    magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy measure-               Sengen, Japan, October 2008.
    ments of magnetic nanostructures. These included            − “Spin Torque, Micromagnetic Approach and
    imaging of interacting magnetic domain walls in               Applications” and “Micromagnetism of Magnetic
    patterned Ni80Fe20 nanowires of the type being                Nanostructures”, at the Universidad Nacional
    developed for data storage and sensor applications.           Autónoma de México, UNAM, August 2008.
 • Gave an invited seminar at the Cavendish                  • Given 5 contributed talks at international confer-
    Laboratory, University of Cambridge, “Domain                ences (Intermag, MMM, Jems) and published 17
    Walls: Nanoscopic Magnetic Field Sources".                  papers (3 first author and 14 joint publications).
 • Attended the European Congress and Exhibition             • Was awarded the Royal Society University Research
    on Advanced Materials and Processes (EUROMAT),              Fellowship, Fundamentals of spin-torque induced
    Glasgow, UK (7th-10th September 2009) and pre-              magnetisation dynamics, Award 2009-2014 (PI GBP
    sented a talk, "Switchable Nanomagnetic Atom                421,275).
    Mirrors" and a poster, "Coupled Domain Wall              • Was awarded the EPSRC Bridging the Gaps, Pump-
    Structure in Planar Magnetic Nanowires".                    Priming Award, Ferrofluid-based microscale dosage
 • Attended Condensed Matter and Materials Physics              device Award 2008 (PI, GBP 4,800).
    (CMMP) conference, University of Warwick, UK
    (15th- 17th December 2009) and presented a talk,        Dr Beverley Inkson
    "Design and characterisation of a switchable             • Gave an invited talk to the Dept of Physics, The
    nanomagnetic atom mirror" and a poster, "Direct             University of Exeter, February 2009, entitled
    imaging of domain wall interactions in NiFe planar          “Nanomaterials in Motion”.
    nanowires".                                              • Gave an invited talk to MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, and
                                                                the Tribology Department, Ecole Centrale de Lyon,
Prof Andy Howe                                                  Lyon, France, March 2009, “Dynamical testing of
 • Was a participant at a Materials Prioritisation Panel,       Nanomaterials in TEM”.
    Swindon, 12th February 2009.                             • Gave an invited talk to the Department of
 • Was “Opponent” to V Savran’s PhD defense                     Mechanical Engineering, The Indian Institute of
    “Austenite formation in C-Mn steel” at TUDelft, 23rd        Science (IISc), Bangalore, India, August 2009,
    February 2009.                                              “Dynamical analysis of Nanomaterials”.

70                                                                     Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                       Research in Progress 2010
  • Gave an invited lecture to the Advanced School          • In February, he attended the International
    on Nanofabrication and Nanomanipulation, IOP              Conference on Hi-Tech Materials (ICHTM-09) held
    EMAG Conference, Sheffield, September 2009,               at The Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur,
    “Introduction to Focused Ion Beam Microscopy”.            India. This IIT is the first and the most senior of the
  • Dr Inkson, Aiden Lockwood and Dr Daved                    Indian Institutes. He was invited to present a paper,
    Deivasagayam have had an active collaboration             “Smart self-healing composites”, to a conference
    with Dr M S Bobji and group at the Department of          including more that 34 international delegates.
    Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science       The paper was co-authored with Dr Simon Hayes,
    (IISc), Bangalore India. Exchance visits in March and     Wenting Zhang, Dr Leon Hou and Mohammed Jamil.
    August 2009 have been funded by a joint NanoLAB-          Prof Jones also chaired a session at the conference
    IISc UKIERI NanoBALLS project.                            on various aspects of conducting polymers.
  • Dr Inkson and Aiden Lockwood hosted a collabora-        • Also in February, Prof Jones hosted a workshop,
    tive visit from Dr Lucille Joly-Pottuz and Dr Laurent     “Polymers that help themselves”, co-organised with
    Gremillard, MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, France 6th-7th          the IRC in Polymers (Leeds University) Polymer
    July 2009 to work on the nanoscale mechanical             Centre for the Polymer Innovation Network, on
    properties of zirconia.                                   Self-healing Polymers and Composites. He pre-
  • Dr Inkson organised the “Mechanical                       sented an introduction on “Self-sensing Damage
    Characterisation using in-situ Methods                    for Heal”. Other speakers came from Holland and
    Symposium”, at the international EUROMAT 2009             Bristol.
    conference, Glasgow, UK, 7th-10th September.            • Attended the 17th International Conference on
    Robert Milne gave an oral presentation, “Cyclic           Composite Materials in Edinburgh in August. He
    mechanical testing of aluminium nanostructures”.          gave the opening plenary lecture at the meeting,
  • Dr Inkson organised a one-day joint IOM3 and              “From Atoms to Aeroplanes – Towards a Design
    UK NanoFIB Network meeting “NanoFIB 2009:                 Methodology for Composite Materials”. The open-
    Advances in Focused Ion Beam microscopy”.                 ing lecture was The Scala Award Lecture which
    The meeting was held on 16th March at Wadham              he had received in 2007 from the International
    College, Oxford and attracted over 50 researchers         Committee on Composite Materials. He was
    and exhibitors. Dr Mark Jepson chaired a session,         presented with a certificate for the Scala Award
    and a poster presentation was given by F Elfallagh        and his entitlement to the title “World Fellow of
    and B J Inkson, “3D analysis of crack morphologies        ICCM”. This was the largest international confer-
    in silicate glass using FIB tomography”.                  ence on composite materials ever held. Prof Jones
                                                              co-Chaired the mini symposium on Interfaces and
Dr Martin Jackson                                             Interphases in Composite Materials. There were
 • Presented two papers, "Surface Conditioning                three sessions and an interactive poster session
    of Aerospace Titanium Alloys" and                         arranged to present work on interfacial aspects
    "Thermomechanical Processing of high Strength             in composite materials. Prof Jones chaired the
    Landing Gear Forgings" at Aeromat 2009 (Dayton,           first session of the interfaces and interphases mini
    Ohio).                                                    symposium, together with Prof N Ikuta from the
                                                              Shonan Institute in Japan. Within the interfaces
Dr Mark Jepson                                                mini symposium a collaborative paper with Prof
 • Made a research visit to Harvard University to make        Jones was presented. Arran Wood presented the
    use of their Helium Ion Microscope in August 2009.        paper co-authored with Profs J F Watts, P A Smith,
    Dr Jepson also gave seminar at Harvard University’s       University of Surrey, Dr Edith Maeder and S L
    Nanoscale Science and Engineering, “Secondary             Gaoof the Liebnitz Institute of Polymer Research,
    electron dopant imaging in the scanning electron          Dresden. Dr Zheng Liu was also a co-author of
    microscope and helium ion microscope”.                    the paper, “Interfacial Properties of Glass Fibres in
 • Visited the Carl Zeiss facility in Peabody,                Nanoparticulate Reinforced Polyester Resin”.
    Massachusetts in August 2009.                           • Other papers presented were:
 • Visited University College London on two occa-             − Mohammed Jamil, “Development of Self-Healing
    sions to make use of their triple-beam FIB. These           Resin Matrices for Composites”, within the smart
    visits were funded by the Engineering and Physical          composites application mini symposium, co-
    Sciences Research Council.                                  authored with Prof Jones.
 • Gave a poster presentation, “Progress towards site-        − Dr Joel Foreman, in the Damage Mechanics and
    specific dopant profiling in the scanning electron          Multi-scaled Modelling session, “Rate Dependent
    microscope”, co-authored with B J Inkson,                   Multi-scale Modelling of a Fibre Reinforced
    R Beanland, C J Humphreys and C Rodenburg.                  Composite”. The paper was co-authored
                                                                with Prof David Porter (Visiting Prof in the
Emeritus Prof Frank Jones                                       Department) and Dr Shabnam Behzadi, Prof Paul
 • Appeared on the Naked Scientist Radio Show to                Curtis (Visiting Prof) and Prof Jones.
   discuss his work on self-healing materials and can         − Cheng Cheng Wang, “The Role of the Thermal
   be heard on               Induced Residual Stresses in a Single Fibre
   HTML/content/interviews/interview/1045/.                     Thermoplastic Model Composite”, co-authored
                                                                with Prof Jim Thomason from the University of
                                                                Strathclyde and Prof Jones.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                 71
Research in Progress 2010
   − Peter Bailey, “Novel Interlayers for Self-Healing    Prof Sheila MacNeil
     Sandwich Structures”, co-authored with                • Gave invited presentations as follows:
     Dr Simon Hayes.                                          − “Polymers and bugs and skin - an interdisciplinary
 • Prof Jones also chaired a session of the                     approach to developing antibacterial polymers
   Deformation and Fracture mini symposium organ-               for wound healing”, KREBS Institute, Sheffield,
   ised by Prof C Soutis and Dr A Hodzic.                       27th January 2009.
 • Dr N Ikuta of the Shonan Institute, Japan also vis-        − Invited contributor to EPSRC Stem Cell
   ited the Department, together with Dr Fang Ming              Consultation Day, London, 16th March 2009.
   Zhao, a former postdoctoral fellow now based at            − “Clinical experiences in the use of tissue engi-
   International Paints in Newcastle. Dr Zheng Liu              neered skin and oral mucosa”, Bridge European
   hosted the visit in Prof Jones’ absence.                     Network Meeting, Cells and Tissues as
 • Dr T Kamai from Toray Ltd, Japan, the major car-             Therapeutic Tools, Granada. Invited speaker, 24th
   bon fibre manufacturer, visited the Department to            April 2009.
   discuss interfacial micromechanics and chemistry           − “Bug-detecting polymers”, Harry Kroto
   with Prof Jones.                                             Symposium, 17th June 2009.
                                                              − “Designing synthetic scaffolds to take the place
Dr Plato Kapranos                                               of human dermis for soft tissue reconstruction”,
 • Spent 5 days on a visit to the Faculty of Metals             Tissue and Cell Engineering Society, Glasgow, 8th-
    Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH            10th June 2009.
    University of Science and Technology, Krakow.             − “Development of Biopolymers for Tissue
    During his stay he carried out experiments using            Engineering and Wound Healing Purposes”,
    as feedstock M2 tool steel produced by GFM and              Controlled Release Society Copenhagen, 18th-22nd
    by Sprayforming, with his Polish colleagues, Prof           July 2009.
    Dutkiewicz and Dr Solek. He also made a presen-           − “Development of biomaterials for tissue engineer-
    tation to the faculty of Engineering, “Processing           ing and wound healing”, Swinburne Institute of
    materials in the semi-solid state”.                         Technology, 13th October 2009.
 • Attended the International Conference, “Hot                − “Tissue engineering of skin and other epithelial
    Forming of Steels and Product Properties”, Grado/           tissues – in vitro and clinical experiences”, CSIRO
    Italy, 13th-16th September 2009, and gave a keynote         Melbourne, 4th November 2009.
    presentation, “Thixoforming M2 tool steel - a study       − “Tissue engineering of skin and other epithelial
    of different feedstock routes”, co-authored with            tissues including cornea”, CSIRO Sydney, 10th
    Dr D H Kirkwood. The work presented was unpub-              November 2009.
    lished material from research at the Department,          − “Clinical experiences with tissue engineered
    supported by ACME (Application of Computers                 skin”, The O’Brian Institute, St Vincent’s Hospital
    to Manufacturing Engineering) The Directorate of            Campus, Melbourne, 26th November 2009.
    Science and Engineering Research Council 1989-            − “Tissue engineering of skin from in vitro to in vivo
    1995.                                                       to commercialisation”, Deakin University, Geelong,
 • Visited ASCAMM Technological Research Centre                 Victoria, Australia 28th November 2009.
    at Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, October 2009         − “Tissue engineering of skin and biomaterials for
    and made a presentation to their research staff,            wound healing”, Auckland University, Faculty of
    “Thixoforming - Past, Present and Future?” and              Life Sciences, 11th December 2009.
    discussed future collaboration on Semi-Solid
    Processing of Metal Alloys. During the same           Dr Steve Matcher
    trip, he also attended a COST-THIXOSTEEL 451,          • Presented with M Bonesi "Measurement of
    Management Committee meeting, organised by                Microvascular Apparent Pulse Wave Velocity
    Prof Dr Antonio Forn, Director of the Light Alloys        Using Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography" at
    and Surface Treatments Design Center (CDAL),              the European Conference on Biomedical Optics,
    Technical University of Catalonia in Vilanova i           Munich, 15th-18th June 2009. Dr Matcher also pre-
    la Geltrú and discussed further collaboration             sented "Optical Coherence Tomography", at the
    between the institutions within the COST Short            Optical Technologies and Measurement Network
    Term Scientific Missions (STSM) of which he is the        Meeting, NPL, 24th-25th June 2009.
    managing co-ordinator.
                                                          Prof Allan Matthews
Aiden Lockwood                                             • Attended the 17th International Conference on Wear
 • Was awarded an EPSRC/University of Sheffield               of Materials (WoM 2009), 19th-23rd April, Las Vegas
    Doctoral Prize Fellowship. This will be to develop        and presented a Keynote paper, “Aspects of tribo-
    his work on Dynamical Testing of MEMS structures          logical coating design and selection”, co-authored
    in the NanoLAB from October 2009-October 2010.            with K Holmberg, S Franklin and A Leyland. Prof
 • Was awarded an Outstanding Student Poster Prize            Matthews chaired the session “Wear of thin films
    at the IOP EMAG 2009 conference for his poster of         and coatings, surface engineering for wear control”.
    the paper A J Lockwood, M S Bobji, R J T Bunyan
    and B J Inkson, MEMS nanostructure deformation
    and nano-contact adhesion by in-situ TEM nanoin-

72                                                                    Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                        Research in Progress 2010
  • Attended the 52nd Society of Vacuum Coaters             Prof John Parker
    Annual Technical Conference (SVC 2009), 9th-14th         • Visited Ghana, at the invitation of British Council,
    May, Santa Clara, USA with Dr John Eichler and              14th-18th November. The purpose of this visit was to
    presented a poster paper, “The effect of superfin-          provide support for two AKTPs involving industrial
    ishing and PVD/CVD coatings on torque and tem-              partners making glazed ceramic cooking ware and
    perature of SAE52100 rolling element ball bearings          roof tiles working in conjunction with the Institute
    under starved lubrication conditions”, co-authored          of Industrial Research (CSIR) in Accra. AKTPs
    with G L Doll and A Leyland. Prof Matthews                  (African Knowledge Transfer Partnerships) follow
    also chaired a Technology Forum Breakfast on                a similar pattern to KTPs in the UK and have only
    “Tribological Coatings”.                                    recently been introduced into Ghana. The final day
  • Hosted a visit by Professor Lyubov Snizhko from             of the visit centred around a one day conference
    Dnepropertovsk (Ukraine) visited the RCSE from              organised by British Council and aimed at promot-
    24th August to 4th October, within the EPSRC                ing the programme to a wider audience; approxi-
    “Bridging the Gaps” Visiting Scholar scheme, to             mately 100 people attended including the Deputy
    work on the project on Mathematical modelling of            Minister for Trade and Industry. I was left with a
    growth processes for anodic oxide films on Al and Mg.       strong impression of an enthusiastic and friendly
                                                                group of people working innovatively but within
Dr Günter Möbus                                                tight constraints such as limited access to equip-
 • Gave an invited lecture at the Materials Department          ment. A number of opportunities for joint research,
    of Oxford University about “Modern Electron                 exchange programmes and student recruitment
    Tomography”, 13th March 2009.                               presented themselves and will be followed up.
 • Attended the workshop “Understanding Materials            • Received a Service Excellence Award at the 3rd
    through Electron Microscopes: Realising the                 Services excellence Awards Ceremony to recognise
    Potential”, 22nd-24th April 2009 at Imperial College        and celebrate the high levels of service provided
    in London, and gave an invited talk about “Unsolved         from staff from across the organisation.
    problems in imaging”.
 • Attended the MRS spring meeting, San Francisco,          Dr Yong Peng
    13-17th April 2009 gave an oral presentation,            • Attended the Ion Beam Centre Training Course, and
    “Hybrid Electron Tomography”, co-authored with              Ion Beam Centre Workshop, 30th March to 3rd April
    Z Saghi, T Gnanavel, W Guan, and X Xu.                      2009, Surrey University, followed by joint experi-
 • Attended the EELS-workshop “Edge 2009”, a                    mental sessions on their equipment.
    four-yearly meeting of the electron energy loss          • Attended ChinaNANO 2009, Beijing, China, 1st-3rd
    spectroscopy community, Banff, Canada, , 17th-22nd          September 2009. He gave an oral paper, “Electrical
    May 2009, and gave an oral presentation, “Electron          nanowelding bottom-up nano-construction togeth-
    Tomography and EELS”, co-authored with W Guan,              er using nanoscale solder”, co-authored with A G
    Z Saghi and T Gnanavel.                                     Cullis and B J Inkson.

Dr Nicola Morley                                            Tony Pilkington
 • Became a member of the UK Magnetics Society               • Attended the 2nd HSS-Forum “Smart Solutions for
    Committee.                                                  the Future of Metal Cutting”, Quellenhof, Aachen,
                                                                Germany, 20th-21st January. The conference cov-
Dr Eric Palmiere                                                ers a diverse range of topics concerned with the
 • At the request of the Materials Society (MatSoc),            technology of HSS manufacture, HSS metallurgy,
    Dr Palmiere recently organised a trip to the local          metalworking, cutting tool manufacture and sur-
    company Sheffield Forgemasters International                face coatings.
    Limited, for Materials Science and Engineering
    undergraduates. The trip was hosted by Dr               John D Plummer
    Jesus Talamantes-Silva (who is a former member           • Presented a paper at The Minerals, Metals and
    IMMPETUS and a University of Sheffield gradu-               Materials Society (TMS) 2009 annual conference,
    ate), and was designed to give students an insight          San Francisco 15th-19th February, "Elastic moduli-
    into the manufacture and processing of steels               mechanical property relationships in bulk metallic
    and also a chance to relate theoretical knowledge           glasses", co-authored with I A Figueroa, R J Hand,
    from lectures (particularly the Industrial Materials        H A Davies and I Todd. John also visited the
    Processing module) with real applications in indus-         Diamond Light Source synchrotron facility in
    try. Those in attendance, mainly second years,              Oxfordshire, 27th February-3rd March, to investigate
    found the trip thoroughly interesting and an invalu-        stress induced martensite formation in bulk metal-
    able experience.                                            lic glasses, via microfocus XRD and EXAFS.

                                                            Prof Mark Rainforth
                                                             • On completion of 3 year role as President of the
                                                                Royal Microscopical Society, was elected Vice
                                                                President and International Secretary.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                73
Research in Progress 2010
 • Attended the 17th International Conference on Wear        − at the Ceramics and Glass Symposum, PACRIM
   of Materials (WoM 2009); 19th-23rd April, Las.              2009, Vancouver, May.
   Three papers were presented and subsequently              − at the National Institute of Standard Technology,
   published, “Wear mechanisms experienced by a                July 2009.
   work roll grade high speed steel under different          − at the Pennsylvania State University, July 2009.
   environmental conditions”, co-authored with               − at the MRS meeting, Cancun, Mexico, August 2009.
   N Garza-Montes-deOca, “Wear study of retrieved          • Attended a study visit to the University of Aveiro,
   alumina hip replacements”, co-authored with A             Portugal, April-September 2009
   Rana, P Zend and B J Inkson, and “Application           • Reviewed “SMARTPIE”, an academic/industrial pie-
   of combined discrete/finite element multiscale            zoelectric large grant from the Dutch Government,
   method for modelling of Mg redistribution dur-            as an International Expert.
   ing hot rolling of aluminium”, co-authored with M
   Krzyzanowski. In addition, as a member of the WoM      Dr Gwendolen Reilly
   steering committee, attended review meetings of         • Chaired a special “European Society for
   the 17th meeting and planning meetings for the 18th        Biomechanics” session at the World Congress
   Conference in 2011.                                        on Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig, Germany on
 • Gave a Plenary Lecture at the Homi Bhabha                  Biomechanics in Regenerative Medicine, 29th-31st
   Centenary Conference in Mumbai, India (2nd-5th             October. She also presented a poster, “Human
   December), “Recent Step Changes in Microscopy -            Mesenchymal Stem Cell Responses to Steady and
   a Revolution in Our Ability to Understand Material         Oscillatory Fluid Flow in a Porous Scaffold” for
   Microstructure”. The conference, “Science and              which the first author was Biomedical Engineering
   Technology at the Frontiers” attracted just short          MEng student Amos Matsiko.
   of a 1000 people. Homi Bhabha is an iconic figure       • Gave an invited seminar at the University of Keele,
   in India and internationally known for both his            “Mechanical signal transduction in bone tis-
   research and leadership, elected an FRS by the             sue engineering” and at the University of Aveiro,
   age of 31. The conference, which celebrated his            Portugal, “Bone tissue engineering at the University
   life, opened by CN Yang (Physics Nobel Laureate),          of Sheffield”.
   with other talks included the UNESCO Director           • Attended the Bone Research Society conference in
   of Agriculture, the Astronomer Royal, Sergio               London, UK and co-authored two papers, ”ATPase
   Bertolucci (Director of CERN, also Physics Nobel           activity and ATP release in osteoblast cultures” in
   Laureate), the Director of the Office of the French        collaboration with researchers from the Mellanby
   High Commissioner for Atomic Energy, the Head              Centre for Bone Research and “Short bouts of
   of the Cavendish and many others. Prof Rainforth,          dynamic compressive loading stimulate mineralized
   who gave the only Materials based talk, also visited       matrix production by human mesenchymal stem
   the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, which has               cells (hMSC) on 3-D polyurethane scaffolds”.
   three operational research nuclear reactors.
 • Gave two invited lectures at EuroMAT 2008,             Dr Cornelia Rodenburg
   Glasgow, “Hydrothermal Degradation of Tetragonal        • Was invited to present “Quantitative dopant map-
   Zirconia Polycrystals For Prosthetic Devices: Effect       ping in semiconductors using the ORION plus”,
   of Al2O3 and La2O3 Additions” and “High tempera-           co-authored with M A E Jepson, B J Inkson and
   ture tribological behaviour of high hardness, nano-        X Liu, at Carl Zeiss’s 1st Crossbeam/Orion work-
   scale multilayer coatings”.                                shop, Dresden, April 2009.
 • Attended the International Society for Technology       • Attended the 1st European CrossBeam and Helium
   in Arthroplasty, 22nd Annual ISTA Congress in Kona,        Ion Microscope User Workshop, Dresden, April
   Hawaii and presented a talk, “Advanced microscopy          2009. She gave an invited talk, “Quantitative dopant
   of alumina-on-alumina hip prostheses: in vivo and          mapping in semiconductors using the Orion plus”,
   in vitro studies”.                                         co-authored with M A E Jepson, B J Inkson.
 • Gave invited lecture at the 2009 HIPIMS confer-         • See
   ence, Sheffield, “High temperature degradation             reports/1st-european-crossbeam-and-helium-ion-
   mechanisms of multilayer coatings”.                        microscope-user-workshop?c=
 • Appointed to the Technical Opportunities Panel          • Attended the Microscopy of semiconducting mate-
   (TOP) of the EPSRC.                                        rials XVI international Conference in Oxford, March
 • Acted as a panel member for the Austrian compe-            2009 with Dr Mark Jepson. Dr Rodenburg gave an
   tence centre COMET –K2 XTribology.                         oral presentation, “Energy filtered scanning elec-
                                                              tron microscopy: application to dopant contrast”,
Prof Ian M Reaney                                             co-authored with M A E Jepson, B J Inkson, E Bosch,
 • Was awarded the “Best KTP” building EPSRC-                 A K W Chee and C J Humphreys.
    funded research for 2008.                              • Visited the Carl Zeiss Innovation Centre in Dresden,
 • Was awarded Outstanding for KTP “Glass Ceramics            Germany to carry out Helium Ion Microscopy in
    and Dielectrically Loaded Antennas”.                      April 2009 and August 2009.
 • Gave Invited talks:
    − at the Advanced Ceramics and Composites,
      Daytona Beach, USA, January 2009.

74                                                                    Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                      Research in Progress 2010
  • Attended the Electron Microscopy and Analysis          • Attended the Installation Dinner of the Worshipful
    Group meeting in Sheffield, September 2009.              Company of Constructors in the Drapers Hall in
    Dr Rodenburg gave an oral presentation, “Energy          London, 14th October, where he was the principal
    Filtered Scanning Electron Microscopy: applica-          guest and responded to the toast to the guests and
    tions to characterisation of semiconductors”, co-        proposed a toast to the Worshipful Comapany and
    authored with M A E Jepson, B J Inkson, E Bosch,         its new Master.  The new Master is Dr Christine
    A K W Chee and C J Humphreys. Dr Rodenburg               Rigden (formerly Bland), who is the first Lady
    also presented a poster, “Dopant Contrast in the         Master of the Company and graduated from the
    Helium Ion Microscope”, co-authored with M A E           Department with a PhD around 1990. Prof Sharp
    Jepson, B J Inkson, X Liu.                               took the opportunity to emphasise the country's
                                                             need for more well-qualified engineers and to ask
Ms Zineb Saghi                                               the Worshipful Company to encourage more tal-
 • Attended the Microscopy Congress 2009 in Graz,            ented young women to take up engineering studies
    Austria, 31st August-4th September 2009 and pre-         at University and to enter the relevant industries.
    sented a paper, “Prospects of Atomic Electron
    Tomography using Aberration Corrected TEM”, co-       Prof Derek Sinclair
    authored with I M Ross and G Möbus.                    • Became a Panel Member on the National Science
                                                              Foundation (NSF) “World Materials Network”,
Prof Thomas Schrefl                                           Washington, March 2009.
 • Was invited to give one keynote talk and four           • Visited the Physics Academy of Sciences of the
    invited talks on advanced numerical methods and           Czech Republic, Prague, March 2009 with Prof Ian
    recording simulations. Furthermore he filed one           Reaney, to discuss on-going collaborations with
    patent on magnetic storage devices.                       Stanislav Kamba and Jan Petzelt on Raman and
 • Keynote talk: “Collective demagnetization proc-            Terahertz spectroscopic studies of complex per-
    esses in NdFeB sintered magnets”, 2009 Spring             ovskites.
    Annual Meeting of The Japan Institute of Metals,       • Visited the Chemistry Department at the
    28th March 2009.                                          Universidad Complutense de Madrid, July 2009, to
 • Invited talks:                                             discuss on-going collaborations with the group of
    − “Simulation of Spin Torque Oscillators using Fast       José Calbet-Gonzalez on crystallographic studies of
      Integral Methods”, Mathmod 2009, Vienna, 13th           hexagonal perovskites.
      February 2009.                                       • Was Chairman of the EPSRC Materials Panel
    − “Micromagnetic Finite Element Simulation                Meeting, October 2009.
      Including Spin Torque Currents”, Algoritmy 2009,     • Gave invited talks:
      Vysoke Tatry, Podbanske, 16th March 2009                − “The time constant – the forgotten man of imped-
    − “Global optimization of perpendicular writers”,           ance spectroscopy”, at the 33rd International
      The Magnetic Recording Conference, Tuscaloosa,            Conference on Advanced Ceramics and
      Alabama, 5th October 2009.                                Composites (American Ceramic Society), Daytona
    − “Global geometry optimization of magnetic                 Beach, Florida, USA.
      recording heads”, International Workshop on             − “Slicing through perovskite space: the search
      Multiscale Simulation of Magnetic Materials,              for new/improved dielectrics”, Departmental
      University of Konstanz, 9th December 2009.                Seminar, Chemistry Departments, St Andrew’s
 • US-Patent Application: 07/27/2009 "Magnetic                  University.
    Storage Device", Serial Number 12/509,540. The            − “What are the dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12?”
    application was jointly done with the Vienna                European Materials Research Society (E-MRS),
    University of Technology and The University of              Strasbourg, France, 8th-11th June 2009.
    Sheffield. This was a joint invention by Dieter           − “Structure-property relationships of ACu3Ti4TiO12
    Suess Dieter, Muhammad Asif Bashir, and Thomas              perovskites”, Spanish Electroceramics Annual
    Schrefl.                                                    Congress, Leganes, Madrid, Spain, 28th-30th June
Emeritus Prof John H Sharp                                    − “Exploring the dielectric properties of B-site defi-
 • Attended the Fred Glasser Cement Science                     cient hexagonal persovskites”, Materials Science
   Symposium, Aberdeen, 17th-19th June 2009, in                 and Technology (MS&T2009) Meeting, American
   honour of Prof Glasser's 80th birthday.  He is well          Ceramic Society, Pittsburg, USA, 25th-30th
   known in Sheffield over forty years as an examiner           October 2009.
   at all levels from B Eng to PhD.  Prof Sharp was the       − “Structure-composition-dielectric property
   Facilitator for Theme 2: “Novel Cement Systems               relationships in titanate-based perovskites”,
   (Sustainability)”, which involved contact before-            Department Seminar, Department of Physics,
   hand with the speakers and chairing the session.             Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain,
                                                                1st July 2009.
                                                              − “Unravelling the electrical properties of
                                                                ACu3Ti4O32 perovskites”, Polar Solids UK meeting,
                                                                Open University, 17th-18th December 2009.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                               75
Research in Progress 2010
Tim Swait                                                       • Attended the annual meeting of the Eurocores
 • Gave a presentation, "Identification of interfacial            SONS network SCALES with Dr Xiangbing Zeng,
    and interphasal failure in composites of plasma               6th-8th July. The meeting was held in Warsaw but
    polymer coated fibres” at the Deformation and                 organised by Sheffield. Prof Ungar gave a talk,
    Fracture of Composites 10 conference held in                  “Critical behaviour in multicolour LC honeycombs”,
    Sheffield. He also submitted a paper of the same              while Dr Zeng talked about “New thermotropic
    title in the special issue of Composites Part A,              cubic phases in T-shaped molecules”.
    which covers the conference.                                • Gave an invited lecture, “Complex soft organic
                                                                  and hybrid nanostructures”, at the 1st International
Damir Tadjiev                                                     Symposium on Chemical Convergence for Energy
 • Attended the 8th Pacific Rim Conference on                     and Environment, Seoul, Korea, 25th August 2009.
   Ceramic and Glass Technology, 31st May - 5th June            • Attended the 40th Anniversary Conference of the
   2009, Vancouver, BC, Canada and gave a presenta-               British Association for Crystal Growth in Bristol,
   tion, “Near surface mechanical properties of mixed             6th-8th September, and gave a keynote lecture,
   alkaline earth silicate glasses”, co-authored with             “Self-Poisoning in Polymer Crystallization”.
   Dr Russell J Hand.                                           • Gave an invited talk at the Annual Meeting of
                                                                  the Korean Society of Industrial Chemistry, 15th
Dr Richard Thackray                                               October.
 • Was Chairman of the Iron and Steel Society of the            • Delivered the Distinguished Lecturer Series talk,
    IOM3.                                                         “Soap Froth, Beehives and Patterns of Molecular
 • Member of the Sustainable Development Group of                 Self-Assembly” at Seoul National University, 21st
    the IOM3.                                                     October. Spending his sabbatical at Seoul National
 • President of the Sheffield Metallurgical and                   University, the top University in Korea, he appeared on
    Engineering Association.                                      the homepage of that University (
 • Member of the Association for Iron and Steel                 • Gave a keynote lecture, “Making Soft Matter Obey
    Technology.                                                   Order” at the Global Research Forum at Seoul
 • Member of the World Steel Association University               National University, 13th November. He was one of
    Working Group.                                                the two overseas guest speakers, the other being
 • Editorial Board, Ironmaking and Steelmaking.                   the Nobel Laureate Alan Heeger.
 • Chairman of the Organising Committee for
    Thermomechanical Processing Conference, TMP                Dr Alexey Yerokhin
    2012.                                                       • Attended the 36th International Conference on
 • Member of the Scientific Advisory Panel for ECSC                Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF
    large grant “The Waste of the World”.                          2009), 27th April - 1st May, San Diego, with
 • Chaired a session at the 5th European Rolling                   Konstantinos Kanakis, Glen Cassar and Po-Jen
    Conference, London, July 2009.                                 Chu and gave nine presentations (4 oral, 5 poster)
 • Chaired the SMEA Annual Conference, “Alloys for                 authored or co-authored with the Sheffield Surface
    Critical Applications”, Sheffield, July 2009.                  Engineering Team.
                                                                • Hosted a visit to the RCSE by Dr Evgeny Parfenov
Dr Karl Travis                                                     from Ufa (Russia), 10th-17th September to work on
 • Gave an invited talk, "A study of radiation-induced             the project on “Frequency Response Analysis of
    disorder in Pu-doped ceramics using molecular                  Plasma Assisted Electrochemical Processes” spon-
    dynamics and topological analysis", at a workshop              sored by President of Bashkortostan Award for
    on Molecular Dynamics, part of the Warwick EPSRC               Young Scientists scheme.
    Symposium 2008/09: Challenges in Scientific
    Computing, held at the Mathematics Research                Dr Xiangbing Zeng
    Institute, University of Warwick, 1st June 2009.            • Gave a talk, “New thermotropic cubic phases
 • Gave an invited presentation, "Configurational and              in t-shaped molecules”, co-authored with F Liu
    Kinetic Thermostats for use in Equilibrium and                 and G Ungar, at the Annual British Liquid Crystal
    Non-equilibrium Atomistic Simulations" at a CECAM              Society Conference held in Bristol in March 2009.
    Workshop, "Fundamental Aspects of Deterministic                Dr F Liu and Dr M Shcherbina each presented a
    Thermostats", Lausanne, Switzerland, 27th-29th July.           poster, the former on new cylinder mesophases in
                                                                   amphiphiles, the latter on the structure of a unique
Prof Goran Ungar                                                   six-stranded helical liquid crystal.
 • Gave a talk, “Complex Multicolour Tiling Patterns by
    Self-Assembly of X-Shaped Polyphilic Molecules” at         Dr Shaowei Zhang
    the Materials Research Society Conference in Boston         • Gave two invited seminars, “High Temperature
    1st-5th December 2008. At the conference Hybrid                Aerospace Materials” and “Low Temperature In-situ
    Materials in Tours, France, 15th-19th March, he present-       Synthesis of Ceramics/Refractories”, respectively,
    ed a lecture on “Tangential, axial and helical align-          at Wuhan University of Science and Technology,
    ment of liquid crystal columns in nanochannels”, co-           10th-14th September 2009.
    authored with M A Shcherbina, X B Zeng, M Prehm,
    C Tschierske and M Steinhart. There he also present-
    ed a poster on LC-coating gold nanoparticles.

76                                                                         Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                      Research in Progress 2010

11.2 Events, 2009
11.2.1 The Composites Group                                 • Most importantly, Mohammed Jamil Suzeren won
                                                              the poster competition with his poster, “The devel-
Organised the 10th Deformation and Fracture of                opment of self-healing matrices for composite
Composites Conference (DFC10) during April. The               materials”.
Conference was attended by approximately 100 dele-
gates who came from all over the world to the meeting.     11.2.2 EUROMAT 2009
The DFC10 Conference was Co-Chaired by Prof Costas
Soutis, Dr Alma Hodzic and Prof Frank Jones. This is       The European congress on advanced materials and
the fourth time that the Composites Group has organ-       processes was held in Glasgow, 7th - 10th September
ised the DFC Programme. The DFC Conference was             2009. Euromat meetings are held every two years and
spun out of the Deformation and Fracture Conference        are sponsored by the Federation of European Materials
on Polymers, the so-called Churchill Meeting some          Societies. They have become the prime events in Europe
years ago, and the Composites Section became an inde-      for gatherings of academics and industrialists with an
pendent conference some twenty years ago. The con-         interest in materials science and technology.
ference moved around the UK but has found a home at
Sheffield in the recent past. This conference was highly   The meeting comprised 66 symposia scattered across
successful and was used for many friends to recognise      6 main topics covering main areas of materials science
the retirement of Prof Jones after his 65th Birthday.      and engineering.
A mini-conference on “Interfaces and Interphases in
Composite Materials” was held which spanned much of        There were many representatives from the Department.
the first day. Prof Jones gave the opening plenary lec-    The RCSE participation involved 4 delegates, 1 highlight
ture, “Defining interfaces and interphases”. Dr Daniel     talk, 4 oral and 3 poster presentations.
Wagner from the Weizmann Institute in Israel provided
an invited lecture on “Nanotube and Nanocomposite          Dr Aleksey Yerokhin chaired a session in Symposium
Mechanics: a guide to the perplexed”.                      C55 “Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (Micro-Arc
                                                           Oxidation) Surface Coatings”.
Members of the research group gave papers in the con-
ference:                                                   Highlight:
  • Tim Swait, “TOF-SIMS study of interphase failure        • A Yerokhin, E V Parfenov and A Matthews,
     in plasma-polymer coated glass fibre composites”,         “Modelling plasma electrolytic oxidation process
     co-authored with Prof Costas Soutis and Prof Frank        using frequency response data”.
  • Peter Bailey, “Novel interlayers for self healing      Oral Presentations:
     sandwich structures” co-authored with Dr Simon         • E V Parfenov, A Yerokhin, A Matthews and R R
     Hayes who gave a talk on “Self-sensing composites         Nevyantseva, “Frequency response analysis as a
     for structural health monitoring”.                        new tool for plasma assisted electrochemical proc-
  • Dr Joel Foreman, “Hierarchical modelling of com-           esses characterisation”.
     posite strength as a function of strain rate”, co-     • L O Snizhko, A Yerokhin, N L Gurevina, D O
     authored with Prof Frank Jones, Prof David Porter         Misnyankin and A Matthews, “Voltastatic Studies of
     (a Visiting Professor in the Department) and              Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Al”.
     Dr Shabnam Behzadi, a former student who is cur-       • P-J Chu, A Leyland and A Matthews, “Detailed
     rently working for the Gurit Company on the Isle of       Microstructural Characterization of the Plasma
     Wight.                                                    Electrolytically Oxidized Titania Coating on
The conference also featured a very strong poster ses-      • G Cassar, A Yerokhin, A Leyland and A Matthews,
sion.                                                          “Triode–Plasma Diffusion Treatments to Improve
  • Aidah Jumahat (who is a joint student with the             the Tribological Performance of Titanium Alloys”.
      Department of Mechanical Engineering), “Analysis
      of compression failure of unidirectional carbon      Poster Presentations:
      fibre toughened resin composites”.                    • A Pilkington, H X Cheng, A Yerokhin and
  • Dr Alison Beck with posters “Life cycle assessment         A Matthews, “Microabrasive Wear Resistance of
      to optimise aerospace composite” and “The assess-        PEO Treated Aluminium Alloy”.
      ment of sustainability of composite materials”.       • K Kanakis, S Banfield, J Housden, A Matthews and
  • Ann Van Ho, “The effect of nanoclay on the mor-            A Leyland, “Structure, mechanical and tribologi-
      phology and thermal properties of epoxy and              cal properties of thick CrNx coatings deposited by
      toughened epoxy resins”. Ann Van Ho is a former          plasma-assisted electron-beam PVD”.
      MSc Student who is currently a joint PhD Student      • Y N Kok, G Cassar, J Hardy, R Johns, A Ollerenshaw,
      with Mechanical Engineering and the Department           M Russell, A Matthews and A Leyland, “A study of
      of Engineering Materials.                                the effect of shot-peening and roller burnishing
  • Jack Howarth, “Recycling of Carbon Fibre                   on the rotating-bending fatigue performance of
      Composites”.                                             threaded components”.

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                77
Research in Progress 2010
11.2.3 The Research Groups of Dr John Haycock,               shop was opened by Armen Amirjanyan, Director of the
Prof Sheila MacNeil and Dr Gwendolen Reilly                  Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre of ANRA, Kumar
                                                             Samanta (WTS, IAEA) and Vladimir Kurghinyan (TC
Presented a number of talks and posters at the UK            Project Manager, IAEA). The IAEA presented the scope
Tissue and Cell Engineering Society (TCES) held at           and objectives of the workshop that is the first to be
Glasgow University 8th-10th July. Prof MacNeil gave an       organised by the IAEA in English after the pilot regional
invited talk, “Designing synthetic scaffolds to take the     workshop held in Russian language in Moldova in March
place of human dermis for soft tissue reconstruction”.       2009. In addition, two presentations on current waste
Other Sheffield presentations included:                      management practices in Armenia were made by the
  • R Kaewkhaw, “Adipose-derived stem cells for              representatives of Aida Avetisyan (ANRA) and Nelli
      peripheral nerve repair”.                              Aghajanyan the Armenian NPP, Metsamor.
  • C Murray-Dunning, “The use of aligned polymer
      microfibers in peripheral nerve engineering”.          Expert Mission to China Institute of Atomic Energy
  • T Sun, “Investigation of the biological activity of      and China National Nuclear Corporation
      TGF-B1 during re-epithelialisation using a computa-    China’s main supply of electricity by nuclear power is
      tional modelling approach”.                            about 2% with eleven nuclear power reactors in com-
  • N Green, “Development and characterisation of a          mercial operation by January 2008. There are 5 new
      tissue engineered oesophagus”.                         power plants under construction and government
  • C M G Marques, “Investigation of the impact of           approval for several more to be constructed. Plans to
      wounding and inflammation on melanoma migra-           develop a civil nuclear power programme were initiated
      tion in a 3D skin model”.                              in 1970. The early development in technology had been
  • J Shepherd, “Use of a tissue engineered model            sought from France, Canada and Russia. The country
      of bacterial infection of human skin to develop        aims to become self sufficient in reactor design, con-
      responsive polymers to reduce bacterial burden of      struction and develop a full fuel cycle from production
      infected wounds”.                                      to disposal. China has significant resources of uranium,
  • M V Flores-Merino, “Nano-domain detection in poly        circa 70 000 tU, from which to produce nuclear fuel
      (vinyl pyrrolidinone) hydrogels”.                      which will be sufficient to fulfil the mainland nuclear
  • G Reilly, “Mechanical responses of bone tissue for-      programme for the short term. The anticipated power
      mation in 3D engineered constructs via primary         capacity is 20 GWe by 2010 and 40 GWe by 2020. China
      cilia”.                                                has a reprocessing strategy to recover the uranium
                                                             and plutonium for reuse in new nuclear fuel. In 2007
11.2.4 IAEA Workshops                                        the Chinese Government gave approval for three state
                                                             owned corporations to own and operate nuclear power
Radioactive Waste Predisposal Management                     plants: China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC),
The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources            China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Corporation
of Moldova hosted the IAEA Workshop on Radioactive           (CGNPC) and China Power Investment Corporation
Waste Processing and Storage held in Chisinau from           (CPI). CNNC has the overall responsibility for the man-
23rd-27th March 2009. The IAEA Workshop was actu-            agement of the waste generated from the nuclear indus-
ally an attempt to combine both theoretical lectures         try in China. CNNC is regulated by the National Nuclear
and practical exercises intended to select appropriate       Safety Administrated (NNSA) for approval of siting,
routes and equipment to deal with radioactive wastes         construction and operation of repositories. The CNNC
before disposal. Lectures and exercises were led by IAEA     is one of the largest state owned nuclear companies
staff members Z Drace, V Kurghinyan, J Raicevic and          and has over 300,000 employees. China may have plans
invited lecturers – experts in field: M Ojovan (ISL, UK)     for a total of five regional LLW/HLW facilities depending
and M Mateeva (NRA, Bulgaria).                               on capacity requirements. There are already two sites
                                                             in existence at Lanzhou in the north-west and Bailong
Yerevan, Armenia                                             in south China for industrial-scale disposal of LLW and
The IAEA regional workshop on Modular Design of              ILW. The Chinese government strategy is to vitrify HLW,
Processing and Storage Facilities for Small Volumes          followed by encapsulation and final disposal in a geologi-
of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste              cal repository.
and Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources was held in
Yerevan, Armenia from 29th June to 3rd July 2009. Kumar      11.2.5 IMMPETUS
Samanta (IAEA), Borislava Batandjieva (Bulgaria), Alena
Zavazanova (Slovak Republic) and Michael Ojovan              The 11th IMMPETUS Colloquium took place at Halifax
(United Kingdom) participated in the Workshop as             Hall, The University of Sheffield, 7th and 8th April 2009.
invited lecturers with the aim to provide key lectures       It was attended by a total of 79 delegates, 19 external
according to the agenda, agreed by the IAEA and the          delegates from industry and academia and 60 from
national counterpart (ANRA), supervise, moderate,            The University of Sheffield. The annual IMMPETUS col-
guide and coordinate the three-day exercises and evalu-      loquium gives an opportunity to our researchers, many
ate the outcomes of the exercises and participate in         of whom are PhD students at different stages of their
the panel discussions at the end of the workshop. The        research, to present their work.
Workshop was attended by 20 participants from 8
countries (Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania,
Hungary, Macedonia, Romania and Slovenia). The work-

78                                                                       Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                       Research in Progress 2010
There were 5 sessions for the 25 oral presentations and     IMMPETUS hosted the following visits:
3 poster sessions for 25 posters covering a wide range       • 13th March 2009, Dr T Mukherjee, Group Director,
of topics on the thermomechanical processing of met-           Technology and Integration, Corus Group and
als, with plenty of opportunity for discussion and one-        Dr D Bhattacharjee who is to be the new Director
to-one interaction. The dinner on the first evening was        for R & D based in IJmuiden from April 2009. The
held at The Edge, The University of Sheffield and gave         visit commenced with a presentation by Prof
an important opportunity for people to meet informally         Panos Tsakiropoulos with Academic members of
and to foster mutual interests.                                IMMPETUS in attendance and Prof Allan Matthews,
                                                               HoD of Engineering Materials and Prof Rob Dwyer-
Panel Discussion                                               Joyce, HoD of Mechanical Engineering.
 • As in previous years the panel discussion took              Drs Mukherjee and Bhattacharjee were then given
    place on the second day after lunch. The Panel is          a tour and presentations on current research
    made up of members of the IMMPETUS Industrial              in each of the three Departments which form
    Steering Committee who are invited to answer               IMMPETUS.
    questions on the chosen topic which this year            • 16th March 2009, Prof Katagerman and Dr Hoekstra
    was “Metals Research in a Changed Industrial               from the Materials Innovation Centre from The
    Economy”.                                                  Netherlands. The meeting had been organised by
                                                               Dr Iain Todd to look at ways to collaborate with
Mike Frolish Prize                                             IMMPETUS in the future and had been a successful
 • This year the prize was awarded to Mr Moises                meeting.
    Talamantes-Silva for his oral presentation on “Finite    • 30th and 31st March in Swansea University, Electron
    Element Modelling and Microstructural Evolution of         Backscatter Diffraction Meeting 2009 sponsored
    High Integrity Forgings”.                                  by RMS and IOM3. Five members of IMMPETUS
                                                               attended the meeting: Dr Brad Wynne, Dr Krzysztof
Poster Session                                                 Muszka, Mr Pete Davies, Mr Meurig Thomas and
 • The poster session was sponsored this year by               Miss Xiaoqing Jiang. Dr Brad Wynne gave a pres-
    Siemens VAI and Corus plc. Mr Mick Steeper                 entation on “Can EBSD quantify size and shape of
    from Siemens VAI and Chairman of the IMMPETUS              macrozones in titanium alloys?”.
    Industrial Steering Committee awarded the                • 10th June 2009, Dr Yvon Millet, the new Timet
    1st prize to Mr Sinan Al-Bermani for his poster            Director of Research for Europe and Dr Matt
    “Microstructural Evolution in Electron Beam Melted         Thomas (ex-IMMPETUS PhD Student) who is in
    Ti-6A1-4V” and the 2nd Prize was awarded to Mr             the Research and Development Section at Timet,
    Gael Reyes Zaragoza for his poster “Aluminium              Witton Birmgham. Dr Brad Wynne gave a presen-
    Foam for Heat Transfer Applications”.                      tation, “Ti and IMMPETUS” and a tour was given
                                                               of IMMPETUS facilities followed by presentations
TMS (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society),              from Dr Peter Davies, Mr Nima Nasseri, Dr Magda
15th-19th February 2009, San Francisco. Members                Lopez-Pedrosa and Mr Meurig Thomas.
of IMMPETUS attended the 138th annual TMS confer-
ence, San Francisco, 15th-19th February 2009. Prof Panos    5th European Rolling Conference (ERC5)
Tsakiropoulos, Dr Martin Jackson, Dr Ignacio Figueroa,      The 5th European Rolling Conference took place from
Dr Michael Blackmore, Mr Dave Randman, Mr John              23rd-25th June 2009 at The Institute of Materials,
Plummer, Mr Meurig Thomas, Mr Robert Deffely and            Minerals and Mining, London. The series of European
Mr Sinan Al-Bermani attended. IMMPETUS has a very           Rolling Conferences began in 1996, and is now estab-
strong presence at TMS, the standard of work delivered      lished as the principal forum for rolling practitioners
was excellent and the conference was enjoyed by all.        on the continent. The 5th European Rolling Conference
                                                            (ERC5), sponsored by Siemens VAI Metal Technologies
On 6th March 2009 a Seminar and Tour of IMMPETUS            and covers an audience that embraces the whole met-
took place for all Research Staff and Students. This        als rolling community. Flat and long products rolling,
was hosted by Prof Panos Tsakiropoulos (Director of         hot and cold rolling and ferrous and non-ferrous rolling
IMMPETUS) and he gave a presentation on IMMPETUS            are all included. Mr Mick Steeper who is the Chairman
covering its background, publications, KMSI, website,       of the IMMPETUS Industrial Steering Committee was
attendance at conferences, file exchange area and           a member of the Organising Committee of this confer-
Colloquium. The aim of the seminar was to highlight         ence. Dr Richard Thackray and Dr Michal Krzyzanowski
facilities in IMMPETUS and ensure that all research staff   represented IMMPETUS at this event. Dr Michal
and students are aware of these and assist them in the      Krzyzanowski gave a presentation,“Oxide scale mod-
future with any queries they may have with regards to       eling in hot rolling: assumptions, numerical techniques,
the institute.                                              examples of prediction”, co-authored with Prof W M

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                               79
Research in Progress 2010
SMEA Conference and Exhibition took place on 7th             A great success of ISL was the recent MRS decision to
and 8th July 2009 at The Edge, The Endcliffe Village, The    appoint Neil Hyatt as the principal organiser – Chairman
University of Sheffield and the theme for the conference     of Scientific Organising Committee of MRS Symposia
this year was “Alloys for Critical Applications”. This was   on Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management. He
the eighteenth in a series of conferences organised by       is taking over this post from Professor Lars Verme from
the Sheffield Metallurgical and Engineering Association      Sweden.
(SMEA). The aim of the conference was to explore
recent developments in the manufacture, evaluation and       11.2.7 NanoLAB
application of alloy steels, nickel-based superalloys and
light metal components for critical engineering applica-     New NanoLAB Projects
tions. Five technical sessions focused on nuclear energy,     • Dr B Inkson and Dr G Möbus have been awarded
aerospace, energy supply chain and transport applica-           a Basic Technology Translation Grant from the
tions. The following academic and research members              EPSRC. This 4-year project, from July 2009 - June
of IMMPETUS attended: Prof Panos Tsakiropoulos,                 2013 is in collaboration with the Departments of
Prof Mark Rainforth, Dr Iain Todd, Dr Richard Thackray          Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dentistry and
(Chairman of SMEA), Dr Russell Goodall, Dr Martin               the University of Nottingham. The Translation grant
Jackson, Dr Krzysztof Muszka, Mr Lin Sun, Mr Amir               will enable the exploitation of the new NanoLAB
Nanpazi, Dr Paul Nnamchi and Mr Sinan Al-Bermani.               Nanotesting Technology and associated patents.
                                                                Collaborative work with Industry and Academia
The following presentations were given:                         will focus on developing the fields of dynamical
 • Dr Martin Jackson, “Thermomechanical process-                nanotribology, in-situ nanodevice testing and TEM
     ing of high strength titanium alloys used in landing       tomography.
     gear”.                                                   • Dr Möbus and Dr Inkson have been awarded an
 • Prof Panos Tsakiropoulos, “Alloys beyond nickel              EPSRC grant for, “Building Ceramic Metamaterials
     based superalloys”.                                        from Nanoparticles: A combined Modelling,
                                                                Tomography and In-situ Loading Study”. The three-
Dr Richard Thackray chaired the session “Energy Supply          year project is in collaboration with Cranfield
Chain”.                                                         University, Shrivenham campus (Dr Sayle), and the
                                                                University of Bath (Prof Parker).
The Celebrity Lecture which was held on the first
evening at The Auditorium, The University of Sheffield       NanoLAB in the news
was given by Dr Graham Honeyman, Chief Executive,             • The work of Dr Yong Peng and Dr Beverley Inkson
Sheffield Forgemasters International on “Out of the             on nanoscale electrical testing and fabrication of
black into the blue”.                                           nanostructures has been highlighted in the press.
                                                                The paper Y Peng, A G Cullis, B J Inkson, Appl Phys
11.2.6 MRS’09 Symposium on Scientific Basis for                 Lett, 93, 183112 (2008), “Accurate electrical test-
Nuclear Waste Management                                        ing of individual gold nanowires by in-situ SEM
                                                                nanomanipulators”, was selected for the Virtual
One of the most successful Materials Research Society           Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology as a
(MRS) conferences, the 33rd MRS’09 Symposium on                 current Nanotechnology highlight.
Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, was            • The development of a new technique to weld
held this year in Saint Petersburg, Russia, 24th-29th May       nanostructures using nanovolumes of solder
2009.                                                           described in Y Peng, A G Cullis, B J Inkson, Nano
                                                                Lett, 9, 1, 91-96 (2009), “Bottom-up construction
Drs Boris Burakov and Albert Aloy were the two main             by welding individual nanoobjects using nanoscale
promoters and active organisers who contributed to              solder”, has been highlighted as high impact news
the overall success of the conference. The topics con-          in over 50 website articles, several newspapers,
sidered at conference were: Transnational programmes,           and chosen for a press release by the University.
Advanced materials, Radionuclide migration, Geological          The work has been filed as both a UK and interna-
disposal, Glass waste forms, Ceramic waste forms and            tional patent.
High level waste and spent fuel. Each of these topics         • A development of a new technique to test in-situ
was covered by excellent overview papers as well as             at the nanoscale wear mechanisms of thin films
research contributions such as those presented by of            using a NanoLAB TEM triboprobe, J J Wang, A J
John Vienna on glass formulations (USA), Elie Valcke on         Lockwood, Y Peng, X Xu, M S Bobji, B J Inkson,
bitumen (Belgium), Neil Hyatt on ceramics (UK), Boris           Nanotechnology, 20, 30, 305703 (2009), “Formation
Burakov on self-glowing crystals (Russia), Thorsted             of carbon nanostructures by in-situ TEM mechani-
Geisler on corrosion of wasteforms (Germany), Willie            cal nanoscale fatigue and fracture of carbon thin
Meyer on graphite (South Africa), Karl Whittle on radia-        films”, has been highlighted on,
tion damage (Australia), Thierry Advocat on spent fuel
(France). Neil Hyatt, Michael Ojovan (members of con-
ference organising committee) and Martin Stennett
presented several scientific papers based on ongoing
research on ceramics and glasses at ISL.

80                                                                       Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                                                         Research in Progress 2010
11.2.8 Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group,               • B D Medford, N Berdunov, D Laird, B L Rogers,
EMAG2009 Conference                                            P Beton (U Nottingham), A J Lockwood, T Gnanavel,
                                                               W Guan, J Wang, G Möbus and B J Inkson, “A novel
G Möbus, T Walther and I Ross (Department of                   tripod driven platform for in-situ positioning of
Electronic and Electrical Engineering) were local organ-       samples and electrical probes in a TEM”.
isers of the Institute of Physics, Electron Microscopy
and Analysis group, EMAG2009 conference, held at            11.2.9 Advanced School on Nanofabrication and
Sheffield University in the Octagon Centre, 9th-11th        Nanomanipulation
September 2009. G Möbus chaired one of the 6 confer-
ence sessions on nanofabrication.                           G Möbus, T Walther and I Ross also organised
                                                            an “Advanced School on Nanofabrication and
5 oral presentations by NanoLAB members were given:         Nanomanipulation” immediately preceding the EMAG
  • C Rodenburg, “Energy filtered scanning electron         conference on 8th September 2009, held in Mappin
     microscopy: application to semiconductors”, co-        Hall. Five external and internal lectures were combined
     authored with M A E Jepson, B J Inkson, E G T          with three experimental demos of Focused Ion Beam
     Bosch and C J Humphreys.                               microscopy, nanomanipulation in SEM, and FEGTEM
  • G Möbus, “Prospects of aberration correction for        analysis of FIB prepared specimens. In addition to the
     lattice-resolved electron tomography”, co-authored     organisers, Mark Jepson, Yong Peng, Kevin Briston, and
     with Z Saghi and I M Ross.                             T Gnanavel contributed with demonstrations and assist-
  • Yong Peng, “Nanoconstruction by welding indi-           ance to organisation. B J Inkson presented a lecture,
     vidual metallic nanowires together using nanoscale     “Introduction to Focused Ion Beam systems” while
     solder”, co-authored with A G Cullis and B J Inkson.   G Möbus presented a lecture, “Nanomanipulation”.
  • T Gnanavel, “Electron beam fabrication of ferro-
     magnetic nanostructures”.                              11.2.10 NTEC 2008 Module X Session
  • Wei Guan, “A multipurpose miniaturised nanoma-
     nipulation system for in-situ TEM studies”,            The Nuclear Technology Education Consortium
     co-authored with A Lockwood, X Xu, B J Inkson and      (NTEC, held the postgraduate MSc
     G Möbus.                                               Core Module 10 on "Processing, storage and disposal
                                                            of nuclear wastes". This module introduced basic
12 poster presentations by NanoLAB members included:        approaches on nuclear materials management as well as
  • A J Lockwood, B J Inkson and MS Bobji,                  scientific fundamentals of nuclear waste processing and
     “Deformation of polysilicon nano-sized structures      disposal. The Core Module 10 consists of pre-course
     evaluated by in-situ TEM nanoindentation”.             assignment, one week direct teaching, post-module
  • K Briston, A G Cullis and B J Inkson, “Development      assignment and examination.
     of a novel SEM nanogripper”.
  • C Rodenburg, M E Jepson, B J Inkson, X Liu and          The direct teaching week for 2008-2009 was held from
     D C Bell, “Dopant contrast in the Helium Ion           15th-19th December 2008 in the University of Manchester.
     Microscope: contrast mechanisms and quantifica-        Module lectures were given by Michael Ojovan (module
     tion”.                                                 convenor) and John Roberts, Ed Butcher of National
  • M A E Jepson, K Khan, B J Inkson and C Rodenburg,       Nuclear Laboratory, Paul Abraitis of Environment
     “The effect of oxidation and contamination on SEM      Agency, and Mick Bacon of HM Nuclear Installations
     dopant contrast”.                                      Inspectorate (NII), Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
  • B J Inkson, Y Peng, M A E Jepson, C Rodenburg and       14 attending and two distance learning students were
     X Liu, “Comparison of multilayered nanowire imag-      involved in the teaching week activities.
     ing by SEM and Helium Ion Microscopy”.
  • R J Milne, A J Lockwood and B J Inkson, “In-situ        From September 2008 the NTEC Core Module 10 is
     TEM deformation of aluminium nanopillars”.             available in distance learning (DL) format. In 2008/9 five
  • X Mu, Y Peng, T Gnanavel, B J Inkson and G Möbus,       DL students from Austria (IAEA), Canada, Ireland, United
     “Nanoporous structures from anodisation of non-        Arab Emirates and UK took this module using Internet.
     planar aluminium surfaces”.                            The DL module contains the same syllabus as its coun-
  • W Xie, G Möbus and S Zhang, “Carbon nanotube to         terpart delivered by direct teaching, has the same
     SiC nanorod conversion in molten salt studied by       learning outcomes and is delivered once per annum at a
     EELS and aberration corrected HRTEM”.                  fixed time in order to facilitate the concept of a “virtual
  • M Azizi Mat Yajid and G Möbus, “Nanostructured          classroom”.
     reactive metallic multilayers”.
  • Z Saghi, W Guan, T Gnanavel, X Xu and G Möbus,
     “hybrid tomography”.
  • T Gnanavel, G Möbus, S Kumar, S Cook, J Tsai and
     M I Ojovan, “Irradiation induced transformation in

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                                                                   81
Research in Progress 2010
11.2.11 Skills Week 2008                                     11.2.12 Training and Seminar on Ceramics and
                                                             Glasses to Immobilise Radioactive wastes, South
This year our first year MSE and BSTE students partici-      Africa, 30th October - 15th November 2009
pated in a 'Skills Week' which took place in Week 7 of
the first Semester from the 10th to 14th November 2008.      The use of nuclear energy for the electricity generation
It was based around two industrial visits but included       is a viable option, however it poses a problem when
additional activities aimed at developing transferable       it comes to the management of nuclear waste. South
skills and introducing career planning.                      African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) and Centre
                                                             for Applied Radiation Science and Technology (CARST)
Some of our speakers took Careers in Materials as their      of the North West University have organised a Training
theme, including: David Arthur (IOM3), Adam Mannis           course and a Seminar on Ceramics and Glasses to
(UKCME), Judith Everett (Careers Service), Stephen           Immobilise Radioactive Wastes from 30th October to 15th
Curran (Smith and Nephew), and Rebecca Creighton             November 2009.
(NAMTEC). We also ran a topical presentation on
Plagiarism (given by Dr Russell Hand) to illustrate what     The State-owned corporation Necsa was established as
is and particularly what is not acceptable in writing        a public company to undertake and promote research
reports, a session on Report Writing presented by Alice      and development in the field of nuclear energy and radi-
Lawrence of the English Language Training Centre and         ation sciences and technology. Necsa main operations
a session on Personal Development Plans presented by         are at Pelindaba site and Vaalputs Radioactive Waste
Dr John Parker. The final presentation was given by Carl     Disposal Facility. In South Africa conversion, enrichment
Hitchens. He demonstrated how Materialise use state-         and fuel fabrication plants produced radioactive waste
of-the-art computing techniques to aid in the rapid          until 1997. Presently waste is produced as a result of the
manufacture of implants for reconstructive surgery.          decommissioning of these facilities. Eskom’s Koeberg
                                                             nuclear power plant produces spent fuel and opera-
For the industrial element of “Skills Week” we visited       tional radioactive waste. Necsa’s Safari research reactor
Guardian (Goole, Flat Glass Manufacturers) and JRI           at Pelindaba produces spent fuel and operational waste.
(Sheffield). An additional visit to Corus is planned for     Radioactive waste is produced from radioisotopes pro-
the second semester. We are grateful to all these host       duction activities at Necsa. The iThemba LABS also
companies for access to their facilities and for providing   produces radioactive waste. Historically waste has been
staff for guided tours and introductory talks. For many      produced by various research activities. Radioactive
of our students this was their first opportunity to see      wastes are also produced from various applications of
large-scale industrial operations. The students were         radioactive materials in industry and the medical sec-
asked to take notes during the visits and subsequently       tor. Naturally occurring radioactive waste materials
submit a short report giving details on the company          (NORM) are produced by various facilities in the mining
background, manufacturing output, customer base and          and minerals processing industry.
opportunities for Materials graduates.
                                                             The CARST was established in 1998 between the
A particularly successful event was a series of pres-        University of North-West and South African electricity
entations made by the students themselves. The MSE           generating and supply utility (Eskom), National Nuclear
students were presented with a list of artifacts and         Regulator (NNR), iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator
asked to consider ways in which they could lower the         Based Sciences, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Group
carbon footprint of one of them. Examples from the list      (PBMR), National Research Foundation (NRF), and
of artifacts included: an aircraft wing, a pair of running   Necsa. The Centre currently offers a two-year Master-
shoes and a combat helmet. The BSTE students were            degree course in Applied Radiation Science and
asked to select a human tissue from a list that included,    Technology.
for example, a heart valve and skin. They were asked to
weigh the pros and cons of using artificial and natural      The programme of Training and Seminar included
materials for the construction of surgical implants for      training sessions on ceramic and glass manufacture for
repair of the damaged tissue. The students worked            nuclear waste immobilisation and presentations given
in small groups and gathered their information from          by national (W Meyer, M Andreoli, J Topkin,
various sources. At the end of Skills Week, each group       J Badenhorst of Necsa, H Van der Linde and N. Mumba
had just 10 minutes in which to present their case to        of CARST) and international experts (B Burakov,
a panel of academic judges. All groups gave excellent        V Gribova and M Petrova of KRI, Russia, O Batyukhnova
presentations showing a great deal of enthusiasm and a       of SIA Radon, Russia, and M I Ojovan of ISL, UK), stu-
healthy degree of competitiveness! The winning group         dent project presentations by CARST students, and field
comprised: Harry Matthews, Matthew Whitworth, Jamie          trips to Vaalputs Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility and
Williams, Yen-Ju Wu and Matthew Yeow, all from the           to Steenkampskraal rare earth element mine which is a
Aerospace Materials course.                                  unique monazite-analogue site.

82                                                                       Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
                                                     Research in Progress 2010

12. Maps of University Precincts and City Centre

Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield                         83
Research in Progress 2010

84                          Engineering Materials, The University Of Sheffield
Department of Engineering Materials

The University of Sheffield
Sir Robert Hadfield Building
Mappin Street
S1 3JD
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 114 222 5941
Fax: +44 (0) 114 222 5943

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of
the information given in this publication. However, the
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