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					                  The 1990s
Alisabeth, Anna, Marylena, Maya,
                  Michelle, Molly
                 Politics
George Bush (1988-1992)
  Bill Clinton (1992-2000)
Bush’s Term 1990-1992: Actions and
Policies

             •1990 Americans with Disabilities
             Act (ADA)
             •1992: major water projects bill:
             reformed distribution of funded
             federal water in West
             •Anti affirmative action
             •Anti abortion lost women
             supporters
1992 Presidential Election
              •Rep: George Bush
              •Dem: Bill Clinton
              •Independent: H. Ross Perot

              •weak economy (federal deficit
              problem)
              •Gender gap
              •Persian Gulf War

              •Record number of voters
              •Clinton won
              •Democratic majority in both houses of
              Congress
Clinton’s First Term

• Too many controversial issues
• Supported free trade (NAFTA & WTO)
• Deficit reduction bill of
  1993successful
• Gun control & anticrime laws
• Term limit laws for elected officials
Clinton’s First Term

• Problems with Republicans
• Contract with America
• Attack on budget deficits & reductions
  in welfare programssuccessful

• Republicans criticized for extreme
  views
1996 Presidential Elections
            •Rep: Robert Doyle
            •Dem: Bill Clinton

            •Healthy economy

            •Clinton won easy victory
Clinton’s Second Term

• Claimed political middle ground
• 1996 Welfare Reform Bill
• Disagreement over trade policy
  • Protestors at Seattle meeting of WTO in
    1999
• Campaign finance reform
Lewinsky Scandal
Charges for Impeachment
                •“perjury before grand jury”
                & “obstruction of justice”
                •Was Clinton guilty of “high
                crimes and misdemeanors”
                described in Constitution?
                    •Democrats said no
                    •Republicans said yes;
                    lied under public oath

                •50 voted guilty, 55 voted
                not guilty
                •Need 2/3 majority guilty
                vote for impeachment  no
                impeachment
Business and the Economy
Short Recession

 • 1990 – 1991 recession
   • Slow recovery: increased unemployment
     rates
   • 1991 -1993: 7% increase in unemployment
   • After the recession, employment increased
     steadily throughout the rest of the 90s
Employment

 • Manufacturing employment declined

 • Labor union memberships declined slightly

 • 13.5% of the population was in poverty in
   1990
Lifestyle Improvements

 • People had a longer life expectancy
    • It increased from 75.4% to 76.7%
 • Improved medical treatment and lifestyles
    • Less smoking and fat intake
 • The proportion of people graduating college
   increased to 26%
The Stock Market


 • The stock market boomed in the late
   1990s
   • This was partially because of the “dot – com
     boom”
 • The 90s were profitable for corporations
   and investors
   • High profits aided to a boom in prices of
     corporate stocks
Balanced Budget Act of 1997

  • Signed into a law on August 5, 1997
  • This bill is considered to be an ominous bill
  • Provisions with food stamps, housing, children’s
    health, Medicaid
    • Reduce deficit with shifts in policy and enacting new
      laws
  • The act offered a new Medicaid + Choice option
    • More private insurances could contract with the
      government
    • Wider coverage with less out of pocket expenses
New Technology

• Audio books
• Cell Phones
• Computers
• Digital Cameras
• DVDs
• Automobile Industry
Dot-Coms
• The internet availability to the public greatly
  increased productivity
• In 1998, the NASDAQ tripled
• Incomes and stock values increased greatly as
  well
• Main beneficiaries: corporations and CEOs
  • Improved customer service and business transactions
• Contributed to the boom in housing and real
  estate market
  • Provided many new job opportunities
• Lack of caution with dot – coms: not completely
  successful
Websites
Trends
Clothing

• Formal/ Business Attire
• High Fashion: casual/ comfortable
• Casual Wear
  • T- shirt
  • Jeans
  • The Gap
  • Pro- team sport logos popular
Hip Hop

 largest market not in ghetto- more in
   suburban youth.
   • Baggy denim pants and overalls.
   • Wool/baseball caps.
   • Sport jerseys/ jackets.
   • Nike brand shoes
Teen Clothing

• Grunge: Seattle Scene. Musician look.
• Skate: oversized clothing.
• Gothic: dark. High School Shootings.
• Rave: bright. Underground dance
  parties.
Clothing cont.

  • School Uniforms:
    • feared gang problems
    • Keep girls from wearing inappropriate
      clothes.
  • Technology: synthetic material made to be
    breathable and windproof.
    • Gore-Tex
    • Micro fibers for clothes.
Jewelry

• Important for casual wear.
  • Brooches and chokers.
  • Peace signs made comeback.
  • Hemp twine and wooden beads
  • Christian iconography: crosses/doves
  • Homemade jewelry.
Hair

• Natural- Low Maintenance
  • Black women:
       • hair extensions- bob and bee-hive.
       • Hair pieces; weaved into hair straight or
         braided.
  • Hair coloring: Increased 70% over the
    course of the decade.
       • More dying of hair to red and blond because
         of Britney spears
       • Men: Bleaching hair and spiked with dark
         roots: Nsync and Rieke Martin.
Entertainment


• Books:
  • Happy Potter: best selling child’s fantasy
    series. J.K. Rowling.
  • Received protests from Christian groups:
    promoted which craft
• Games/ Toys:
  • Tomagatchis, Pokémon, Neopets, Poochi,
    Ferbi, computer games
Television Shows
Slang

 - “Playah”, “Pigeon”, “chica”, “Dawg”,
 - homeys, gangsters, Gs, buzzkill,
   borechore, geek, chillin’, goin’ postal,
   throw down, bounce, phat, dope, fly, your
   mom. Money: bills, bling, coin.
 - I-M ing/ text messaging:
   • OMG, IDK, LOL
Blogs

 • online diaries.
 • Ritual Entertainment hired full time
   blogger in 1997- first company to have a
   professional blogger
 • Dredge Report: Matt Drudge makes news
   blog
   • Blogging exploded in 1998- tens of thousands
    by end of 99’
 • Opened handful of host blogging services
   • people can comment on other people’s blogs
Tattoos/ Piercings

  • Tattoos were just for gang members,
    prisoners, bikers, and sailors-
    • Now: more mainstream.
  • Piercing: not just ears anymore.
    • Tongue, navel, nose.
Food Trends

-   Frozen dinners
-   Power bars/ Cereal Bars
-   Genetically Modified Food
-   Organic Food: whole foods marketry
-   Coffee Houses
    - Starbucks
Foreign Policy
Persian Gulf War

•   Iraq invades Kuwait
•   U.N. ordered removal of Iraqis
•   U.S. leads invasion
•   Ceasefire- February 24, 1991
Persian Gulf War
North American Free Trade Agreement

• Agreement between Mexico, Canada, and
  the U.S.
• Decreased tariffs
Balkans
•   Bosnian freedom from Yugoslavia
•   Ethnic cleansing of Croats
•   Clintons idea to bomb Serbians
•   Agreement made in Ohio
Social/ Cultural Changes
Education
  - 82% of the nation had completed four
    years of high school
  • High school drop out rate was less than
    6% (was an improvement from the 80s,
    which was 11%)
  • Average amount of homework hours
    changed (for example from ages 6-8)
    from 52 minutes to over two hours
  • More students were attending college
    because of the economic boom
Work

 • Part-time jobs  80% of students had one
 • Jobs were becoming more based of college
   educations
Teen Violence

 • 1991: highest rate of teen violence
 • teens living in the ghetto lead to a higher
   chance of a more violent lifestyle
Drugs

 • There was an increase with teens using
   drugs, smoking, and alcohol
   • Raised from 14-46% from 1992-1997
Advertising

  • Was increased through television,
    magazines, the radio, and the internet
  • Was a major stimulant of the economy
  • The average American was estimated to
    be targeted with a daily rate of 3000
    advertisements in 1991
  • Growth in telemarketing
The Internet

  • Simplified the process of getting
    information
  • EBay: founded in 1995
    • Was one of the most dominate market places
    • By end of 90s 40 million were registered and
      made over five billion dollars in transactions
Sports

 • Soccer had its come back in the 90s
   • Mia Hamm: U.S. Women’s Soccer Team
 • Sports event tickets were becoming more
   expensive
 • Sports celebrities and athletes were
   becoming the face of many commercial
   advertisements
   • Most popular: Michael Jordan (Hanes and Nike)
     and Tiger Woods (Titlist golf gear, Nike,
     American Express, Rolex, and more).
Food
  • Fast Food Industry
    • By the end of the 90s - spent $110 billion
    • Increased marketing towards children
       • put playgrounds in restaurants
       • Put advertisement in kid movies  BK in Toy
         Story
  • Soda
    • Reached to an annual rate of 56 gallons per
      person at the end of the 90s
  • Americans had poor diets because of
    fast food
    • Mostly effected the children  poor
      exercise\
Music
  • Nirvana: band of the 90s
  • Rock/Metal: Example Bands: Metallica,
    Beastie Boys, Beck, Sound Garden
  • Indie Rock: Became a new genre in the
    90s, but wasn’t mainstream
  • Alternative rock
    • Was more popular with teens- MTV
    • Examples: U2, Nirvana, R.E.M., Pearl Jam,
      House of Pain, Counting Crows, Radiohead,
      Third Eye Blind, Oasis, Green Day, Goo Goo
      Dolls, Spin Doctors
Music Cont.
  • Rap / Hip-hop
    • Sales were extremely high for the music
    • Wasn’t played on the commercial radio
      because it was too obscene
    • Example Bands: Sir Mix-A-Lot, Dr. Drew,
      Red Hot Chili Peppers, MC Hammer, Salt-n-
      Pepper, Eminem, Vanilla Ice, Color Me Badd,
      Fat Boy Slim-
  • Country: Billy Ray Cyrus, Tim McGraw,
    Dixie Chicks…
  • Pop: Backstreet Boys, Brittany Spears…
Key Events
Aids Epidemic of the 1990’s

•   In the 1990’s, the aids epidemic continued
    to kill multiple people.
•   Every year, the United States had 40,000
    aids related cases.
•   In May 1990, the number of aids patients
    of 13 to 19 year olds increased by 35%.
•   There were public service announcements
    by the National Institute on Drug Abuse to
    encourage teens to avoid usage of drugs
    and alcohol.
(one of many) 1995-1997



• Clinton had an affair with Monica
  Lewinsky (22) since November of
  1995.
• When confronted about this affair, he
  denied that he ever did anything with
  anyone.
  • Ended up testifying his faults.
  • Was acquitted for his charges.
Oklahoma City Bombing:
    April 19, 1995

• At 9:02 am a truck exploded in front
  of the Alfred P. Murrah federal
  building.
• Timothy Mcveigh was found
  responsible for the bombing.
• Video:
  • http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?i
    d=2683183n
Princess Diana car crash:
     August 30, 1997

• Princess Diana was in France
  celebrating with her companion, Dodi.
• One the way back to the hotel was the
  fatal car crash.
  • Millions mourned over her sudden death.
Columbine Massacre:
    April 20, 1999

 • Extreme school shooting
   • Littletown, Colorado
   • Seniors: Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris
     • April 20th, 11:15 am was the 1st lunch period with
       around 500 kids near the cafeteria.
       • Evidences were found from a security tape
       • Total of 13 people killed
       • 1 teacher, 12 students
 • Video:
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phAp
   xy7aqFw&feature=related
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone
    novel: 1999

  • Series by J.K. Rowling
    • Started a new obsession for readers
    • Total of 7 books and 6 movies

				
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