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					THE APPLICATION OF ISLAMIC
   TEACHINGS ON GENDER
 ISSUES IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Mufti Aleem Abdulwahid Inju
       Ustadz Musa Hashim
      Prof. Jurma Tikmasan
               OVERVIEW
• The Philippine population is estimated at 86 M in 2004
• Annual pop. growth rate - 2.36%
• Sex ratio 101:100
• Life expectancy: Male     – 67 yrs
                   Female – 72 yrs
• Literacy rate:   Male     – 81.9%
                   Female – 86.3
• CPR:             National – 49%
                   ARMM – 14%
  National Gender Situation
• Girls have higher participation rates than boys in
  elementary and high school
• More women are being elected to public office
• Gender Development Index (GDI) improved from
  0.739 in 1998 to 0.751 in 2002
• The gender empowerment measure changed
  from 0.48 in 1999 to 0.542 in 2004
     Gender Policy Measures
•   Women in Nation-Building Act (RA 7192)
•   Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 (RA 7877)
•   Anti-Rape Law of 1997 (RA 8353)
•   Anti-Violence against Women and their
             Children Act of 2004 (RA 9262)
•   Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 (RA 9208)
•   Anti-Violence against Women and their
             Children Act of 2004 (RA 9262)
•   The Revised Penal Code (RA 3815)
•   Rape Victims Assistance and Protection Act of 1998 (RA
    8505)
•   Philippine Development Plan for Women
       Map of the ARMM
                               Lanao Sur
                               • Kapatagan
                               • Marantao
                               • Bubong


                                 Maguindanao
                                 • Shariff Aguak
                                 • Ampatuan
                   Basilan       • North Upi


            Sulu
            • Jolo      ARMM
            • Parang
            • Luuk

Tawi-Tawi
• Bongao
• Panglima Sugala
• Mapun
Total ARMM Population - 3,225,947   Religion:
                                                Islam – 92%
Annual Pop.Growth Rate - 3.86%
Average Family Size - 6.3           Christian/Lumad/IP - 8%
Maternal Mortality Rate:          Infant Mortality Rate:
  ARMM:      320 per 100,000 LB      ARMM: 56/1,000 LB
  National: 172 per 100,000 LB     National: 36/1,000 LB
• lll




                    ARMM Gender Situation
        Life Expectancy:
                         Female          Male
        ARMM             59.3            55.5
        National         71.6            66.3
In Education: More boys are dropping
       out of school than girls
 • Disparity is minimal across regions at the
   primary level except in the Autonomous Region
   of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) which showed
   gender parity index (GPI) of 1.10
   (93.31%:84.85%)

 • At the secondary level, larger ratio
   discrepancies: with GPIs ranging from 1.08
   (58.02%:53.8%) in the National Capital Region
   (NCR) to 1.33 (21%:16%) in ARMM.
GENDER INTERVENTIONS
• National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)
  issued joint circular no. 2001-1 – providing policy
  guidelines for gender mainstreaming
• Creation of gender mechanisms such as :
      Regional Coordinating Committee on Gender & Dev
  (GAD)
       Regional Commission on Bangsamoro Women
  (RCBW)
• Development of training modules, protocols on VAW
  management
• Capacity building of institutions in gender mainstreaming
  and service providers in VAW management
• A host of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)
  working on the ground to better the situation of women
  and children
              Islamic Text
• “I shall not lose sight of the labor of any of you
  who labors in My Way, be it man or woman;
  each of you is equal to the other” (3:195)

• “Treatment of women on a footing of kindness
  and equity” (4:9)

• “The best of you are they who behave best to
  their wives” (hadith)
Role of Muslim Religious Leaders

• Provide the Islamic context of family
  planning, reproductive health and gender
• Raise awareness of the community about
  these issues and promote positive change
  in their attitudes and behaviour
• Promote a supportive policy environment
  for population, RH and gender
Key Activities of Muslim Religious
  Leaders on Family Planning
                 • 1. Organizing Core
                   Groups of local
                   religious leaders
                 • 2. Training local MRLs
                   on Islamic Perspective
                   of Family Planning and
                   Responsible
                   Parenthood
                 • 3. Khutba during Friday
                   Congregational Prayer
Key Activities of Muslim Religious
  Leaders on Family Planning
  4. Nasihat at local Masjids after Isha   prayer

  5. Consultations with other local MRLs
     of different schools of thought

  6. Radio Program

  7. Community Assembly

  8. FP FATWA declaration by the ulama in Tawi Tawi
    and Basilan, then later the whole of ARMM
9. Pre-marriage counseling
         CONSTRAINTS AND
           CHALLENGES
• About 9% (2.2M) of Filipino women aged
  18 and above reported incidence of
  physical abuse inflicted by their partners

• Violence Against Women (VAW) in the
  form of battering, trafficking and sexual
  abuse - growing concern all over the
  country.
      CONSTRAINTS AND
        CHALLENGES
• Need to truly understand Islam, justice and
  gender by Muslim men and women

• Lived experiences of Muslims lead to a
  variety of interpretative perspectives

• Variations in interpretation of Islamic texts
  yielded distinct consequences over the
  meaning of Islam and its applications in the
  context of gender (Wadud)
      CONSTRAINTS AND
        CHALLENGES
• Filipino Muslim culture, have strong
  gender identities - roles/behaviors are
  assigned to one or the other gender
• Individuals are expected to fit cultural,
  traditional and social molds
• In the context of ARMM, women are
  accorded due respect and recognition, but
  major decision making are left to the men.
      CONSTRAINTS AND
        CHALLENGES

• This practice/culture impact on the
  education sector, which shapes the
  country’s human capital formation
• In the context of ARMM, population control
  is associated with oppression of the
  minority (the Moros)
    Gender Issues in ARMM
•   Early and arranged marriages
•   Polygamy
•   Divorce
•   Abortion
•   Property Rights
•   Decision-making
•   Violence Against Women
•   Political Participation of Women
 Specific Issues Identified in
            ARMM:
• Culture of silence/denial
• Finding practical application of Islamic laws
  relative to women’s rights
• Public and service providers lack of
  information on the law
• Differences in opinion on gender among
  MRLs
• The need to identify and train more female
  MRLs
• The need to strengthen/institutionalize MRLs
  activities
Philippine Gender Mainstreaming
            Strategy

TWO-PRONGED APPROACH

• influencing the development planning
  cycle
• transforming institutions to become
  gender-responsive organizations
     On-Going Activities
• Gender Sensitivity Trainings – LGUs,
  MRLS, Academe, NGOs

• Conferences/seminars on SRHR -
  Women’s rights as Human rights

• Provincial consultation on gender
  among partners, specially the MRLs
   Implementation Strategies
• Identification of potential partners and allies
• Consultative planning
• Gender statistics generated and used as basis in
  the preparation of action plans
• Start-up meetings – to orient the partners about
  the project/program
• Capacity building of the pre-identified partners,
  allies and supporters
• Networking
• Monitoring and evaluation
     LESSONS LEARNED
• Occurence of gender issues in Muslim
  communities – hard to accept
• MRLs – influential in Muslim communities
• Unity and networking – important to advocacy
• Relatively easier to resolve issues: Early and
  arranged marriages, Property Rights, Decision-
  making, divorce
• Harder to resolve issues: VAW, Abortion,
  Political participation, Polygamy
             Conclusion
• Engendering Sustainable Development – work in
  progress
• Attaining GENDER EQUALITY where men
  and women enjoy the same opportunities,
  benefits and responsibilities remain a
  gaping challenge
• Conferences like this one help build alliances,
  provide valuable insights/inputs – sustain and
  strengthen the efforts for GAD
 Sukran
  And
Wassalam

				
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