Recreational Leadership.ppt by wangnuanzg


									Friday January 22, 2010
   Human services worker" is a generic term for
    people who hold professional and
    paraprofessional jobs in such diverse settings as
    group homes and halfway houses; correctional,
    mental retardation, and community mental health
    centers; family, child, and youth service agencies,
    and programs concerned with alcoholism, drug
    abuse, family violence, and aging.
   Depending on the employment setting and the
    kinds of clients served there, job titles and duties
    vary a great deal.

   The roots of the Department of Health and
    Human Services go back to the earliest days of
    the nation as early as 1798 with the passage of
    an act for the relief of sick and disabled
    seamen, which established a federal network of
    hospitals for the care of merchant seamen,
    forerunner of today's U.S. Public Health

   The primary purpose of the human service
    worker is to assist individual and communities
    to function as effectively as possible in the
    major domains of living.
   Social and human service assistants provide
    services to clients to help them improve their
    quality of life.
   They assess clients' needs, investigate their
    eligibility for benefits and services such as food
    stamps, Medicaid and welfare, and help clients
    obtain them.

   They also arrange for transportation, if
    necessary, and provide emotional support.
   They monitor and keep case records on clients
    and report progress to supervisors and case
   They may organize and lead group activities,
    assist clients in need of counseling or crisis
    intervention, or administer food banks or
    emergency fuel programs.

   In halfway houses, group homes, and government-
    supported housing programs, they assist adults
    who need supervision with personal hygiene and
    daily living tasks.
   They review clients' records, ensure that they take
    prescribed medication, talk with family members,
    and confer with medical personnel and other
    caregivers to provide insight into clients' needs.
   Assistants also give emotional support and help
    clients become involved in community recreation
    programs and other activities
   A strong desire to help others is an important
    consideration for a job as a human services
   Individuals who show patience,
    understanding, and caring in their dealings
    with others are highly valued by employers.
   Other important personal traits include
    communication skills, a strong sense of
    responsibility, and the ability to manage time
   Human services workers in community-based
    settings move around a great deal in the course of
    a workweek.
   They may be inside one day and outdoors on a
    field visit the next.
   They, too, work a standard 40-hour week.
   Human services workers in residential settings
    generally work in shifts.
   Because residents of group homes need
    supervision in the evening and at night, 7 days a
    week, evening and weekend hours are required.

   Working conditions of social and human service
    assistants vary.
   Some work in offices, clinics, and hospitals, while
    others work in group homes, shelters, and day
   Traveling to see clients is required for some jobs.
   Sometimes working with clients can be dangerous,
    even though most agencies do everything they can
    to ensure their workers' safety.
   Some work in the evening and on weekends

   Despite differences in what they are called and
    what they do, human services workers generally
    perform under the direction of professional staff.
   Those employed in mental health settings, for
    example, may be assigned to assist a treatment
    team made up of social workers, psychologists,
    and other human services professionals.
   The amount of responsibility these workers
    assume and the degree of supervision they receive
    vary a great deal.
   Some workers are on their own most of the time
    and have little direct supervision; others work
    under close direction

   Human services workers in community,
    residential care, or institutional settings
    provide direct services such as leading a group,
    organizing an activity, or offering individual
   They may handle some administrative support
    tasks, too.
   Specific job duties reflect organizational policy
    and staffing patterns, as well as the worker's
    educational preparation and experience
Case Worker                  Family Support Worker        Youth Workers           Social Services Liaison   Community Outreach Worker

                                                                                                             Social Work Assistant
Residential Counselor        Behavioral                   Management Aide         Case Management Aide

                                                                                                             Community Action Worker
Eligibility Counselor        Alcohol Counselor            Adult Day Care Worker   Drug Abuse Counselor

                                                                                                             Psychological Aide
Life Skills Instructor       Client Advocate              Neighborhood Worker     Social Service Aide

                                                                                                             Halfway House Counselor
Group Activities Aide        Social Services Technician   Therapeutic Assistant   Probation Officer

                                                                                                             Assistant Case Manager
Case Monitor                 Parole Officer               Child Advocate          Gerontology Aide

                                                                                                             Rehabilitation Case Worker
Juvenile Court Liaison       Home Health Aide             Group Home Worker       Child Abuse Worker

                                                                                                             Residential Manager
Crisis Intervention Counselor Mental Health Aide          Community Organizer     Intake Interviewer
  1.    Understanding the nature of human systems:
        individual, group, organization, community
        and society, and their major interactions.

        All workers will have preparation, which
        helps them to understand human
        development, group dynamics, organizational
        structure, how communities are organized,
        how national policy is set, and how social
        systems interact in producing human
  2.    Understanding the conditions that promote or
        limit optimal functioning and classes of deviations
        from desired functioning in the major human

        Workers will have understanding of the major
        models of causation that are concerned with both
        the promotion of healthy functioning and with

        This includes medically oriented, socially
        oriented, psychologically-behavioral oriented, and
        educationally oriented models.
  3.    Skill in identifying and selecting interventions
        which promote growth and goal attainment.

       The worker will be able to conduct a competent
       problem analysis and to select those strategies,
       services or interventions that are appropriate to
       helping clients attain a desired outcome.

       Interventions may include assistance, referral,
       advocacy, or direct counseling.
  4.    Skill in planning, implementing and evaluating

        The worker will be able to design a plan of action for
        an identified problem and implement the plan in a
        systematic way.

        This requires an understanding of problem analysis,
        decision-analysis, and design of work plans.

        This generic skill can be used with all social systems
        and adapted for use with individual clients or
        organizations. Skill in evaluating the interventions is
  5.    Consistent behavior in selecting interventions
        that are congruent with the values of one's self,
        clients, the employing organization and the
        Human Service profession.

        This cluster requires awareness of one's own
        value orientation, an understanding of
        organizational values as expressed in the
        mandate or goal statement of the organization,
        human service ethics and an appreciation of
        the client's values, life style and goals
  6.    Process skills that are required to plan and implement

        This cluster is based on the assumption that the worker
        uses himself as the main tool for responding to service

        The worker must be skillful in verbal and oral
        communication; interpersonal relationships and other
        related personal skills, such as self-discipline and time

         It requires that the worker be interested in and motivated
        to conduct the role that he has agreed to fulfill and to apply
        himself to all aspects of the work that the role requires.
   What is the significance of a human service
    worker in today's society?
   When you think of things like what has
    happened in Haiti and hurricane Katrina, what
    is the significance of a HSW?
   Write one page answering the question above.
   I would also like to know what kind of human
    service worker you are.
What is the Helping Process?

 Constructive helping is a collaborative
  process through which an experienced helper
  (counselor) empowers a person seeking help
  (client) to define, strategize, and implement
  meaningful change.
 The counselor-client relationship is grounded
  in trust and respect
What are the stages in the
Helping Process?
 1. Active listening
 2. Problem identification
 3. Problem solving
 4. Follow through
Active Listening

 The counselor listens carefully and
  empathically to the client's story to 1) gain an
  understanding of the client's problem, 2)
  learn how the client thinks, feels and acts, 3)
  discover the client's strengths, assets and
  personal power, and 4) build rapport with the
Problem identification

 The counselor, using such techniques as
  open-ended questioning, reflecting and
  paraphrasing, assists the client to identify
  and clarify the problem
Problem solving

 The counselor assists the client to 1) define
  goals (what the client wants, how the client
  would like things to be), 2) generate
  strategies to accomplish these goals (how the
  client may attain these wants and make
  things be the way the client would like), 3)
  examine each strategy for potential problems
  and outcomes, 4) review support, strengths
  and resources, and 5) decide on a plan of
Follow through

 The counselor provides the client with
  ongoing support and encouragement and
  opportunities to 1) examine actions taken for
  what did and did not work, 2) restrategize
  actions based on this examination, and 3)
  recognize and own personal strengths and
History of recreational therapy
 The recreational therapy profession can be traced back to
  the 1850's when Florence Nightingale proposed that
  recreation experiences could be drawn upon to improve the
  human condition.
 In 1931 the American Red Cross began hiring recreation
  hospital workers.
 The term "recreational therapy" was first coined by the
  Menninger brothers who were enthusiastic for the
  inclusion of recreational therapy as a treatment of persons
  with mental health disorders.
 Since the 1940's, recreational therapists have served as
  active members of the interdisciplinary treatment team
  addressing the psychosocial and physical rehabilitation
  needs of the consumer

What is Recreation Therapy
 Recreational therapy, also referred to as recreation
  therapy and therapeutic recreation, contributes to the
  broad spectrum of health care through treatment,
  education, and the provision of adapted recreational
  opportunities — all of which aid in improving and
  maintaining physical, cognitive, emotional, and social
  functioning, preventing secondary health conditions,
  enhancing independent living skills and overall quality of
 Participation is the ultimate goal of Therapeutic Recreation
  and is the inclusion of the client into the least restrictive
  setting for recreation and leisure opportunities

What do they do?
 RT provide treatment services and recreation activities for
  individuals with disabilities or illnesses.
 They use a variety of techniques, including arts and crafts,
  animals, sports, games, dance and movement, drama,
  music, and community outings, therapists improve and
  maintain the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of
  their clients.
 Therapists help individuals reduce depression, stress, and
  anxiety; recover basic motor functioning and reasoning
  abilities; build confidence; and socialize effectively so that
  they can enjoy greater independence and reduce or
  eliminate the effects of their illness or disability

What do they do? (cont.)
 In addition, therapists help people with disabilities
  integrate into the community by teaching them how to
  use community resources and recreational activities.
 Recreational therapists are different from recreation
  workers, who organize recreational activities primarily
  for enjoyment.

Where can you find a RT
 Recreational Therapists may work with a wide range of
  individuals requiring health services including geriatric,
  mental health, addictions, general medicine, physical
  medicine and rehabilitation, developmental disabilities
  and pediatric clients.
 Most recreational therapists are employed by health care
  agencies and work in traditional inpatient hospitals or
  health facilities but an increasing number are being hired
  in residential facilities, community mental health centers,
  adult day care programs, substance abuse centers, hospice
  care, community centers and in school systems.
 There is a growing trend for recreational therapists to work
  in private practice providing services in the home and
  community as well
How they assess their clients needs
 Recreational therapists assess clients using
  information from observations, medical records,
  standardized assessments, the medical staff, the
  clients' families, and the clients themselves.
 They then develop and carry out therapeutic
  interventions consistent with the clients' needs and
 For example, they may encourage clients who are
  isolated from others or who have limited social skills to
  play games with others, and they may teach right-
  handed people with right-side paralysis how to use
  their unaffected left side to throw a ball or swing a
How they assess their clients needs
 Recreational therapists may instruct patients in
 relaxation techniques to reduce stress and tension,
 stretching and limbering exercises, proper body
 mechanics for participation in recreational activities,
 pacing and energy conservation techniques, and team
 activities. As they work, therapists observe and
 document a patient's participation, reactions, and

Types of RTs
 In healthcare settings, such as hospitals and rehabilitation
  centers, recreational therapists treat and rehabilitate
  individuals with specific health conditions, usually in
  conjunction or collaboration with physicians, nurses,
  psychologists, social workers, and physical and
  occupational therapists.
 In long-term and residential care facilities, recreational
  therapists use leisure activities—especially structured
  group programs—to improve and maintain their clients'
  general health and well-being.
 They also may provide interventions to prevent the client
  from suffering further medical problems and

Different types of RTs
 Community-based recreational therapists may work in
  park and recreation departments, special education
  programs for school districts, or assisted living, adult
  day care, and substance abuse rehabilitation centers.
 In these programs, therapists use interventions to
  develop specific skills, while providing opportunities
  for exercise, mental stimulation, creativity, and fun.
 Those few who work in schools help counselors,
  teachers, and parents address the special needs of
  students, including easing disabled students'
  transition into adult life.

Work Environment
 Recreational therapists provide services in special
  activity rooms but also plan activities and prepare
  documentation in offices.
 When working with clients during community
  integration programs, they may travel locally to teach
  clients how to use public transportation and other
  public areas, such as parks, playgrounds, swimming
  pools, restaurants, and theaters.
 Therapists often lift and carry equipment.

RT responsibilities
 Recreational therapists must be comfortable working
  with people who are ill or disabled.
 Therapists must be patient, tactful, and persuasive
  when working with people who have a variety of
  special needs.
 Ingenuity, a sense of humor, and imagination are
  needed to adapt activities to individual needs, and
  good physical coordination is necessary to
  demonstrate or participate in recreational activities.


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