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					           Lecture 4


History of philosophy / Apology


         PHIL 1000
Four periods
   History of Western philosophy can be
    divided into four periods:

Ancient    Medieval   Modern   Contemporary
Ancient philosophy
   6th century BCE - 4th century CE

       Pre-Socratics (600 - 400 BCE)
          The Milesians

          Pythagoras (570 - 495 BCE)

          Xenophanes (570 - 470 BCE)

          Anaxagoras (500 - 428 BCE)

          Sophists

       Socrates (470 - 399 BCE)
       Plato (429 - 347 BCE)
       Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE)
       Stoics: Marcus Aurelius (120 -180 CE)
       St. Augustine (354 - 430)
Medieval philosophy
   Especially 11th - 14th centuries

       St. Anselm (1033 -1109)
       Islamic & Jewish philosophers
       St. Thomas Aquinas (1225 - 1274)
       William of Ockham (1285 - 1349)
       Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)
       Thomas Hobbs (1588 - 1679)
Modern philosophy
   Especially 17th - 18th centuries
       Rationalism
          Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

          Benedictus Spinoza (1632-1677)

          Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716)

       Empiricism
          John Locke (1632-1704)

          Bishop George Berkeley (1685 - 1753)

          David Hume (1711 - 1776):

       Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804)
       G.W.F. Hegel (1770 - 1831)
Contemporary philosophy
   19th century - present
       Continental philosophy
            Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855): Danish
            Karl Marx (1818-1883): German
            Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): German
            Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) German
            Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980): French
            Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986): French
            Neo-Marxism
            Deconstructionism
            Post-structuralism
            Feminism
Contemporary philosophy
   19th century - present
       Anglo-American philosophy

            John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): British
            William James (1842-1910): American
            Bertrand Russell (1872-1970): British
            Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1959): Austrian
            Gilbert Ryle (1900 - 1976): British
            W. V. O. Quine (1908 - 2000: American
            Karl Popper (1902-1994): Austrian
            John Searle (1932 - ): American
Socrates (470 - 399 BCE)
   wrote nothing
   teacher of Plato
   had disdain for empirical
    enquiry
   focused on universals (justice,
    goodness, etc.) and the
    improvement of the soul
   father of moral philosophy
   the Socratic method (a.k.a.
    “dialectic” by Plato): method of
    discovering (or “remembering”)
    a truth already within one’s
    examinee by skillful use of
    questions-and-answers
   Socrates considered himself the
    “midwife to truth”
Plato (429 - 347 BCE)
   father of idealism, rationalism,
    and social-political philosophy
   prolific writer (“dialogues”)
   founded The Academy c385
    BCE
        the prototype of all Western U’s
        its subjects were the
         quadrivium [Latin]: geometry,
         mathematics, astronomy, and
         harmony, as well as Platonism
         and dialectic
        Aristotle studied there for 20 yrs
        the academy was destroyed in
         529 CE by the Christian
         Emperor Justinian (900 yrs!)
   divine illumination via dialectic
Reading philosophy
   Take a look at the study questions.
   Be an active reader
       Note answers to study questions
       Note major definitions, claims, evidence.
       Note your questions.
       Essay topic?
   Re-read.
The Apology
   Format (dialogue)

   Where? When?
     Athens (399 BCE)

     “pure democracy”

     501 judges/jury



   Who is on trial?
     Socrates. Plato was present.

     70 years old; first time in court

     The piece begins after the accusers have made their case.

     he will tell the truth
Accusers
   Who were his accusers?

       There are two “classes” of accusers
            2nd: Current: Meletus, Anytus, Lycon
                  Charges: (1) corrupting the youth
                            (2) impiety

            1st: Historical: Slanderers (Aristophanes, etc.)
                  Charges: “Socrates is an evil-doer …” (p. 7).

                  This class concerns him the most.
                  He deals with their charges first.
   Defense

       “I have nothing to do with physical speculations”
        (p. 7).
       ~teacher
       ~take money
       ~sophist


   Origin?
Origin
   Chaerephon asked the Delphi oracle if there
    was anyone wiser than Socrates; to which the
    oracle said . . . .?

   What does Socrates do?

       “What can the god mean? … I know that I have no
        wisdom, great or small” (p. 8).

       He had a “religious duty” to find out.
Making enemies
   Politicians
       “When I began to talk with him …” (p. 8)
       “I neither know nor think I know” (p. 9)


   Poets
       “not by wisdom to poets write poetry, but by a sort
        of genius and inspiration” (p. 9).


   Artisans (skilled craftsmen)
       “because they were good workmen they thought
        that they also know all sorts of high matters” (p. 9).
His interpretation
   “He, O men, is the wisest who, like
    Socrates, knows that his wisdom is in
    truth worth nothing” (p. 9).

   Religious duty
His students
   How did his followers make more enemies of
    Socrates?
       “they like to hear the pretenders examined, and they often
        imitate me, and proceed to exam others” (pp. 9-10).

       “there are plenty of persons, as they quickly discover, who
        think that they know something, but really know little or
        nothing” (p.10)

       They become angry; repeat “ready-made” charges;

       “I cannot expect to get rid of such a mass of calumny all in a
        moment. … Hence has arisen the prejudice against me” (p.
        10).
2nd     class of accusers
   “I have said enough in my defense against
    the first class of my accusers; I turn to the
    second class” (p. 10).

   Each represents a group he alienated:

       Meletus:    Poets
       Anytus:     Politicians & Artisans
       Lycon:      Rhetoricians
Socrates’ defense
   Questions Meletus using his method

   Re: Charge 1: Corrupting the youth

       What does Meletus say?

            EVERYONE in Athens improves and elevates the youth
             EXCEPT Socrates (p. 10).

            Socrates intentionally corrupts the youth.
Socrates’ defense
   Re: Charge 2: Impiety

       What does Meletus say?

            Socrates is an atheist and teaches atheism (p. 11)

       Socrates’ response? (p. 12)

            Contradiction
            Inconsistency
Socrates’ defense
   Re: Charge 2: Impiety

       Religious duty
            “God orders me to fulfill the philosopher’s mission of searching
             into myself and other men” (p. 13).
            “I shall never cease from the practice and teaching of
             philosophy … greatest improvement of the soul … virtue” (p.
             13).
            “I shall never alter my ways, not even if I have to die many
             times”
            “gadfly”!!

       Does NOT fear death
Guilty!
   281 guilty / 220 not guilty
       31 votes shy


   Accusers recommend death

   What does Socrates recommend?
Sentencing phase
   Full room and board at the state
    retirement home (p. 15).
   No imprisonment.
   No fine (no money).
   No exile.
   No stopping.
   OK, small fine. 1 …. 30 minae. (p. 16)
The sentence
   DEATH!
       360 death / 141 no death
       Includes 71 people who voted to acquit!


   Does not fear death.

   Final favor.

				
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