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Lecture 4 History of philosophy / Apology PHIL 1000 Four periods History of Western philosophy can be divided into four periods: Ancient Medieval Modern Contemporary Ancient philosophy 6th century BCE - 4th century CE Pre-Socratics (600 - 400 BCE) The Milesians Pythagoras (570 - 495 BCE) Xenophanes (570 - 470 BCE) Anaxagoras (500 - 428 BCE) Sophists Socrates (470 - 399 BCE) Plato (429 - 347 BCE) Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE) Stoics: Marcus Aurelius (120 -180 CE) St. Augustine (354 - 430) Medieval philosophy Especially 11th - 14th centuries St. Anselm (1033 -1109) Islamic & Jewish philosophers St. Thomas Aquinas (1225 - 1274) William of Ockham (1285 - 1349) Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) Thomas Hobbs (1588 - 1679) Modern philosophy Especially 17th - 18th centuries Rationalism Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Benedictus Spinoza (1632-1677) Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) Empiricism John Locke (1632-1704) Bishop George Berkeley (1685 - 1753) David Hume (1711 - 1776): Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) G.W.F. Hegel (1770 - 1831) Contemporary philosophy 19th century - present Continental philosophy Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855): Danish Karl Marx (1818-1883): German Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): German Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) German Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980): French Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986): French Neo-Marxism Deconstructionism Post-structuralism Feminism Contemporary philosophy 19th century - present Anglo-American philosophy John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): British William James (1842-1910): American Bertrand Russell (1872-1970): British Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1959): Austrian Gilbert Ryle (1900 - 1976): British W. V. O. Quine (1908 - 2000: American Karl Popper (1902-1994): Austrian John Searle (1932 - ): American Socrates (470 - 399 BCE) wrote nothing teacher of Plato had disdain for empirical enquiry focused on universals (justice, goodness, etc.) and the improvement of the soul father of moral philosophy the Socratic method (a.k.a. “dialectic” by Plato): method of discovering (or “remembering”) a truth already within one’s examinee by skillful use of questions-and-answers Socrates considered himself the “midwife to truth” Plato (429 - 347 BCE) father of idealism, rationalism, and social-political philosophy prolific writer (“dialogues”) founded The Academy c385 BCE the prototype of all Western U’s its subjects were the quadrivium [Latin]: geometry, mathematics, astronomy, and harmony, as well as Platonism and dialectic Aristotle studied there for 20 yrs the academy was destroyed in 529 CE by the Christian Emperor Justinian (900 yrs!) divine illumination via dialectic Reading philosophy Take a look at the study questions. Be an active reader Note answers to study questions Note major definitions, claims, evidence. Note your questions. Essay topic? Re-read. The Apology Format (dialogue) Where? When? Athens (399 BCE) “pure democracy” 501 judges/jury Who is on trial? Socrates. Plato was present. 70 years old; first time in court The piece begins after the accusers have made their case. he will tell the truth Accusers Who were his accusers? There are two “classes” of accusers 2nd: Current: Meletus, Anytus, Lycon Charges: (1) corrupting the youth (2) impiety 1st: Historical: Slanderers (Aristophanes, etc.) Charges: “Socrates is an evil-doer …” (p. 7). This class concerns him the most. He deals with their charges first. Defense “I have nothing to do with physical speculations” (p. 7). ~teacher ~take money ~sophist Origin? Origin Chaerephon asked the Delphi oracle if there was anyone wiser than Socrates; to which the oracle said . . . .? What does Socrates do? “What can the god mean? … I know that I have no wisdom, great or small” (p. 8). He had a “religious duty” to find out. Making enemies Politicians “When I began to talk with him …” (p. 8) “I neither know nor think I know” (p. 9) Poets “not by wisdom to poets write poetry, but by a sort of genius and inspiration” (p. 9). Artisans (skilled craftsmen) “because they were good workmen they thought that they also know all sorts of high matters” (p. 9). His interpretation “He, O men, is the wisest who, like Socrates, knows that his wisdom is in truth worth nothing” (p. 9). Religious duty His students How did his followers make more enemies of Socrates? “they like to hear the pretenders examined, and they often imitate me, and proceed to exam others” (pp. 9-10). “there are plenty of persons, as they quickly discover, who think that they know something, but really know little or nothing” (p.10) They become angry; repeat “ready-made” charges; “I cannot expect to get rid of such a mass of calumny all in a moment. … Hence has arisen the prejudice against me” (p. 10). 2nd class of accusers “I have said enough in my defense against the first class of my accusers; I turn to the second class” (p. 10). Each represents a group he alienated: Meletus: Poets Anytus: Politicians & Artisans Lycon: Rhetoricians Socrates’ defense Questions Meletus using his method Re: Charge 1: Corrupting the youth What does Meletus say? EVERYONE in Athens improves and elevates the youth EXCEPT Socrates (p. 10). Socrates intentionally corrupts the youth. Socrates’ defense Re: Charge 2: Impiety What does Meletus say? Socrates is an atheist and teaches atheism (p. 11) Socrates’ response? (p. 12) Contradiction Inconsistency Socrates’ defense Re: Charge 2: Impiety Religious duty “God orders me to fulfill the philosopher’s mission of searching into myself and other men” (p. 13). “I shall never cease from the practice and teaching of philosophy … greatest improvement of the soul … virtue” (p. 13). “I shall never alter my ways, not even if I have to die many times” “gadfly”!! Does NOT fear death Guilty! 281 guilty / 220 not guilty 31 votes shy Accusers recommend death What does Socrates recommend? Sentencing phase Full room and board at the state retirement home (p. 15). No imprisonment. No fine (no money). No exile. No stopping. OK, small fine. 1 …. 30 minae. (p. 16) The sentence DEATH! 360 death / 141 no death Includes 71 people who voted to acquit! Does not fear death. Final favor.
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