Personality

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					Personality - describing, causing

   A person’s characteristic pattern of
      thinking, feeling, acting - Q1
                   Aristotle
•   Hedonist - seeks happiness
•   Acquisitive - seeks assets, wealth
•   Ethical - seeks moral virtue
•   Logical - thinks, investigates
                  Galen
•   Yellow bile           Choleric
•   Black bile            Melancholic
•   Phlegm                Phlegmatic
•   Blood                 Sanguine
               Freud - Q2
• 1856 - 1939
• Medical doctor
• Looked for ways to treat ailments with no
  apparent physical causes
• Used hypnosis, then psychoanalysis
• Interpretation of Dreams - 1900
• Sex and aggression
               Freud - Q3

• The unconscious - a part of the mind that is
  inaccessible, filled with strong emotions
  that we repress - but these emotions may be
  expressed in disguised form - iceberg
  metaphor
• The conscious mind - relatively smaller part
  of the mind that is easily accessible
• The preconscious mind – memory, etc
   Personality structure - Q4, Q5
• Id - unconscious repository of basic human
  instincts - sex and aggression
• Pleasure principle
• Superego - our conscience - tells us how we
  should behave ideally
• Ego - the reality manager - mediates struggles
  between the id and superego in order to allow us
  to live in real world - reality principle
      Personality development
• Oral
• Anal
• Phallic - oedipal complex, castration
  complex, identification, Electra complex,
  penis envy
• Latent
• Genital
• fixation
     Defense mechanisms - Q7
• Enables us to control basic instincts and
  express them in socially acceptable ways
• Repression
• Regression
• Reaction formation - makes unacceptable
  impulses look like their opposite
• Projection - attributes impulses to others
        Defense mechanisms
• Rationalization – gives us a plausible reason
  for doing something
• Displacement – replacing the object of
  aggression etc
• Sublimation – transforming negative energy
  into art
 Accessing the unconscious - Q8
• Free association in psychoanalysis,
  introspection, insight
• Projective tests - TAT, Rorschach, Draw a
  Person, etc
• Dream analysis
• Hypnosis
        Personality Tests - Q9
• Projective - How reliable and valid are
  they?
• Inventories - MMPI, MBTI, traits
                 After Freud
• Carl Jung - intro/extraversion, collective
  unconscious, science/culture balance
• Alfred Adler - inferiority complex, multiple
  causes, fear or exaggerated sense of self
• Karen Horney - disagreed with Freud about
  genital stage and about women
• Anna Freud - focused on children, development
• Harry Stack Sullivan - interpersonal relationships
  key to development or illness
               Freud today
• Unconscious mind
• Development in stages - used in intellectual,
  social, moral development theory
• Defense mechanisms
• Talk therapy
• Psychoanalysis - psychodynamics
            Personality

       Humanists, behaviorists,
social/cultural, cognitive theory, traits
Maslow’s hierarchy - Q10

         SA

        Ego
      Social
       Safety

     Biological
             Carl Rogers - Q11
• Ideal personality
   – Open to experience
   – Trust feelings
   – Live in the moment
• Ideal environment - attributes of the therapist
   – Unconditional positive regard
   – Genuineness
   – Empathy
                             Self
• Self-ideal - ideal vs actual (all your ideas, values,
  perceptions, what I am, what I do)
• Possible selves - motivation
• Self-esteem
• Q12 Self-efficacy - Albert Bandura
• Q13 Self-serving bias
• The spotlight effect
              Congruence
• Evaluate experiences in terms of self-
  concept - large gap results in anxiety and
  defense
• Gap between ideal and real -> large gap =
  sad, small gap = happy
    Society and personality Q14
• Personality in collectivist cultures

• Personality in individualistic cultures
          Temperament – Q15
•   Ranges from calm to excitable
•   Apparent within hours of birth
•   Very stable over a lifetime
•   Genetic?
                  Traits
• Gordon Allport counted 18,000 words to
  describe people - beginning the trait
  perspective in personality research
• Hans Eysenck developed a system of
  assessing personality on two scales,
  extroversion and stability
• Raymond Cattell developed a list of 16
  traits
          The Big Five – Q16
•   OC E A N – outofservice.com
•   Openness to new experience
•   Conscientiousness
•   Extroversion
•   Agreeableness
•   Neuroticism (nervousness)
                     Big 5
• Stable?
  – Generally stable, less intense as we age
  – C increase in 20’s
  – A increases in 30’s
• Heritable?
• Cross-cultural?
• Predictors?
         Take another test Q17
• humanmetrics.com
• Jung/Myers-Briggs typology test - MBTI
• Extraversion / Introversion - external / internal
  energy
• Sensing / iNtuitive - source of information
• Thinking / Feeling - processing info - logic /
  feeling
• Judging / Perceiving - using info - planning /
  improvising
  Q18 - Stable across situations?
• According to Walter Mischel, cognitive
  traits are stable in most situations,
  emotional traits less so
• Person / situation problem - hard to predict
  behavior in a given situation - on average,
  stable
     Social learning/cognitive
            perspective
• Albert Bandura - modeling
• Q19 Locus of control
• Attributional style
  – Situations vs real self
  – Q20 Fundamental attribution error
• Q21 Learned helplessness - Martin
  Seligman
Q22 Behaviorism and personality
• Behavior is personality
• You are what you do
        Can you change your
            personality?
• No

• Temperament is very stable; most traits are
  generally stable
• Research has demonstrated there is a
  genetic component to personality
         Can you change your
             personality?
• Yes -
• a characteristic pattern of feeling, thinking,
  acting
• Certain types of therapy help you to change
  how you think about things, especially
  effective with phobias
• Habits are just habits
       Q23 Methods of studying
            personality
•   Projective tests
•   Surveys
•   Case studies
•   Correlations
•   MMPI, NEO-PI
        Q24 Names to know
• Alfred Adler, Bandura, Paul Costa and
  Robert McCrae, Freud, Jung, Maslow,
  Rogers

				
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posted:6/4/2012
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