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					The Supreme Court
    Principles of the Supreme Court

   Cannot seek out an issue to bring to court,
    they must wait for the lawsuit concerning the
    issue to come to them.
       Role of the Supreme Court

   The Supreme Court is the final judge in all
    cases involving laws of Congress, and the
    highest law of all-the Constitution.

   The Supreme Court is far from all powerful,
    due to the checks and balances system from
    the Executive and Legislative Branches.
              Current Members

   Ruth Bader Ginsburg
   Sonia Sotomayor
   Clarence Thomas
   Stephen Breyer
   Antonin Scalia
   John Stevens
   John Roberts
   Samuel Alito
   Anthony Kennedy
            Newest Appointees

   John Roberts, Chief Justice, Oct. 2005
   Samuel Alito, Feb. 2006
   Sonia Sotomayor, May 2009
                 Landmark Cases

   Marbury v. Madison, 1803
    –   Established the power of the court to review acts
        (laws) of Congress known as Judicial Review.
    –   The 1st time the Supreme Court declared
        something “unconsitutional”.
William Marbury   James Madison   John Marshall
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857


  -Ruled that all Africans, whether slaves or not, were
    not protected by the Constitution, and could never
    be citizens of the United States.
  -Because slaves were not citizen, they could not
    sue in court
  -Since slaves were considered private property,
    they could not be taken away from their owner
    without due process.
Dred Scott
           Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896

   Justified Jim Crow laws, saying that the 14th
    amendment allowed for separate facilities for
    different races as long as they were equal.
    –   This doctrine was used for the next 50 years to justify
        segregation.
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954

   Overturned the earlier ruling of Plessy v.
    Ferguson
   Decision was that “separate educational
    facilities are inherently unequal.
   14th amendment was being violated
   Victory paved the way for integration and the
    Civil Rights’ Movement
Engel v. Vitale, 1962

   Supreme Court determined that it is
    unconstitutional for state officials to compose
    an official school prayer and require its
    recitation in public schools.
Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963

   Ruled that state courts are required under
    the 6th amendment to provide counsel in
    criminal cases for defendants who are
    unable to afford their own attorneys
          Miranda v. Arizona, 1966

   In this case the Supreme Court ruled that the 5th
    Amendment’s protection from self-incrimination
    requires that suspects be clearly informed of their
    rights before they are questioned.
   Jurisdiction- authority to hear certain cases
   Original Jurisdiction- the court in which the
    case is originally tried.
    –   The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction for:
            Ambassadors & other representatives
            US government or its offices
            State and foreign country citizens
   Appellate Jurisdiction- court of appeals.
   Concurrent Jurisdiction- when both state and
    federal courts have jurisdiction.
        Selection of Federal Judges

   Article 2, section 2
   No qualifications listed in the constitution
   Appointed by President, they are usually of
    the same political party.
    –   He submits his choice to the senators from the
        candidate’s state. This is called Senatorial
        Courtesy.

				
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