# Electric Charge Electric

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```					Electric Charge

   Electric charge is measured in coulombs.
   The charge on an electron is _1.6x10-19C.
   A positive charge is caused by a loss of
electrons
   A negative charge is caused by an gain of
electrons.
   For a given process charge is conserved
because the loss of electrons equals the gain
of electrons.
Electric Charge

   Electric charge is measured in coulombs.
   The charge on an electron is _1.6x10-19C.
   A positive charge is caused by a loss of
electrons
   A negative charge is caused by an gain of
electrons.
   For a given process charge is conserved
because the loss of electrons equals the gain
of electrons.
Electric Charge

   Electric charge is measured in coulombs.
   The charge on an electron is _1.6x10-19C.
   A positive charge is caused by a loss of
electrons
   A negative charge is caused by an gain of
electrons.
   For a given process charge is conserved
because the loss of electrons equals the gain
of electrons.
Electric Charge

   Electric charge is measured in coulombs.
   The charge on an electron is _1.6x10-19C.
   A positive charge is caused by a loss of
electrons
   A negative charge is caused by an gain of
electrons.
   For a given process charge is conserved
because the loss of electrons equals the gain
of electrons.
Electric Charge

   Electric charge is measured in coulombs.
   The charge on an electron is _1.6x10-19C.
   A positive charge is caused by a loss of
electrons
   A negative charge is caused by an gain of
electrons.
   For a given process charge is conserved
because the loss of electrons equals the gain
of electrons.
Electric Charge

   Electric charge is measured in coulombs.
   The charge on an electron is _1.6x10-19C.
   A positive charge is caused by a loss of
electrons
   A negative charge is caused by an gain of
electrons.
   For a given process charge is conserved
because the loss of electrons equals the gain
of electrons.
Electric Charge

   Electric charge is measured in coulombs.
   The charge on an electron is _1.6x10-19C.
   A positive charge is caused by a loss of
electrons
   A negative charge is caused by an gain of
electrons.
   For a given process charge is conserved
because the loss of electrons equals the gain
of electrons.
Charging
   Charging by conduction results in the
same charge. A negatively charged
object will charge another object
negatively by conduction. A positively
charged object will charge another
object positively by conduction.
Charging
   Charging by conduction results in the
same charge. A negatively charged
object will charge another object
negatively by conduction. A positively
charged object will charge another
object positively by conduction.
Charging
   Charging by conduction results in the
same charge. A negatively charged
object will charge another object
negatively by conduction. A positively
charged object will charge another
object positively by conduction.
Charging
   Charging by conduction results in the
same charge. A negatively charged
object will charge another object
negatively by conduction. A positively
charged object will charge another
object positively by conduction.
Charging by Induction
   If a negatively rod is placed near a neutral
electroscope electrons are repelled into the
leafs and they separate If the electroscope
is now grounded while the negatively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with leave the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be positively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a negatively rod is placed near a neutral
electroscope electrons are repelled into the
leafs and they separate If the electroscope
is now grounded while the negatively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with leave the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be positively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a negatively rod is placed near a neutral
electroscope electrons are repelled into the
leafs and they separate If the electroscope
is now grounded while the negatively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with leave the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be positively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a negatively rod is placed near a neutral
electroscope electrons are repelled into the
leafs and they separate If the electroscope
is now grounded while the negatively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with leave the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be positively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a negatively rod is placed near a neutral
electroscope electrons are repelled into the
leafs and they separate If the electroscope
is now grounded while the negatively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with leave the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be positively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a positively charged rod is placed near a
neutral electroscope electrons leave the leafs
and they separate. If the electroscope is
now grounded while the positively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with enter the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be negatively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a positively charged rod is placed near a
neutral electroscope electrons leave the leafs
and they separate. If the electroscope is
now grounded while the positively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with enter the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be negatively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a positively charged rod is placed near a
neutral electroscope electrons leave the leafs
and they separate. If the electroscope is
now grounded while the positively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with enter the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be negatively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a positively charged rod is placed near a
neutral electroscope electrons leave the leafs
and they separate. If the electroscope is
now grounded while the positively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with enter the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be negatively charged.
Charging by Induction
   If a positively charged rod is placed near a
neutral electroscope electrons leave the leafs
and they separate. If the electroscope is
now grounded while the positively charged
rod remains near the top of the electroscope,
the electrons with enter the electroscope
through the ground. If the rod is now moved
away from the electroscope the leaves will
separate because the electroscope will now
be negatively charged.
Coulomb’s Law
   F = k q1q2
         r2

   k=8.99x109 N m2
C2
Coulomb’s Law
   F = k q1q2
         r2

   k=8.99x109 N m2
C2
Coulomb’s Law
   F = k q1q2
         r2

   k=8.99x109 N m2
C2
Coulomb’s Law
   F = k q1q2
         r2

   k=8.99x109 N m2
C2
Coulomb’s Law
   F = k q1q2
         r2

   k=8.99x109 N m2
C2
Coulomb’s Law
   F = k q1q2
         r2

   k=8.99x109 N m2
C2
Coulomb’s Law
   F = k q1q2
         r2

   k=8.99x109 N m2
C2
Principle of Superposition
           Q1         Q3

      Q2
Principle of Superposition
           Q1         Q3

      Q2
Principle of Superposition
           Q1         Q3

      Q2
Principle of Superposition
           Q1         Q3

      Q2
Principle of Superposition
   The force of Q1 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the left.
   The force of Q2 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the right and a vertical
component up.
   The total force on Q3 by Q1 and Q2 is equal to
the square root of the sum of x components
squared and the sum of the y components
squared.
Principle of Superposition
   The force of Q1 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the left.
   The force of Q2 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the right and a vertical
component up.
   The total force on Q3 by Q1 and Q2 is equal to
the square root of the sum of x components
squared and the sum of the y components
squared.
Principle of Superposition
   The force of Q1 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the left.
   The force of Q2 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the right and a vertical
component up.
   The total force on Q3 by Q1 and Q2 is equal to
the square root of the sum of x components
squared and the sum of the y components
squared.
Principle of Superposition
   The force of Q1 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the left.
   The force of Q2 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the right and a vertical
component up.
   The total force on Q3 by Q1 and Q2 is equal to
the square root of the sum of x components
squared and the sum of the y components
squared.
Principle of Superposition
   The force of Q1 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the left.
   The force of Q2 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the right and a vertical
component up.
   The total force on Q3 by Q1 and Q2 is equal to
the square root of the sum of x components
squared and the sum of the y components
squared.
Principle of Superposition
   The force of Q1 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the left.
   The force of Q2 on Q3 has a horizontal
component to the right and a vertical
component up.
   The total force on Q3 by Q1 and Q2 is equal to
the square root of the sum of x components
squared and the sum of the y components
squared.
Electric Fields
   E=F
qo

The direction of E at a point is defined
to the direction of the electric force on
a small positive test charge placed at
that point.
Electric Fields
   E=F
qo

The direction of E at a point is defined
to the direction of the electric force on
a small positive test charge placed at
that point.
Electric Fields
   E=F
qo

The direction of E at a point is defined
to the direction of the electric force on
a small positive test charge placed at
that point.
Electric Fields
   E=F
qo

The direction of E at a point is defined
to the direction of the electric force on
a small positive test charge placed at
that point.
Electric Fields
   E=F     qoE = F   qoE = K qo q
qo                     r2

E=kq
r2
Electric Fields
   E=F     qoE = F   qoE = K qo q
qo                     r2

E=kq
r2
Electric Fields
   E=F     qoE = F   qoE = K qo q
qo                     r2

E=kq
r2
Electric Fields
   E=F     qoE = F   qoE = K qo q
qo                     r2

E=kq
r2
Electric Field Lines
   Electric field lines begin on a positive and
end on a negative.
   Electric Field lines never cross each other.
   The number of lines drawn leaving a positive
or ending on a negative is proportional to the
the magnitude of the charge.
   The electric field vector E is tangent to the
electric field lines
Electric Field Lines
   Electric field lines begin on a positive and
end on a negative.
   Electric Field lines never cross each other.
   The number of lines drawn leaving a positive
or ending on a negative is proportional to the
the magnitude of the charge.
   The electric field vector E is tangent to the
electric field lines
Electric Field Lines
   Electric field lines begin on a positive and
end on a negative.
   Electric Field lines never cross each other.
   The number of lines drawn leaving a positive
or ending on a negative is proportional to the
the magnitude of the charge.
   The electric field vector E is tangent to the
electric field lines
Electric Field Lines
   Electric field lines begin on a positive and
end on a negative.
   Electric Field lines never cross each other.
   The number of lines drawn leaving a positive
or ending on a negative is proportional to the
the magnitude of the charge.
   The electric field vector E is tangent to the
electric field lines
Electric Field Lines
   Electric field lines begin on a positive and
end on a negative.
   Electric Field lines never cross each other.
   The number of lines drawn leaving a positive
or ending on a negative is proportional to the
the magnitude of the charge.
   The electric field vector E is tangent to the
electric field lines
Electric Field Lines
   Electric field lines begin on a positive and
end on a negative.
   Electric Field lines never cross each other.
   The number of lines drawn leaving a positive
or ending on a negative is proportional to the
the magnitude of the charge.
   The electric field vector E is tangent to the
electric field lines
Field lines Same Charge
Field lines Same Charge
Field lines –Same Magnitude
Field lines –Same Magnitude
Field lines Different Magnitudes
Field lines Different Magnitudes

Less charge      less chargel

Less charge                     less charge
Electric Fields in Conductors
   The electric field is zero everywhere inside
the conducting material.
   Any excess charge on an isolated conductor
resides entirely on its surface.
   The electric field outside a charged conductor
is perpendicular to the conductor’s surface.
   On a irregularly shaped conductor, the charge
accumulates at locations where the radius of
curvature of the surface is smallest – at
sharp points.
Electric Fields in Conductors
   The electric field is zero everywhere inside
the conducting material.
   Any excess charge on an isolated conductor
resides entirely on its surface.
   The electric field outside a charged conductor
is perpendicular to the conductor’s surface.
   On a irregularly shaped conductor, the charge
accumulates at locations where the radius of
curvature of the surface is smallest – at
sharp points.
Electric Fields in Conductors
   The electric field is zero everywhere inside
the conducting material.
   Any excess charge on an isolated conductor
resides entirely on its surface.
   The electric field outside a charged conductor
is perpendicular to the conductor’s surface.
   On a irregularly shaped conductor, the charge
accumulates at locations where the radius of
curvature of the surface is smallest – at
sharp points.
Electric Fields in Conductors
   The electric field is zero everywhere inside
the conducting material.
   Any excess charge on an isolated conductor
resides entirely on its surface.
   The electric field outside a charged conductor
is perpendicular to the conductor’s surface.
   On a irregularly shaped conductor, the charge
accumulates at locations where the radius of
curvature of the surface is smallest – at
sharp points.
Electric Fields in Conductors
   The electric field is zero everywhere inside
the conducting material.
   Any excess charge on an isolated conductor
resides entirely on its surface.
   The electric field outside a charged conductor
is perpendicular to the conductor’s surface.
   On a irregularly shaped conductor, the charge
accumulates at locations where the radius of
curvature of the surface is smallest – at
sharp points.

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