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Digestive System In Animals

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					                          Digestive System In Animals



The structure of the digestive tract varies in different animal species, depending
on the high and low levels of cell organization and type of food animals. the
digestion of food invertebrates generally are simple, done in phagocytosis and
intracellular, whereas in vertebrates already have the perfect digestion is carried
out extracellularly.

A. Digestive System In Animals Invertebrates

Digestive systems of invertebrates are generally performed intracellularly, such
as the protozoa, Porifera, and Coelenterata.
Digestion is carried out in the form of special equipment food vacuole, and the
cavity gastrovaskuler koanosit cell. Furthermore, the parasitic worms such as
tapeworm, the tool is not perfect digestion and do not have a mouth and anus.
digestion is done by directly absorbs through the skin.

a. Digestive system Food In Earthworm

worms released by the digestive juices are extracellular. Earthworm food in the
form of leaves and organic waste that has been weathered. Earthworms can
digest the organic compounds into simple molecules that can be absorbed by the
body. Spent the rest of the digestion of food through the anus.

b. The Insect Digestive System

As with earthworms, insects have a digestive system that is perfect, from the
mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines until anus.Pencernaan extracellular in
insects done.

2. Digestive system in vertebrate animals

Digestive organs in vertebrate animals include gastrointestinal (digestive tract)
and digestive gland (gland digestoria

a. Digestive system in fish
Digestive tract in fish starts from the oral cavity (cavum oris). In the oral cavity
are small teeth on the cone-shaped lower jaw and tongue on the floor of the
mouth that can not be moved, and many produce mucus, but did not produce
saliva (enzymes). Of food into the oral cavity through the pharynx, esophagus
found in the area around the gills.

Esophagus conical, short, there is behind the gills, and when no food passed
lumennya narrowed. Of the esophagus push food into the stomach, the stomach
was enlarged in general, no clear limit to the intestine. In some species of fish,
there is a knob stuck to expand the field of food absorption.
Of the stomach, the food into the intestine in the form of a long tube winding
and the same size. Bowel comes down to the anus.

Digestive gland in fish, including the liver and pancreas. The liver is the gland
that besal sized, brownish red, located on the front of the body cavity and
surrounds the intestines, form is not decisive, are divided over the right lobe and
left lobe, and part toward the back.

Liver produces bile which is stored in the gall bladder to membanfu fat
digestion. Gall bladder is round, colored kehijauary located on the right heart,
and the channel comes down to the stomach. The gallbladder functions to store
bile into the intestine and distributed when needed.

The pancreas is an organ the size of microscopic so hard to be recognized, the
function of the pancreas, among others, produce enzymes - digestive enzymes
and insulin.

b. Digestive System In Amphibians

Digestive system in amphibians, almost the same with fish, including the
digestive tract and digestive glands. one animal
amphibians are frogs. Frog food in the form of small animals (insects).

Respectively in the frog digestive tract include:

A. oral cavity: there is a cone-shaped teeth for holding prey and the tongue to
capture prey,

2. esophagus: a short channel,

3. ventrikulus (stomach), shaped sac which when supplied food to be wide. Frog
stomach can be divided into

2, where the entry of the esophagus and opening out into
intestine,

4. intestinum (colon) can be distinguished on the small intestine and colon
thickness. Small intestine include: duodenum. jejenum, and ileum, but not
clearly demarcated.

5. Thick intestine ends at the rectum and into kloata, and

6. cloaca: an estuary along the digestive tract of food, reproductive tract, and
urine.
Digestive gland in amphibians, consisting of the liver and pancreas. Brownish
red heart, which consists of the right lobe is divided into two lobules. Liver
function remove bile that is stored in the gall bladder is greenish.
Yellowish-colored pancreas, is attached between the stomach and duodenum
(duadenum). functioning pancreas produces enzymes and hormones that lead to
the duodenum.

c. Digestive System in Reptiles
As in fish and amphibians, the reptiles digestive system includes the
gastrointestinal tract and digestive glands. Reptiles are generally carnivores
(meat eaters). Respectively in reptiles digestive tract include:

1) the oral cavity: the mouth is supported by upper and lower jaws, each having
a row of conical teeth, gums and teeth attached to the slightly curved toward the
oral cavity.
The oral tongue are also attached to the bone with the tip of the forked tongue,

2) esophageal (throat),
3) ventrikulus (stomach),

4) intestinum: consists of the small intestine and colon thickness and leads to
the anus.
Digestive gland in reptiles include the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Liver in
reptiles has two lobes (gelambirf and reddish. Gallbladder is located on the right
edge of the liver.
The pancreas is located between the stomach and duodenum, flat-shaped
yellowish.

d. Digestive system In Birds
Digestive organs in birds is divided into the digestive tract and digestive glands.
Variety of bird food in the form of seeds, small animals, and fruits.
Digestive tract in birds consists of:

1) half-life: a modification of the tooth,

2) the oral cavity: consists of the upper jaw which is the liaison between the
mouth and horn,

3) pharynx: a short tract, the esophagus: the birds are widening in this section
called the cache, acting as a food storage area can be filled quickly,

4) the stomach consisting of:

- Proventriculus (glandular stomach): a lot of the enzyme
digestion, thin muscle wall.

- Ventrikulus (chewers stomach / gizzard): thick-walled muscle. In the grain-
eating birds are gravel and sand are ingested with food vang useful to aid
digestion and is referred to as "hen's teeth",

6) intestinum: consists of the small intestine and colon thickness and leads to a
cloaca.
Small intestine in birds consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Digestive gland of birds include: liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. In the pigeon
there is no gall bladder.
e. Digestive System in Animal Mamah Biak (Ruminant)
The animals were herbivores (grass eaters) such as sheep, cattle, water buffalo
called ruminant animals (ruminants). Digestive system in animals is more
lengthy and complex.
This pet food contains a lot of tough cellulose digested by animals in general so
that the digestive system is different from other animal digestive systems.
Differences in the digestive system in ruminants food, looks at the structure of
the teeth, the molars are back (molar) are large, serve to chew the grass that is
difficult to digest.
In addition, there are modifications to the ruminant animal stomach divided into
four parts, namely: the rumen (big belly), reticulum (stomach nets), omasum
(book abdomen), and the abomasum (stomach acid).
With the size of which varies according to age and natural foods. Rumen
capacity 80%, retlkulum 5%, 7-8% omasum, and abomasums 7-8 '/
o.Pembagian is evident from the shape gentingan spingter muscle during
contraction. Abomasum is the true stomach in ruminant animals.
Herbivores, such as horses, rabbits, and guinea pigs do not have the hull
structure as well as for the fermentation of cellulose in cattle. The process of
fermentation or putrefaction by bacteria occurs in the cecum that contains
bacteria banvak. fermentation process of fermentation in the cecum is not as
effective as a happening dilambung. As a result,
horse manure, rabbit, and guinea pigs more rugged because the digestion of
cellulose occurs only once, namely in the cecum. Whereas in cattle, the
digestive process occurs twice, namely in the stomach and cecum are both made
by certain bacteria and protozoa.
Selulotik bacteria in the stomach of ruminant animals is a form of symbiosis
mutualism can result in vitamin B and amino acids. In addition, these bacteria
can, produce methane gas (CH4), which can be used in the manufacture of
biogas as an alternative energy source.

The digestive system of earthworms is perfect. Earthworms have the digestive
tools from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and anus. The digestion
process is assisted by enzymes - enzymes

				
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