Communism in Crisis 1976 – 1991 by yurtgc548

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									Communism in Crisis:
   1976 – 1991
     IB Paper One
   Document Analysis
 Topics to be covered, China:
• Power struggle after Mao’s death and
  the defeat of the Gang of Four
• China under Deng Xiaoping and 4
  Modernizations
• Political changes/ Tiananmen Square
 Topics to be covered: USSR
• Domestic and foreign problems of
  Brezhnev era
• Economic and political stagnation
• Afghanistan
• Gorbachev’s aims, perestroika and
  glasnost
• Consequences of 1980s policies for
  Eastern Europe (Poland and
  Czechoslovakia)
    Things to remember…
• OPVL…always…
• We have access to documents from
  USSR, which has allowed some
  objective secondary research in recent
  years
• Accounts from China outside the
  official view are hard to come by, and
  largely anecdotal
• Question inherent assumptions in
  prompts and sources (IB really likes
  this)
                China
• 1976: Mao dies
• Hua Guofeng is designated successor
• Gang of Four (led by Jiang Qing)
  jockey for power
• Struggle ensues between Right and
  Left
• Hua Guofeng is neutral
  – “Two Whatevers”
           Gang of Four
• Led by Jiang Qing
• Radical Leftists, drivers of Cultural
  Revolution
• Power in media, urban militia,
  universities
• Eliminate revisionism and Four Olds
• Allied with Mao’s nephew – Mao
  Yuanxin
• Cut short mourning period for Zhou
  Enlai
 Gang of Four Bid for Power
• Gang of Four see Hua as weak and
  malleable
• Losing base of support, plan a coup
• Includes assassinations of Hua and
  other party officials
• General Chen and Su report plans to
  Hua
• Gang of Four arrested and denounced
      End of Gang of Four
• Years in prison before trial
• Celebrations and denounced as
  enemies of the people
• Show trial
• Death sentences and long prison
  sentences
• Blamed for excesses of Cultural
  Revolution
• “10 Lost Years”
            Pragmatists
• Led by Deng Xiaoping
• Support in moderates, rightists,
  military
• Deng rehabilitated after 3rd purge
• Four Modernizations
• Soon moved away from Hua’s “2
  whatevers”
   10 Year Plan (way better
           than 5)
• Driven by incentives and catching up
• Military:
  – Modernize technology
• Science and Technology:
  – Reform education, send students overseas
• Industry:
  – Heavy industry, SOE’s, limited autonomy
• Agriculture:
  – Mechanize, Household Responsibility System
     Adding foreign capital
• Open Door Policy
  – Nixon visits in 1972
  – Diverisfy
  – Need managerial and technical training
• Special Economic Zones
  – Special zones for foreign investment to
    limit exposure to west
  – Lenient economic policies
              Results?
• Huge economic growth (11%)
• Specialists training abroad had to
  adjust to outdated systems at home
• Consumer choice grew
• Pollution and deforestation
• Party members still privileged
• Resentment growing…
        Political Reforms
• Criticism of Gang of Four led to
  greater criticism
• Democracy Wall becomes a forum for
  public dissent
• Pro-democracy advocates growing
• “5th Modernization”
  – Wei Jingsheng (show trial, 15 years)
    More Political Reforms
• Deng travels, seeking new markets and
  allies
• Foreign journalists (like Jan Wong)
  allowed to report from within China
• Intellectuals allowed some criticism
• 1986: students encouraged to
  participate in government
  – Demonstrate for better conditions and
    freedoms
     Lead-up to Tiananmen
           Square
• Hu Yaobang dies (General Secretary)
  in April
• Mourning turns into criticism and calls
  for social change
• Students lead demonstrations in
  Tiananmen Square
• Includes pro-democracy movement
  and “Goddess of Democracy” statue
   Tiananmen Square, June
           1989
• Zhao Ziyang (new Gen. Sec) tries to
  work with protesters
• Students intensify protest, hunger
  strikes
• Global attention due to Gorbachev’s
  visit
  – Foreign press in town
• Deng orders military to seize control
• 100s killed, riots suppressed
             Reaction?
• World supported protestors
• Very little official response to
  repression
• Leaders rounded up and arrested
• “Most Favored Nation” status renewed
  in US
• Zhang purged
• Economic liberalization NOT political
     USSR: Brezhnev Era
• Economic Stagnation
• Years of poor harvests lead to morale
  and productivity declines
• Consumer goods limited and poor
  quality
• Thriving ‘black market’
• 25% GNP spent on military (missile
  gap)
          Dissent in USSR
• Samizdat
  – Self-published illegal pamphlets
    distributed in USSR
• Tamizdat
  – Smuggled illegal pamphlets published
    abroad
• Minorities and non-Russians
  – Using Helsinki Accords 1975 to advocate
    for equal treatment
         Political Stagnation
•   Gerontocracy: rule by elderly
•   Very conservative
•   No new ideas or leaders
•   “stability” meant stagnation
  Foreign Policy Challenges
• Brezhnev Doctrine – limited
  sovereignty
• Keep communist regimes in place,
  protect from internal and external
  threats
• Détente: SALT
• Arms limitation
• Role in Angolan revolution, Somalia,
  Mozambique
   Afghanistan 1979 - 1989
• Rebel forces, Mujahideen, oppose
  PDPA
• Mujahideen assassinate PDPA leaders,
  Soviet advisors…civil war brewing
• Invasion to support PDPA, invoking
  Brezhnev Doctrine
• 10 year intervention, 10,000s lives lost
• “USSR’s Vietnam”
• CIA supported Mujahadeen
   Andropov and Chernenko
• Brezhnev dies 1982
• Continuation of much the same policies
• Supported suppression of Polish
  Solidarity movement
• Poor relations with USA
• Gorbachev takes power in 1985
      Gorbachev, 1985-1989
•   54 = young and vital!
•   Reformer
•   Sought to repair an ailing system
•   “the worst time for a regime to reform
    is when it is in crisis”
      Gorbachev’s Reforms
• Decreased alcohol consumption (lost
  tax revenue)
• Perestroika: Economy
  – Decentralize planning, end price controls
• Glasnost: Politics
  – Open to criticism, dissidents rehabilitated
• Demokratiztsiya
 Gorbachev’s Foreign Policy
• Satellites expensive!
  – Renounce Brezhnev Doctrine
• Withdraw from Afghanistan
  – Too costly, no clear objective
• Meet with Reagan
  – Ease strain of confrontation
• INF and START treaties
  – Reduce stockpiles and cost of maintaining
    arsenal
   Consequences in Eastern
          Europe
• Satellites facing same problems
• Dissent, economic instability, shortage
  of consumer goods
• Local party officials (apparatchiks)
  concerned with Gorbachev’s reforms
• Fear losing control
• Nationalist movements gain momentum
       Poland - Solidarity
• Origins 1970 strike in Gdansk shipyard
• Lech Walesa and others strike for
  better conditions
• “consumer socialism”
• Rent controls, food prices controlled
• Riot in 1976 to protest food prices
• Leads to dissent movement and
  underground newspaper “Robotnik”
           Poland cont…
• Pope John Paul II visits 1980,
  encourages dissent on religious
  grounds
• National debt rising, food prices again
• 21 demands, including legalize unions,
  pay and working conditions, religion
• Allowed to exist for 469 days
• Leader imprisoned, martial law
          Poland Cont…
• Created atmosphere of pluralism
• Moral revolution
• Peaceful focus, anti-political
• 1981 October Program challenged
  Communist Party
• Martial Law imposed, Walesa
  imprisoned
            Poland Cont…
• Jaruzelski (Polish leader) imposes
  control
• Allows media and religious freedom as
  long as distanced from Solidarity
• Weakness of economy difficult to
  address
  – “Fondest dream is of a roll of toilet paper”
• Solidarity legalized and invited to
  government meetings in Feb 1989
 East Germany – Berlin Wall
• GDR loyal hardliners, Stasi feared
• “Ostpolitik” built a bridge between
  east and west
• Open borders in Hungary and
  Czechoslovakia lead to alarming
  exodus to west
• Dissent and protests abound
• Travel laws relaxed, wall opens Nov 9,
  1989
     Czechoslovakia – Velvet
           Revolution
• Resisted de-Stalinization
• Economic decline in 1950s lead to
  reforms
• Dubcek as leader: “Socialism with a
  human face”
  – Open debate, relax censorship and travel
    rules, greater autonomy for Slovakia
• Reforms concern hardliners
         Czechoslovakia
• Students get involved, start non-
  communist parties
• Leader Vaclav Havel, writer and
  dissident
• Genuine democracy seems attainable
• Neighboring regimes get concerned by
  reforms
• Hardliners appeal to Moscow
         Prague Spring 1968
•   Warsaw Pact forces invade in August
•   First exercise of “Brezhnev Doctrine”
•   Likened to Nazi invasion in 1939
•   Disillusioning to students and leaders
•   Confusion as to who was ‘helping’ who
•   Dubcek forced to capitulate at gunpoint
    in Moscow
         “Normalization”
• Gustav Husak hardliner
• Purge party of reformers, censorship
  restored, etc
• Roll-back of reforms
• State provided basic standard of living,
  better than most Soviet bloc states
• Charter 77 issued as opposition,
  gained global publicity
 Czechoslovakia 1981-1989
• Perestroika and Glasnost exciting
  ideas in Prague
• Even more exciting: rejection of
  Brezhnev Doctrine
• Dissidents cautious…
• Economic decline leads to greater
  dissent
• Opportunities for young limited
     Velvet Revolution 1989
• Opposition coming from environmental
  groups, political groups, rock and roll,
  etc
• Religious freedom demands growing
  (like Poland)
• May: borders open, June: Solidarity
  wins, Nov. 9: Berlin Wall down
• Nov 17 commemoration turns into
  anti-government riot
   Velvet Revolution cont…
• Riot dealt with violently, leading to more
  protest and outrage
• Civic Forum created by Havel to
  articulate demands
• Communist party can’t hold on – no new
  ideas
• Police and military can’t be relied on to
  crackdown
• President resigns, Dubcek and Havel
  appear triumphant
• Havel new president by the end of 1989
     Issues for post-Soviet
             control
• Lack of democratic traditions
  – United by opposition, now what do we
    want?
• Remnants of old regime
  – Old party admins needed to create
    structure
• Economic disasters
  – Harsh realities of global markets and
    capitalism
• Socio-cultural

								
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