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					Closing The
Achievement Gap
  Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay
                  Closing The
                  Achievement Gap
                  • The black/white achievement gap
                    has become a greater focus for all
                    school districts.
                  • Suburban, urban, and rural
                    schools are included in this
                    achievement gap.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   2
                  “No Child Left Behind”
                  • Public Law 107-110
                  • Not fully funded
                  • Directed at schools to close the
                    gap
                  • Controversial but effective in
                    identifying current issues
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   3
                  Historical Issues
                  Beyond “No Child Left
                  Behind”
                  • Economic differences yield access
                    differences.
                  • Education is as much an
                    economic issue as it is an access
                    issue.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   4
                  Access Issues
                  • Poverty is intertwined with education
                    and the achievement gap.
                  • Schools are separated by
                    socioeconomic class as much as race.
                  • In one-race schools, the poor students
                    score lower than the upper-middle
                    class students.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC      5
                  Academic, Social,
                  Physical and
                  Emotional Variables in
                  the Lives of Children
                  • Teacher preparation                    • Student Mobility
                  • Class size                             • Hunger/nutrition
                  • School safety                          • Lack of Academic
                  • Access to                                Success
                    technology                             • Lack of Positive
                  • Family exposure to                       Racial Identity
                    literacy

Closing The Gap              Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC                        6
                  Gap
                  • The black/white gap is the largest.
                  • The highest number of people in
                    poverty are children.
                  • According to the U.S. Census
                    (2003), the African-American
                    poverty rate is 24.4%.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC    7
                  Gap
                  • 33% of the African American
                    population is under age 18.
                  • 20% of black men live in poverty
                    compared to 7% of white men.
                  • 25% of black women live in poverty
                    compared to 9% white women.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   8
                  Gap
                  • For men and women over 65,
                    black men and women are in
                    poverty at a rate that is three times
                    higher than whites.
                  • There are 32 million people in
                    poverty, 12% of the population.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   9
                  Gap
                  • The figure 12% represents 8
                    million blacks in poverty and 15
                    million whites according to US
                    census.
                  • There are 4,834 male black
                    prisoners for every 100,000 black
                    males in the US.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   10
                  Gap
                  • There are 680 white males in
                    prison for every 100,000 white
                    males in the country.
                  • Out of the 2,078,570 in prison in
                    the USA, there are 750,000 black
                    men in prison and 436,000 black
                    men in college.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   11
                  Gap
                  • More black men are in prison than
                    in college.
                  • Poverty is linked to the
                    achievement gap creating
                    tumbling generational poverty, low
                    college entry, and higher numbers
                    in correctional institutions.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   12
                  Impact on Schools
                  • The economic and social gaps are
                    real.
                  • Education has the power to
                    transform lives.
                  • The power of a good teacher is
                    important to transform a life!
Closing The Gap           Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   13
                  Nine Strategies to
                  Reduce the Gap

                  • Can save lives
                  • Can reduce the gap
                  • Can improve the quality of life for
                    our fellow citizens

Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   14
Building Community

     Strategy One
                  Building Community
                  • Make home visits.
                  • Use culturally relevant
                    materials to personalize lessons.
                  • Talk to students and discover what
                    makes them learn.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   16
                  Building Community
                  • Discuss the impact of news on students
                    lives.
                  • Create opportunities to talk with
                    learners in informal as well as formal
                    environments.
                  • Plan staff retreats to target all learners.

Closing The Gap              Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC      17
                  Building Community
                  • Observe other teachers who are
                    succeeding with difficult students.
                  • Give frequent and specific feedback to
                    learners.
                  • Measure the growth of learners with
                    data and plan strategies for feedback.

Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC      18
                  Building Community
                  • Create appropriate social
                    opportunities for learners and
                    faculty to reinforce relationships.
                  • Provide descriptive feedback on
                    report cards that is specific and
                    personal to the learner.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   19
                  Building Community
                  • Protect any time set aside for one-
                    on-one conferences with learners.
                  • Be consistent with rules,
                    procedures, and expectations.
                  • Be clear about rules and class
                    expectations.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   20
Questioning

     Strategy Two
                  Questioning
                  • Have students develop questions
                    using appropriate strategies.
                  • Use problem-solving lessons and
                    ask learners to identify missing
                    data to solve the problem.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   22
                  Questioning
                  • Teach students to ask and answer
                    in a response—”the answer is ---
                    because----”
                  • Make steps clear in any process
                    assignment. Use Think Aloud
                    strategies to demonstrate “how”.
Closing The Gap           Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   23
                  Questioning
                  • Teach students the scientific
                    method.
                  • Teach students Bloom’s
                    taxonomy.
                  • Teach by the inquiry method when
                    possible.
Closing The Gap           Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   24
                  Questioning
                  • Teach students to ask “why”.
                  • Teach students to read with
                    specific questioning skills.
                  • Teach students to use the asked
                    question as part of the answer to
                    the question.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   25
                  Questioning
                  • Ask questions about vocabulary in
                    the text.
                  • Ask students to demonstrate their
                    knowledge in other forms of
                    communication such as writing
                    and drwaing.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   26
Listening Skills

     Strategy Three
                  Listening Skills
                  • Read a paragraph aloud and have
                    students summarize it.
                  • Ask students to summarize what others
                    have answered.
                  • After someone answers a question,
                    have students develop key questions
                    as follow-up.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   28
                  Listening Skills
                  • Create a classroom listening
                    center.
                  • Give students multi-step directions
                    to illustrate how accomplished
                    they are in listening.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   29
                  Listening Skills
                  • Quiz students weekly and teach
                    them to identify key words in
                    questions, find key words in a
                    passage, underline key words,
                    and discuss the key words with a
                    fellow student.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   30
                  Listening Skills
                  • Demonstrate to students how to
                    outline and use the outline in talks
                    and note-taking.
                  • Read aloud and have students
                    routinely listen for key ideas,
                    descriptions, and problems.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC    31
Incorporate More
Reading Time
     Strategy Four
                  More Reading Time
                  • Incorporate test vocabulary in
                    daily lessons.
                  • Teach one new word a day.
                  • Post words every where!
                  • Require students to use new
                    vocabulary.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   33
                  More Reading Time
                  • Have students critique other books.
                  • Predict what will happen in a story or
                    reading assignment.
                  • Encourage writing assignments of
                    interest.
                  • Have students critique each others
                    work.
Closing The Gap              Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC     34
                  More Reading Time
                  • Teach students to find the main
                    point.
                  • Use Academic notes, Cause and
                    Effect, Collaborative Questions,
                    Compare and Contrast, Inference
                    Notes, and Interactive Notes.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   35
                  More Reading Time
                  • Use Key Concepts Synthesis,
                    Literature Circles, Main Idea
                    Notes, Parallel Notes, Pyramid
                    Notes, Pre-Reading Notes,
                    Process Notes, Q-Notes,
                    Summary Notes, and Textbook
                    Analysis.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   36
                  More Reading Time
                  • Use Annotating Text Notes,
                    Annolighting Notes, Collaborative
                    Annotation, Metaphor Analysis
                    Notes, and Question Generator
                    Notes.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   37
                  More Reading Time
                  • Teach students to find their initial
                    understanding of a text,
                    developing an interpretation of a
                    text, making connections in the
                    text, and evaluating the text.
                  • Teach students to ask “dense
                    questions” about the text.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC    38
                  More Reading Time
                  • Teach students to read pictures,
                    graphs, charts, and cartoons.
                  • Have students create questions
                    from the above list.
                  • Have students listen to
                    themselves read books on tape.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   39
                  More Reading Time
                  • Have students learn stems,
                    prefixes, roots, suffixes, and other
                    components of words.
                  • Create weekly reading logs.
                  • Require students to answer in
                    complete sentences.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC    40
                  More Reading Time
                  • Read a passage daily to learners.
                  • Keep a “word wall” with
                    appropriate content words.
                  • Provide access to dictionaries and
                    thesaurus.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   41
                  More Reading Time
                  • Encourage book groups.
                  • Provide time for sustained silent
                    reading.
                  • Have students publish their own
                    writing.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   42
                  More Reading Time
                  • Encourage students to submit
                    writings to school’s literary
                    magazine.
                  • Read about humble beginnings of
                    authors.

Closing The Gap           Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   43
                  More Reading Time
                  • Model reading by discussing
                    books you are reading.
                  • Work with the librarian for book
                    displays of books of interest to the
                    students in your class.

Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   44
Establish A Positive
Class Climate
      Strategy Five
                  Positive Classroom
                  Climate
                  • Greet students at the door.
                  • Project a caring and interested
                    attitude.
                  • Ask students appropriate
                    questions before class begins.
                  • Compliment students.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   46
                  Positive Classroom
                  Climate
                  • Call students by their names.
                  • Tell students how pleased you are
                    to see them in class.
                  • Convey your enthusiasm for the
                    day’s lesson that you have
                    prepared for them.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   47
                  Positive Classroom
                  Climate
                  • Establish safe, consistent,
                    appropriate, and predictable
                    procedures.
                  • Speak to counselors/social
                    workers about your students.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   48
                  Positive Classroom
                  Climate
                  • Make lunch appointments with
                    your students.
                  • Talk to students who seem
                    troubled on a one-on-one basis.
                  • Keep a locked box on your desk
                    for notes to you.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   49
                  Positive Classroom
                  Climate
                  • Discuss how students feel about
                    local and school issues.
                  • Praise kids for successes in after-
                    school or other activities.
                  • Smile every day!

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC    50
Consequences for
Behavior
     Strategy Six
                  Consequences
                  • According to Ruby Payne, 5% of
                    the students create 90% of the
                    social problems in a school.




Closing The Gap           Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   52
                  Consequences
                  • Be fearless—never show fear of
                    any student, parent, or other
                    teacher.
                  • High poverty environments require
                    a survival instinct; many children
                    are forced to prove their strength
                    in different ways.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   53
                  Consequences
                  • Create consequences that are
                    aligned with the infraction.
                  • Discipline is an opportunity to
                    teach.
                  • Punishment without teaching is a
                    waste of time!
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   54
                  Consequences
                  • Compare the school with the “real
                    world” whenever possible.
                  • When a rule is broken,
                    consequences occur.
                  • Use societal terminology to
                    explain how your class works!
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   55
Set High
Expectations
    Strategy Seven
                  Set High Expectations
                  • Ruby Payne states that a startling 70%
                    of special education students come
                    from poverty backgrounds.
                  • Also, 70% of prisoners come out of
                    poverty.
                  • Implement a “no excuse” belief system.

Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   57
                  Set High Expectations
                  • Set realistic goals. Measure for
                    improvement of the goals.
                  • Have students participate in
                    activities to build self-esteem.
                  • Set the standard high and show
                    how you will help them succeed.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   58
                  Set High Expectations
                  • Hold students accountable. When
                    students don’t complete
                    assignments, grade accordingly.
                    Then require them to complete the
                    work within the school day.
                  • Emphasize why this assignment is
                    important.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   59
                  Set High Expectations
                  • Remind learners:
                    –   This Material Is Important
                    –   You Can Do It
                    –   I Am Here To Help You Succeed



Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   60
                  Set High Expectations
                  • Teach students what they need in
                    your content area.
                  • Every student needs a good
                    education and your calling is to
                    provide that education!

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   61
Get Parents
Involved
     Strategy Eight
                  Get Parents Involved
                  • Identify parents by the level of
                    involvement they can offer.
                  • Some can come to school, others
                    can be involved in other ways.
                  • Identify classroom and school
                    needs.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   63
                  Get Parents Involved
                  • Create phone trees for parental
                    communications about school
                    issues and events.
                  • Provide parents with short weekly
                    notes.
                  • Keep videos of class events.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   64
                  Get Parents Involved
                  • Run videos in high traffic areas of
                    the school.
                  • When a parent can’t make a
                    school event, send a note stating
                    how well the student performed
                    and that you understand the
                    absence.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC    65
                  Get Parents Involved
                  • Offer parent education classes.
                  • Provide simple ways for parents to
                    get involved at home.
                  • Call or write to parents with
                    positive news and progress
                    reports.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   66
                  Get Parents Involved
                  • Consider a parent room for busy
                    parents to meet kids for lunch or
                    breakfast.
                  • Post parent information in the
                    room. Provide a rocking chair and
                    books.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   67
                  Get Parents Involved
                  • Send home announcements and
                    updates.
                  • Have a teacher teach a Support-
                    Strategy-at-Home at every PTA
                    meeting.

Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   68
                  Get Parents Involved
                  • Talk to parents whenever and where
                    ever possible.
                  • Create a sense of urgency around the
                    need for communications between the
                    home and school.
                  • Make all school events “user friendly”
                    with baby-sitting services.
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC      69
Resolve Conflicts
With Dignity
     Strategy Nine
                  Resolve Conflicts With
                  Dignity
                  • Children in poverty face a real life
                    struggle of survival of the fittest.
                    Strength is often tested and
                    carried over to school.
                  • People in these situations, rarely
                    learn conflict resolution skills!
Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC    71
                  Resolve Conflicts With
                  Dignity
                  • Change the paradigm one child at
                    a time to understand it takes much
                    more strength, energy, control,
                    and time to solve a problem by
                    talking, reasoning, and
                    compromising.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   72
                  Resolve Conflicts With
                  Dignity
                  • Demonstrate how much more power
                    they have when they talk, compromise,
                    and reason.
                  • Have students view different situations
                    that call for these skills.
                  • Use character education techniques.

Closing The Gap             Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   73
                  Resolve Conflicts With
                  Dignity
                  • Remember students respond in
                    aggressive ways to show strength
                    in front of peers.
                  • Confront students with this fact
                    and provide alternatives that won’t
                    make them look bad.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   74
                  Resolve Conflicts With
                  Dignity
                  • Don’t determine what high poverty
                    students have to do outside
                    school.
                  • Simply state that in school there
                    are other choices, and help them
                    develop those choices in school.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC   75
Conclusion

     Last Thoughts
                  Summary: All Students
                  Can Learn and Behave
                  Well       • Students are the
                                                           reason we teach.
                  • Students depend
                    on us.                               • Help them all
                                                           succeed.
                  • Students need
                    for us to care.                      • Students need us
                                                           to treat them as if
                  • Students are                           they were our
                    demanding.                             own.
Closing The Gap            Dr. Dianna M. Lindsay W-JCC                       77

				
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