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Appositives _amp; Appositive Phrases

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Appositives _amp; Appositive Phrases Powered By Docstoc
					            Appositives & Appositive Phrases
• An appositive is a noun or
  pronoun that identifies or
  renames another noun or
  pronoun.

• An appositive phrase is made up
  of an appositive plus its         • Gail Devers, a champion sprinter, was born
  modifiers.                          in Seattle in 1966.
                                    • Barcelona, a large city in Spain, hosted the
                                      Olympics in 1992.
                                Essential Appositives
• An essential appositive is an appositive that
  provides information that is needed to identify
  the preceding noun or pronoun.

• It is sometimes called a restrictive appositive.




    The American sprinter Gail Devers                • Note that NO COMMAS are needed
    won an Olympic gold medal in the                   with an essential appositive.
    100-meter dash in 1992.
                     Nonessential Appositives
• A nonessential appositive adds          Devers, a survivor of Graves’ disease,
  information about a noun or pronoun     overcame many obstacles to achieve
  in a sentence in which the meaning is   athletic success.
  already clear.
• It is also called a nonrestrictive
  appositive.
• Nonessential appositives are set off
  with commas.
                                      Let’s Practice …
1.   Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, also
     overcame a disability.
2.   Rudolph was born with the disease polio.
3.   Rudolph, a determined child, ignored doctors’
     predictions about never being able to walk again.
4.   A basketball star at age 13, she was known for
     her speed.
5.   The coach Edward Temple invited her to a track
     camp.                                               7.   She and three other women, members of the
                                                              women’s 400-meter relay team, won a bronze
6.   In 1956, Rudolph, only a 16-year-old, made the
                                                              medal.
     U.S. Olympic team.
                                                         8.   Four years later, Rudolph achieved her greatest
                                                              personal triumph, three gold medals in a single
                                                              Olympics.
                                  How Did You Do?
1.   Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, also
     overcame a disability.
2.   Rudolph was born with the disease polio.
3.   Rudolph, a determined child, ignored doctors’
     predictions about never being able to walk again.
4.   A basketball star at age 13, she was known for
     her speed.
5.   The coach Edward Temple invited her to a track
     camp.                                               7.   She and three other women, members of the
                                                              women’s 400-meter relay team, won a bronze
6.   In 1956, Rudolph, only a 16-year-old, made the
                                                              medal.
     U.S. Olympic team.
                                                         8.   Four years later, Rudolph achieved her greatest
                                                              personal triumph, three gold medals in a single
                                                              Olympics.
                             Verbals
•   A verbal is a verb form that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an
    adverb. They DO NOT act as the verb/simple predicate in the
    sentence.

•   There are three types of verbals:
      1. Participles (adjectives)
      2. Gerunds (nouns)
      3. Infinitives (nouns, adjectives,          and adverbs)
                             Participial Phrases
                                             Played for more than 100 years, high
                                             school football has a rich tradition.
                                             Large crowds attend games featuring rival
                                             high schools.



• A participle is a verb form that acts as
  an adjective.
• There are two kinds: past and present
  participles.
• A participial phrase consists of a
  participle plus its modifiers.
                           Some Literary Examples
From Robert Cormier’s The Chocolate War:

“The coach looked like an old gangster: broken nose,
a scar on his cheek, a stitched shoestring.”

“Inhaling the sweet sharp apple air through his
nostrils - he was afraid to open his mouth wide,
wary of any movement that was not absolutely
essential –- he walked tentatively toward the
sidelines, listening to the coach barking at the other
guys.”
                                Let’s Practice …
1.   In many parts of the country, steadily      5.   Remaining popular in many urban areas,
     declining interest has damaged high              however, high school football won’t be
     school football.                                 dying out anytime soon.
2.   Preferring soccer or basketball, many
     students do not sign up for football.
3.   Parents concerned about football injuries
     suggest other sports.
4.   Reacting to a lack of interest, school
     officials have cut football funds.
                             How Did You Do?
1.   In many parts of the country, steadily      5.   Remaining popular in many urban areas,
     declining interest has damaged high              however, high school football won’t be
     school football.                                 dying out anytime soon.
2.   Preferring soccer or basketball, many
     students do not sign up for football.
3.   Parents concerned about football injuries
     suggest other sports.
4.   Reacting to a lack of interest, school
     officials have cut football funds.
                      Why It Matters In Writing
• Many writers have trouble placing participial phrases in sentences. Putting words in the wrong
  place can result in a misplaced or dangling phrase that will confuse the reader. This is often
  called a dangling participle.

• A misplaced participial phrase is closer to some other noun than it is to the noun it actually
  modifies.

    Beginning in the 1890’s, Thanksgiving Day was when top high school football teams from
    different regions paired off in major games.

    Responding to changes in the rules of football, the forward pass was used more often in high
    school games in the 1920’s.
                  Make the Needed Corrections
         A high school in Colorado had a               treatment. She was tackled by large opposing
homecoming queen who played football. There was        players kicking extra points. Katie was not ready to
a special ceremony at halftime of the homecoming       give up the game after high school. Determined to
game. Queen Katie smiled for the photographers         play college football, Katie’s mother gave her full
taking off her helmet. Accepting a white rose, the     support.
crowd loudly cheered. Katie enjoyed the ceremony,
but she was prouder of her performance on the field.
With the game on the line, a field goal sailed
through the goal posts kicked by Katie. During her
four years on the team, Katie played well without
receiving any special
                        How Did You Fix These?
         A high school in Colorado had a               treatment. She was tackled by large opposing
homecoming queen who played football. There was        players kicking extra points. Katie was not ready to
a special ceremony at halftime of the homecoming       give up the game after high school. Determined to
game. Queen Katie smiled for the photographers         play college football, Katie’s mother gave her full
taking off her helmet. Accepting a white rose, the     support.
crowd loudly cheered. Katie enjoyed the ceremony,
but she was prouder of her performance on the field.
With the game on the line, a field goal sailed
through the goal posts kicked by Katie. During her
four years on the team, Katie played well without
receiving any special
                         Gerund Phrases
• A gerund is a verb form that ends
  in ing and acts as a noun.
• A gerund phrase consists of a
  gerund plus its modifiers.
   She loves swimming.
   She loves swimming in the ocean.   Next morning, when it was time for the
                                      routine of swimming and sunbathing, his
                                      mother said, “Are you tired of the usual beach,
                                      Jerry? Would you like to go somewhere else?”
                                      - Doris Lessing, “Through the Tunnel”
                  Functions of Gerund Phrases
Subject                         Swimming competitively requires lots of
                                practice.

Object of a Preposition         Jeff got in shape by swimming at the
                                YMCA.
Direct Object                   Mr. Kroesche coaches high school
                                swimming.
Indirect Object                 Tamera gave competitive swimming a
                                try.
Predicate Nominative            Tamera’s specialty is swimming the
                                backstroke.
                                    Let’s Practice …
                                                     3.   Morales learned quickly, and soon he
                                                          started winning junior championships.
                                                     4.   Competing in the 1984 Olympics brought
                                                          him one gold medal and two silver medals.




1.   Pablo Morales became known as the               5.   Morales surprised everyone by failing to
     comeback kid of Olympic swimming.                    qualify in 1988.
2.   One of the goals of Morales’ mother was         6.   He touched people’s hearts by making a
     having her children learn to swim at an early        comeback and winning a gold medal in the
     age.                                                 100-meter butterfly in the 1992 Olympics.
                                How Did You Do?
                                                     3.   Morales learned quickly, and soon he
                                                          started winning junior championships.
                                                     4.   Competing in the 1984 Olympics brought
                                                          him one gold medal and two silver medals.




1.   Pablo Morales became known as the               5.   Morales surprised everyone by failing to
     comeback kid of Olympic swimming.                    qualify in 1988.
2.   One of the goals of Morales’ mother was         6.   He touched people’s hearts by making a
     having her children learn to swim at an early        comeback and winning a gold medal in the
     age.                                                 100-meter butterfly in the 1992 Olympics.
                               Infinitive Phrases
• And we’re finally back to Shakespeare, “To
  be or not to be, that is the question.”

• An infinitive is a verb form, usually
  beginning with the word to, that can act as
  a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

• An infinitive phrase consists of an
  infinitive plus its modifiers and
  complements.
            Uses of Infinitive Phrases
Noun                     To win tournaments on the Ladies Professional
                         Golf Association (LPGA) tour is the goal of top
                         women golfers.


Adjective                In 1998, Se Ri Pak became the youngest player
                         to win the U.S. Women’s Open golf
                         championship.


Adverb                   To become a champion golfer, Pak spent many
                         hours practicing in her native land of South
                         Korea.
                                   Let’s Practice …
                                                     1.   Tiger Woods was the first person of African-
                                                          American descent to win a major tournament
                                                          in men’s professional golf.
                                                     2.   To overcome golf’s history of
                                                          discrimination was no easy task.



3.   Woods is determined to help other persons of
     color become golf stars.
4.   To turn his dreams into reality, he founded a
     charitable organization, the Tiger Woods
     Foundation in 1997.
                                How Did You Do?
                                                     1.   Tiger Woods was the first person of African-
                                                          American descent to win a major tournament
                                                          in men’s professional golf.
                                                     2.   To overcome golf’s history of discrimination
                                                          was no easy task.



3.   Woods is determined to help other persons of
     color become golf stars.
4.   To turn his dreams into reality, he founded a
     charitable organization, the Tiger Woods
     Foundation, in 1997.
                 Why It Matters In Writing
• Using infinitive phrases, you can
  combine sentences in a way that
  eliminates unnecessary words and
  sharpens the relationship between
  ideas.
                  Try Combining These …
1.   Golfers use many different types of clubs during a tournament.
     Different clubs are needed to hit good shots.
2.   Hale Irwin has displayed incredible skill. He has won the U.S. Open
     three times.
3.   Hale Irwin must have amazing physical endurance. He has won
     tournaments for 30 years.
4.   He had weeks of outstanding play on the Senior Tour. He earned
     nearly $3 million in one year.
                      How Did You Do?
1.   Golfers use many different types of clubs to hit good shots during a
     tournament.
2.   Hale Irwin has displayed incredible skill to win the U.S. Open three
     times.
3.   Hale Irwin must have amazing physical endurance to win tournaments
     for 30 years.
4.   He had weeks of outstanding play on the Senior Tour to earn nearly $3
     million in one year.
Be careful …
      • It is easy to confuse infinitives with
        prepositional phrases, since both can begin
        with to.
      • Remember that an infinitive is to + a
        verb;        a prepositional phrase is to +
        an object (noun or pronoun).
          She wanted to eat some delicious ice
          cream, so she went to the grocery store.
                              Let’s Practice …
1.   The students were excited to work
     on their group project.

2.   They walked to the library so they
     could complete their research.

3.   While there, they were able to divide   4.   They later returned to their homes to
     up the work evenly.                          complete the work.

                                             5.   They finally presented their project to
                                                  the class.
                           How Did You Do?
1.   The students were excited to work
     on their group project.

2.   They walked to the library so they
     could complete their research.

3.   While there, they were able to divide   4.   They later returned to their homes to
     up the work evenly.                          complete the work.

                                             5.   They finally presented their project to
                                                  the class.

				
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