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					Colonies Become Nations
       Chapter 18 Crisis
• India & Pakistan = Nuclear Enemies
   – Kashmir (Hot Spot)
• Southeast Asia = Civil Unrest
   – Dictators, Independence Movements
• Decolonization = Instability
   – Assassinations & Genocide (Uganda/Rwanda)
• Arab- Israeli Crisis (Israel always wins)
   – The Road Map (War = Peace = War = Peace Cycle)
• Afganistan = Taliban
   – Osama Bin Laden = 911 = War on Terror
Section 1
India Subcontinent
         India’s Problems
• Unity & Diversity & Ongoing Division
• Unfair Customs = Social Change
  – (Caste system, Sati, Purdah, Dowry, Child marriages,
    forced labor, women’s illiteracy, harijans)
• Population Issue (triples leading to poverty)
  – Poverty line = 1 meal per day)
• Why have more children?
  – Form of Social Security/pension for the parents
• Calcutta & Bombay overpopulated & poor
  – Mother Teresa’s mission to reach the untouchable’s
• INDIA
                             India
  – Congress Party (Hindus) vs. Muslim League
      • Mohandas Gandhi & Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  – Partition (West Pakistan, India, Eastern Pakistan), July 16th, 1947,
    1 month to move (Pakistan = Land of the ritually pure)
  – 1 Million KILLED in the MIGRATION (Gandhi’s nightmare)
  – Gandhi Assassinated January 30th, 1948
  – Kashmir (Still being fought over)
• MODERN INDIA
  – Nehru (1st Prime Minister, 17 years)
      • Democracy, Unity, Economic Modernization
  – Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s Daughter)
      • Golden Temple Massacre, 1984 Assassination by Sikh
  – 21st Century Challenges (Nuclear weapons)
      • India vs. Pakistan
         • Beliefs
            – Satyagraha = soul force

Gandhi      – Ahimsa = non violence
            – the heart, then the mind…
         • Goal
            – India’s Independence
         • Method
            – Civil disobedience
               • Disobeying unjust laws
            – Fasting, hunger strikes
            – Salt March, clothing
         • Death
            – January 30th, 1948
“The light has gone out everywhere and the
        whole world is in darkness.”
SIKHISM
       Nehru Dynasty
• Jawahel Nehru
  –1947-1964
• Indira Gandhi
  –1964-1984
• Rajiv Gandhi
  –1984-1989
Golden Temple of Amritsar
  Indira Gandhi
Assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards
       October 31st, 1984
 Pakistan, Bangladesh & Sri Lanka
• PAKISTAN
  – West & East, 1000 miles apart, Muslim
  – Pakistan Remains Unstable
  – Civil War, East Pakistan becomes Bangladesh on
    March 26th, 1971, 1 million dead
     • 1970 Cyclone, 266,000 killed, WP slow to help, India helped
• BANGLADESH (Formerly East Pakistan)
  – Poorest nations in the World
• SRI LANKA (1948 Independence)
  – ¾ Sinhalese (Buddhist), 1/5 Tamils (Hindus)
  – Tamils want Independence(Northern Sri Lanka)
Mohamed Ali Jinnah
 Father of Pakistan
      Pakistan
• West & East (1948)
• East = Bangladesh (1971)
• Muslim Nation
    – Land of the ritually pure
•   Punjabi vs. Bengali Issues
•   Bhutto executed (Benezir)
•   Nuclear Bomb 1998
•   General Musharraf
    – Present Day Military Dictator
    – Until 2008
 Bangladesh
• 1971 Independence
  – Formerly Eastern Pakistan
  – Backed by India
  – Bengalese break free (Punjabi)
• Adversity
  – Overpopulation + Poverty
  – Floods + Cyclones
  – Millions displaced/killed
  – 50 million (1 meal per day)
     • Under poverty line
  – Child textile labor
Kashmir
                  Kasmir
•   Princely State of the Himalayas
•   Hindu Monarch, Muslim Majority
•   India & Pakistan tug of war
•   1999 Border Conflict
    – Nuclear Threats Against
    – Hot spot of the World
Section 2 Southeast Asia
                Philippines
• 1946 Independence
  – 50 years U.S. rule
• Democracy/Constitution
• Ferdinand Marcos (1965)
  – Dictator, censorship
  – Assassinated Benigno Aquino
• Corazon Aquino (1986)
  – Wife is elected President
  – “People Power” removes Marcos
• Today…
  – Rapid urbanization (Manila)
Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor
• Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor
   – Burma
      • Military Government (Oppressive)
      • Aung San Suu Kyi (Democracy)
          – On house arrest many times
   – Malaysia
      • Federation of Malaya
   – Singapore
      • Island, 1965 Independence, #1 Economy in the World
      • Very strict rules and laws
   – Indonesia Gains Independence from Dutch 1949
      • President Sukarno 1945
          – Life-time President
      • President Suharto 1967
          – Seized power, 1 million killed
      • President Sukarnoputri
          – Daughter of Sukarna, Pro-Democracy
   – East Timor Wins Independence from Indonesia
      • Jose Ramos Horta, UN 99 Vote, Civil War, 02 Independence
      Interesting Laws of Singapore
• No gum or spitting
• No drugs (Death Penalty)
• No expletives especially at women. Its called insulting her
  modesty. One architect got fine or jail. I can't remember
  which punishment he got.
• Not flushing the toilet (huge fine)
• A person convicted of littering three times, will have to clean the streets
  on Sundays wearing a sign saying "I am a litter lout."
• No mention of the word 'bomb'. Whether in humor or
  anything. The bomb squad, goon squads will be all over you.
• No guns of any kind
• No hugging without permission, you can be charged for
  outraging modesty. Jail or fine
Section 3
 Africa
• Decolonization:
 – End of European colonial empires caused by
   nationalism, Independence movements, the Cold War,
   Post WWI & WWII Self Determination
 – Great liberation = 90 new African nations
    • (Goal: Modernization & Political stability)
 – New nations = NO Stability  Military Dictators
 – INSTABILITY = Assassinations & Genocide
           Ghana, Kenya & Algeria
• Ghana Leads The Way (1st African Nation)
   – British rule until 1957 (Gold coast)
   – Kwame Nkrumah
      • DREAM: “United States Of Africa”
• Fighting For Freedom
   – Kenya
      • British ruled until 1963
          – Jomo Kenyatta (Nationalist leader) & Mau Mau Uprisings (farmers)
   – Algeria
      • French ruled until 1962,
          – 1 million French, 9 million Muslims
          – 1954-1962 Independence War
      • FLN Leader Ahmed Ben Bella, overthrown, UNSTABLE NATION
              Congo & Angola
• Civil War In Congo & Angola
  – Congo
     •   Belgium Rules Until 1960
     •   General Mobutu takes over for 32 years, very corrupt!
     •   Laurent Kabila overthrew Mobutu & is assassinated :(
     •   Joseph Kabila (son) took over leading to peace
  – Angola (War Tears)
     • Portuguese Ruled Until 1975
     • Civil War Breaks Out
          – MPLA (Communist) vs. UNITA (Democracy)
          – 2002 Civil War ENDED
           Rwandan Genocide
• Rwandan Genocide (Example)
  – 1994 Hutus vs. Tutsi’s
  – Radio LED Genocide by MACHETE, 1 million killed
  – Hotel Rwanda, INSTABILITY of Government
Section 4
Middle East
May 14th, 1948
      Conflicts In The Middle East
• May 14th, 1948 Palestine Becomes Israel
   – TODAY: Israel, West Bank & Gaza Strip = Palestine
• JEWS, Diaspora, TURKS, Zionism, Balfour Declaration,
  Mandate, Holocaust, UN
   – Arab outrage, ruled since 132 AD, majority of population
• Arab-Israeli Crisis Begins 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973
   – 1948 Arab-Attack
      • Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia & Syria invade Israel
   – 1956 Suez Crisis
      • Nasser takes over Suez Canal, loses War, wins Canal
   – 1964 Palestine Liberation Organization
      • Yasser Arafat, PLO Chairman
• 1967 Six Day War
      • Nasser (Egypt) vs. Israel
   – 1973 Yom Kippur War
      • Sadat (Egypt) vs. Meir (Israel)
Middle East Peace Efforts
• Efforts At PEACE
   – 1979 Camp David Accords (President Carter)
      • Sadat (Egypt) & Begin (Israel) end 30 years of hostility
      • Sadat assassinated for his peace efforts 
   – 1987 1st Intifada (Uprising)
      • Teenagers, Rocks, Civil Disobedience
   – 1993 Oslo Peace Conference (President Clinton)
      • Rabin (Israel) gives Gaza Strip & West Bank to the Palestinians
      • Rabin is assassinated for his peace efforts 
• PEACE slips Away
   – 2000 2nd Intifada
      • Teenagers, Terrorism , Suicide Bombings, Sharon’s visit
   – The Road Map (Abbas & Sharon & George W. Bush)
      • “Our goal is two states, Israel & Palestine, living side by side in
        peace & security.”
              Middle East
•   Known as the Near East, or Southwest Asia
•   Jews, Christians & Muslims live there
•   Iraq (1932), Lebanon, Syria & Jordan
•   Westernization legacy, Border issues
•   1917 Balfour Declaration, Zionism, Herzl
•   1948 Birth of Israel (Invasion or Israel)
    – Arab-Israeli War 1948 (700,000 refugees)
    – 1956, 1967, 1973 Wars all won by Israel
• Issues: Dictators vs. Democracy, Uneven Oil,
  Water (desalinization), debt service
   Section 5
Central Asia Struggles
    Soviet Union Collapse = 15 New Nations

•   Russia             •   Uzbekistan
•   Georgia            •   Turkmenistan
•   Ukraine            •   Kyrgyzstan
•   Moldova            •   Tajikistan
•   Belarus            •   Estonia3
•   Armenia            •   Latvia3
•   Azerbaijan         •   Lithuania3
•   Kazakhstan
    Central Asian Struggle
• 15 Independent Nations after the USSR DIED (Transcaucasion &
  Central Asian Republics)
   – Economic Struggles
        • Poorest Nations of the World (White Gold/Oil/Natural Gas)
   – Ethnic & Religious Strife
        • Nagorno-Karabakh
• Afghanistan
   – Struggle for Freedom
        • Russia & Britain, 1964 Constitution, Democracy never succeeded
   – Pushing back the Soviets
        • Communism & Koran???
        • Mujahideen (Holy Warriors) vs. Soviets, 1979-1989 War, Soviets defeated!
   – Rise & Fall of the Taliban
        • Extremist Islam Interpretation
             – Women’s rights violations (no school or jobs)
             – No TV, Radio, Movies, Music
             – Terrorist Training Centers (Al-Queda/Osama Bin Laden)
                  » 911 Attacks, October 2001 U.S. Invasion, Taliban out!
   – Challenges Ahead
        • President Harmid Karzai
        • 2 decades of war, 12 ethnic groups, repressive forms of government out?
Afghanistan
• 1979-1989 Afghan War
   – Soviet Union invasion
   – U.S. Backed Mujhadins
   – Soviets withdrawal
• Taliban (Extremist)
   – Women’s Rights
• Osama Bin Laden
   – Al Queda
   – 9-11 (Terrorist Training)
• U.S. invades Afghanistan
   – We are still there!
      Assassinations of Ch. 18
•   Mohandas Gandhi 1948   •   Anwar Sadat 1981
•   Indira Gandhi 1984     •   Yitzhak Rabin 1995
•   Rajiv Gandhi 1989      •   Laurent Kabila 2001
•   Benigno Aquino 1983    •   Benazir Bhutto 2007

				
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