Emerging Technology Trends by malj

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 14

									Emerging Technology
      Trends
Realizing Society’s Objectives
        Eliminate Greenhouse Gas Emissions
        Reduce Consumption of Petroleum
        Reduce Urban Air Pollution
        Reduce Transfer of Wealth to Foreign Nations
 Eliminate Greenhouse Gas Emissions

• 27 pounds of CO2 are emitted for each gallon of gasoline
  consumed
   – Hydrogen fueled ICE & FCV vehicles have zero tail pipe
     emissions




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         Reduce Consumption of Petroleum

•   New York State consumes 309 million barrels per year of petroleum
    products




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          Reduce Urban Air Pollution
•   Reducing consumption of petroleum will reduce emissions




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     Membrane Technology - 1
• Mobile applications of fuel cells
    – Berlin. Hamburg, Rotterdam, London, Vancouver
         • Today – 38 H2-fueled transit buses
         • 2012 – 178 H2-fueled transit buses
    – Shanghai
         • Target of H2-fueled 1000 vehicles
    – California
         • Today – 9 H2-fueled transit buses
         • 2012 – 220 H2-fueled transit buses in CARB’s ZBUS
           program
         • 2012 – up to 2500 H2-fueled fuel cell or battery operated
           sedans under CARB’s ZEV program

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     Membrane Technology - 2
• Stationary applications of fuel cells
    – Megawatt-sizes carbonate fuel cells are in
      commercial service
         •   California/West Coast –----------------19.6 MW
         •   Japan/Korea --------------------------------16 MW
         •   Connecticut (installed or planning) - 33 MW
         •   NYS SUNY Syracuse -------------------- 250 kw
         •   NYS SUNY Farmingdale planned –--300 kw
    – Carbonate fuel cells are fueled with methane from
      wastewater treatment plants, landfills or natural
      gas

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     Typical Small Installations

 • Sheraton Manhattan    • City of Los Angeles –
   – Natural Gas – 250     Palmdale – Anaerobic
   kw                      Digester Gas – 300 kw




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     Membrane Technology - 3
• Carbonate fuel cells operate at high
  temperature and can co-produce
  hydrogen economically
    – First project is to be installed in California
      by the end of 2008 by FuelCell Energy and
      Air Products
    – AWP&H has a potential project at the
      Albany Airport
• Efficiency - 47% electricity, 20%
  hydrogen, 15% thermal
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               Carbonate Fuel Cells Provide High
                          Efficiency

                     70
EFFICIENCY, %(LHV)




                     50



                     30
                                                     Average
                                                     U.S.
                                                     Fossil Fuel
                     10                              Plant = 33%


1003080.01                0.1    1         10      100         1000   9
                                SYSTEM SIZE (MW)
                Albany HyIMPACT Project –
                    Final Configuration
                                                     CDTA
   Anaerobic                                         8 kg/d
    Digester
                                         2 Transit    CDTA
                                          Buses      80 kg/d

   Fuel Cell     Hydrogen      Fueling
                Purification   Station
                                                      AIA
                                                     8 kg/d
                  Capacity 100 kg/d
  Electricity                            GM Fuel
                                                       GM
                                          Cell
                                                     ??? Kg/d
                                         Sedans
    250 kw

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Emerging Technology Development
    and Economies of Scale




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     Membrane Technology - 4
• Other membrane technologies
    – Electrochemical separation and compression of
      hydrogen from CO2
         •   Efficient process
         •   Low cost/low power requirements
         •   No moving parts
         •   An alternate to pressure swing adsorption and
             mechanical compression
    – Biogaz separation of methane from landfill gas
         • Produces pipeline quality gas



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Emerging Trigeneration System for
Distributed Electricity and Hydrogen




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                 Summary
• Society needs to reduce its dependence on
  petroleum products
• Technologies are emerging to accomplish this
• Carbonate fuel cells are available in megawatt
  sizes and will be applied to large scale
  distributed electricity and hydrogen projects
• There is a role for all types of low and zero
  emission vehicles


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