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This article is about the geographical region of Kashmir. For the song by Led Zeppelin, see Kashmir (song). For other uses, seeKashmir (disambiguation). Not to be confused with the Ukrainian surname Kushnir. Political Map: the Kashmir region districts, showing the Pir Panjalrange and the Valley of Kashmir. Ninth-highest: Nanga Parbat, a dangerous mountain to climb, is in the Kashmiri region of Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan ॅ Kashmir (Balti, Gojri, Poonchi/Chibhali, Dogri: कश्मीर; Kashmiri: कशीर, ;ک ِیرLadakhi: ٔش ཀཤམིར; Uyghur: ;كەشمىرShina: )کشمیرis the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the termKashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Today Kashmir denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir (the Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh), the Pakistani-administered Gilgit-Baltistan and the Azad Kashmir provinces, and theChinese- administered regions of Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. In the first half of the first millennium, the Kashmir region became an important center  of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose. In 1349, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir and inaugurated the Salatin-i-  Kashmiror Swati dynasty. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchsruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1526 until 1751, then the Afghan Durrani Empire that ruled from   1747 until 1820. That year, the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Dogras—under Gulab Singh—became the new rulers.Dogra Rule, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and thePeople's Republic of China.
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