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					TECHNIQUE OF PRESENTATION AT NATYA
  LANGUAGE SERVICE AND PROGRAM



               SKRIPSI




                 BY:
   DIANA AMALIYAH VERAWATI NINGSIH
             NRM: 99220056




  JURUSAN BAHASA DAN SASTRA INGGRIS
      FAKULTAS BAHASA DAN SENI
     UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SURABAYA
                 2005
                                    ABSTRACT

  TECHNIQUE OF PRESENTATION AT NATYA LANGUAGE
              SERVICE AND PROGRAM

 NAME                    : DIANA AMALIYAH VERAWATI NINGSIH
 NRM                     : 99220056
 PROGRAM                 : S-1
 MAJOR                   : PENDIIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
 FACULTY                 : FAKULTAS BAHASA DAN SENI
 INSTITUTION             : UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SURABAYA


               A research that was done by Septiasari (2004) at Natya Language
   Service and Program in Surabaya shows that the method of teaching and
   learning which is focused on fun learning can facilitate the learners to create
   good interaction between them selves and also between students-teacher.
               Observing on Septiasari’s research, it is found that she focus on the
   exercise activities which are given to the learners after the language target is
   transferred previously. The purpose is to practice the language target into real
   condition and strengthen the learners’ comprehension. Yet, Septiasari does not
   define how the process of language target transferred to the learners is. The pre-
   observation at Natya Language Service and Program found that Natya uses
   Communicative English called specifically as Presentation Method in the
   teaching and learning process.
               This study is going to reveal the process of transferring language
     target at Natya Language Service and Program by this following question:
1. What are the design characteristics of Presentation Method at Natya
     Language Service and Program like?
2.             How is the practical procedure of Presentation Method at Natya
     Language Service and Program?
               This study is conducted at Natya Language Service Program for
   about a month. It is a private English course registered at East Java Office of
   Ministry of Education and Culture No. 80/104.10B/MS/Bhs?'99.
               By adopting ethnographic approach, which is identified as a
   qualitative, process oriented approach to the study of interaction, the focus of
   the study is the teachers' activities during the teaching and learning process.
   Moreover, the research also takes the data from the course-file of Natya and
   detail information from the director as the designer and concept-maker.
               After conducting interview and observation for about a month, it is
   found that at the level of approach, Presentation Method has the same
   characteristics with the characteristics in CLT. The main point in CLT and
   Presentation Method is the function of language as tool of communication in
   interaction among individuals.
               At the level of design, the similarities occurred at the functional skill
   as the objective. The skill of speaking, listening, writing, and reading are
   accommodated through communicative activity appropriate with the level of
proficiency. The syllabus structured based on the situation context in which
language is used. But, in Presentation Method more specific to the language
function by giving Marker Sentence to each topic/situation. The types of teaching
and learning activity in CLT are often designed to focus on completing tasks that
are engage learners in communications, involve process such as information
sharing, negotiation of meaning, and interaction. While the teaching and
learning process in Presentation Method is applied is based on fun activities.
The main target is to emerge communication among students and student(s)-
teacher. The learner is center of teaching and learning process. Teacher only
monitor and facilitate interaction among learners. There are two kinds of
material currently used labeled as task-based, and realia.
                At the level of procedure there is significance concept that differ
CLT from presentation Method. As to summarize the procedure in CLT is quite
difficult because of the wide variety of activities and exercises used, CLT is best
considered as an approach rather than a method. Thus although a reasonable
degree of theoretical consistency can be discerned at the levels of language and
learning theory, at the levels of design and procedure there is much greater
room for individual interpretation and variation than most method permit.
Otherwise, Presentation Method has specific rules and steps in the procedure of
application. These are,(1)Presentation-Target language set up/marker sentence,
Vocabulary pre-teach, Context building/ scene setting, Elicitation,
Standardization/Finger correction error, Drilling, Board stage, Concept
question,- (2)Speaking practices,(3)Listening practices, (3)Reading practices,
(4)Writing practices,(5)Games,(7)Testing
                Presentation Method has many similarities to CLT at the level of
design. However, it has specific rules at the level of procedure. Although many
kinds of techniques can be applied, but the rules in the Presentation Stage- that
has to be occurred-, close Presentation Method as a method rather than
approach or technique. Since CLT is considered as an approach rather than a
method, then Presentation Method reasonable enough to be called as a method
based on CLT approach.
                                Table Of Contents

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………………                       1
1.2 Research Question …………………………………………………….                         3
1.3 Objectives of the Study ……………………………………………….                     4
1.4 Significance of the Study……………………………………………...                   4
1.5 Limitation of the Study ……………………………………………….                     4
1.6 Definition of the key terms …………………………………………...                 5

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Nature of ‘method’ in Language Teaching ………………….......      7
    2.2 The Anthony’s Concept …………………………………………..                    8
    2.3 The Richard and Rodgers’s Concept……………………………...             9
    2.4 The Brown’s Concept ………………………………………….....                   10
2.2 Theory of Language …………………………………………………..                        12
2.3 Theory of Language Acquisition and Learning …………………........     13
    2.3.1 Language Acquisition ………………………………………......                13
    2.3.2 Language Learning ………………………………………..........               16
2.4 Communicative Language Teaching …………………………………                   17
    2.4.1 Brief History of Language Teaching ……………………….......       17
    2.4.2 Approaches ……………………………………………………...                        19
          2.4.2.1 Theory of Language ……………………………………                 19
          2.4.2.2 Theory of Learning ………………………………….....             21
    2.4.3 Design …………………………………………………………..                           22
          2.4.3.1 Objectives……………………………………………….                     22
          2.4.3.2 Syllabus ………………………………………………...                    22
          2.4.3.3 Types of Teaching and Learning Activities ……………   24
          2.4.3.4 Learners Roles ………………………………………….                  24
          2.4.3.5 Teachers Roles …………………………………………                   25
          2.4.3.6 The Roles of Instructional Material ……………………      26
    2.4.4 Procedures ………………………………………………………                          27

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Subject of the Study …………………………………………………..                      28
3.2 Setting of the Study …………………………………………………..                      28
3.3 Data of the Study ……………………………………………………..                        29
3.4 Data Collection Technique ……………………………………………                     30
3.5 Data Analysis ………………………………………………………....                         32

CHAPTER IV: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Presentation ……………………………………………………..                        33
  4.1.1 The Whole Design of Presentation Method ………………………           33
  4.1.2 The Practical Guide of Presentation Method ……………………..       42
  4.1.3 The Application of Presentation Method …………………………           47
       4.1.3.1 Result of Teacher 1 ………………………………………...               47




                                   7
       4.1.3.2 Result of Teacher 2…………………………………………                        50
       4.1.3.3 Result of Teacher 3 ………………………………………. .                     53
       4.1.3.4 Result of Teacher 4 ………………………………………..                      55
4.2 Discussion
    4.2.1 The Similarities between CLT and Presentation Method……….        58
    4.2.2 The Differences between CLT and Presentation Method……….         63

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………                                    66
5.2 Suggestion ……………………………………………………………                                    68
References ………………………………………………………………..                                     69
Appendix …………………………………………………………………                                        71

                                  CHAPTER I



                               INTRODUCTION



1.1    Background of the Study

               Recently, modern people does not only learn a language; their

mother tongue. In order to socialize in the society they have to learn another

language whether as second or foreign language. Language as a tool for

interaction becomes the key point while people want to get wider community/

society. With language, they can socialize with others even they come from

different region or country. Those, international language is needed.

               English as one of international language takes on more and more of

second language role in countries (such as Singapore, Malay, India, for example).

There is also a greater likelihood of the growth of English learning is others

country (Indonesia, Japan, Spain, for example) which takes English as foreign

language. Brown mentioned that more one half the one billion English speakers of

the world learned English as a second (or foreign) language (2001:118) Language

schools in many counties show fantastic phenomenon with their offering of



                                         8
courses in conversation, academic skill, English For Specific Purpose (ESP),

workplace English(companies/corporations), vocational/ technical English, test-

taking strategies, and other specialization. It is in line with Brown statement that

English is not frequently learned as a tool for understanding and teaching US or

British cultural values, instead, a tool for international communication in

transportation, commerce, banking, tourism, technology, diplomacy, and scientific

research (ibid:118).

               In Indonesia, the government emerge the program to introduce

English from early ages. English as foreign language is taught from elementary to

high education; as compulsory or additional subject. In same condition, the rapid

progress of English need is supported by emergence of many private English

courses.

               Corresponds with this phenomenon, the teaching methodology of

English is also developing rapidly. Since the role of English as foreign language -

where the learners already have their first language (L1) and mother tongue- the

teachers job is not as easy as turning back a hand. Teachers have to make the

learning process become interesting, lively, and fun so that the language can

acquire easily. Different ways of teaching are needed when teach young learners,

teens, or adult. Each age has its distinctive specialization on acquiring language.

In this case, Brown also stated that to successfully teach children a second

language requires specific skills and intuitions that differ from those appropriate

for adult teaching ((2001: 87).

               A research that was done by Septiasari (2004) at Natya Language

Service and Program in Surabaya shows a phenomenon that the method of




                                         9
teaching and learning which is focused on fun learning can facilitate the learners

to create good interaction between them selves and also between students-teacher.

Furthermore, it can lead the learners’ speaking ability. Septiasari call as Multiple

Player Games to describe the activities during its teaching and learning process.

This is a set of fun activities with specific rules that used as exercises for a

specific language target.

                Observing on Septiasari’s research, it is found that she focus on the

exercise activities which are given to the learners after the language target is

transferred previously. The purpose is to practice the language target into real

condition and strengthen the learners’ comprehension. Yet, Septiasari does not

define how the process of language target transferred to the learners is. Here, the

writer gets inspiration to conduct a study in order to reveal the process of giving

language target at Natya Language Service and Program. The pre-observation

found that Natya Language Service and Program teaches Communicative English

called specifically as Presentation Technique.



1.2      Research Questions

           Based on the background of the study above, this study is going to reveal

 the Presentation Technique at Natya Language Service and Program by this

 following question:

      3. What are the method characteristics of Presentation Technique at Natya

         Language Service and Program like?

      4. How is the technique of Presentation Technique at Natya Language

         Service and Program applied?




                                         10
11
1.3        Objectives of the Study

                   From the question formulated above, this study is intended for

 identification and description of:

                   1.     The method characteristics of Presentation Technique at

 Natya Language Service and Program

                   2.     The application technique of Presentation Technique at

 Natya Language Service and Program.



 1.4       Significance of the Study

                   Hopefully, the result of the study can support the finding made by

      the former researcher. For English teachers, the combination of these two

      studies will give good contribution as an alternative methodology in teaching

      and learning English as foreign language. Since the teaching system at Natya

      Language Service and Program is designed and modified by its own director and

      teachers, the result of this study hoped can give reasonable and more scientific

      theoretical foundation for Presentation Technique.



 1.5       Limitation of the Study

                   This study deals mainly with the description and identification of

      the concept of Presentation Technique at Natya Language Service and Program.

      Due to the nature of the study, the following aspects will be taken into

      considerations:

                   1.     The investigation is emphasized on the concept of

      approach, method, and technique of Presentation Technique.




                                           12
               2.      The study is qualitative and descriptive in nature. The result

 is on the form of words. No attempt is made to look at the statistical data. ( for

 specific information, please see chapter III)

               3.      The study concern about the description of the process

 rather than the product or outcome.



1.6    Definition of the Keys Term

This study tend to stand on Brown’s concept which close to Anthony’s concept

with this following re-definition

Presentation Technique                        : is a specific name of teaching

                                                  method at Natya Language Service

                                                  and Program. It is a series of

                                                  teaching        system           using

                                                  Communicative         Teaching     with

                                                  specific rules and steps.

Natya Language Service and Program            :     is a private English course in

                                                  Surabaya that is registered at East

                                                  Java   Office    of     Ministry     of

                                                  Education     and      Culture     No.

                                                  80/104.10B/MS/Bhs/99.

Approach                                      : is theories and beliefs about the

                                                  nature of language and the nature

                                                  of language learning,




                                         13
Method                                     : is a whole plan for systematic

                                               presentation of language teaching

                                               and learning based on a selected

                                               approach.

Technique                                  :    is   any variety of         exercises,

                                               activities, or tasks used to apply a

                                               selected    method      in   language

                                               teaching and learning



                               CHAPTER II



                     REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



2.1.   The Nature of ‘Method’ in Language Teaching

              During eighteenth to nineteenth century, the language teaching

profession became a popular discussion and research. It is for finding more

efficient and more effective ways to teach second and foreign languages to the

learners in the classroom. Some theories were derived from linguistics,

psychology, or a mixture of both to develop philosophical and practical basis in

language teaching.

               Various attempts have been made in order o conceptualize the

nature of ‘method’ and to explore more systematic relationship between theories

and practice. There are many different views of experts about the term of

‘method’ that available confuses rather than comforts. Researchers and linguists




                                      14
tended to concern on how languages are learning, how knowledge of language is

represented and organized in memory, and how language is structured.

               This chapter will present some of those views in order to avoid

confusion. Hopefully, it will give clear frame work of the terminology ‘method’

that is going to use in this study. Further, it can present comprehensive theories

that will strengthen which theories this study based on.




                                        15
2.1.1   The Anthony’s concept

               It was Edward Anthony (1963), an American applied linguist who

gave a more comprehensible and definition of ‘method’ in language teaching.

According to him, ‘method’ was the second part of three hierarchical elements,

termed as approach, method and technique.

               An approach is a set of correlative assumption dealing with the

nature of language teaching and learning. An approach is axiomatic. It describes

the nature of the subject matter to be taught (ibid). At this level, an approach is at

the level of beliefs on which language learning and teaching based.

               Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language

material, no part of which is based upon, the selected approach. A method is

procedural. Within one approach, there can be many methods…(ibid). At this

level, method is the practical concept of the approach. Here also decided about

what skill is taught, the content of the material, and the order of the presented

material.

               Technique is implementation- that which actually takes place in a

classroom. It is particularly trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish in

immediate objective. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore

in harmony with an approach as well (ibid). Anthony describes this level as

‘technique’ in which a method is manifested in specific activities and therefore in

harmony with the approach on which the method based on.




                                         16
2.1.2 The Richard and Rodger’s concept

               Couples of decades later, Jack Richard and Theodore Rodgers

(1982, 1986) proposed a reformulation of the term of ‘method’. According to

them, the Anthony’s model fails to give attention to the nature of a method it self

although it has the advantage of simplicity and comprehensiveness and serves as

useful way of distinguishing the relationship between underlying theoretical

principles and the practices derived from them. Nothing is said about the roles of

teachers and learners assumed neither in a method, for example, nor about the role

of instructional material or form are they expected to take. It fails to account for

how an approach may be realized in a method or for how method and technique

are related (1986:16)

               Those, Richard and Rodgers revised and extended the original

model of Anthony’s. They formulated ‘method’ as a super ordinate term to

describe three steps process, namely approach, design, procedure. It was an

umbrella term for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice

(1982:154)

               An approach refers to theories about the nature of language and

language learning that serves as the source of practice and principles in language

teaching (1986:16). Theory of language refer to the nature of language proficiency

and the basic units of language structure while theory of language learning reform

to the psycholinguistic and cognitive process involved in language learning, also

the conditions that allows for successful use of these processes.

               Design specifies the relationship of those theories to classroom

material and activities (Brown, 2001:14). It is the level of method analysis in




                                         17
which we consider (a) what the objectives of a method are;(b) how language

content is selected and organized within the method, that is, the syllabus model

the method incorporates;(c) the types of learning task and teaching activities the

method advocated;(d) the role of teachers;(e) the roles of learners;(f) the role of

instructional material (1986:20)

               Procedure encompasses the actual moment-to-moment techniques,

practices, and behaviors that operate in teaching a language according to a

particular method. It is the level at which we describe how a method realizes its

approach and design in classroom behavior. At the level of procedure they are

concerned with how these tasks and activities are integrated into lesson and used

as the basis of teaching and learning. There are three dimensions to a method at

the level of procedure (a) the use of teaching activities to present new language

and to clarify and demonstrate formal, communicative, or other aspects of the

target language ;(b) the ways in which particular teaching activities are used for

practicing language.; and (c) the procedures and techniques used in giving

feedback to learners concerning the form or content of their utterances and

sentences (1986:26).



2.1.3   The Brown’s Concept

               The word ‘methodology’ is often misinterpreted or ill understood.

It is usually given lip service as an explanation for the way teachers goes about

his/her teaching, a sort of umbrella–term to describe the ‘job’ of teaching another

language. Most often, ‘methodology’ is understood to mean ‘methods’ in a




                                        18
general sense, and in some cases it is even equated to specific teaching

‘techniques’. It does (or should) in fact mean and involve much more than that.

               Examining the Richard and Rodgers concept, Brown found that it

was conceived; however, their attempt to give new meaning to an old term did not

catch on the pedagogical literature. What they wanted to call ‘method’ is more

comfortably referred to as ‘methodology’ in order to avoid confusion with what

we will no doubt always think of as those separate entities that are no longer at the

centre of our teaching philosophy. Another terminological problem lies in the use

of term ‘design’; instead, we more comfortably refer to curricula or syllabus when

we refer to design features of a language program (2001:15)

               Further, Brown builds a re-formulation of ‘method’ term with more

in line with Anthony’s original model but with some important additions and

refinements.

               Methodology is pedagogical practice in general (including

theoretical underpinnings and related research). Whatever considerations are

involved in ‘how to teach’ are methodological.

               Approach is theoretically well-informed position and beliefs about

the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of

both o pedagogical setting.

               Method is a generalized set of classroom specifications for

accomplishing linguistic objectives. Method tends to be concerned primarily with

teacher and student roles and behaviors and secondarily with such features as

linguistic and subject matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are




                                         19
almost always thought of as being broadly applicable to a variety of audiences in a

variety of contexts.

               Curriculum/syllabus is design for carrying out a particular

language program. Features include a primary concern with the specification of

linguistic and subject matter objectives, sequencing, and materials to meet the

needs of a designated group of learners in a defined context.

               Technique (also commonly referred to by task, procedure, activity,

and exercise’) is any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or tasks, used in the

language classroom for realizing lesson objectives(ibid, 2001:15-16)



2.2 Theory of Language

               There are three different theoretical views of language and the

nature of language proficiency that’s explicitly or implicitly inform current

approaches and methods in language teaching.

               Structural view; Language is a system of structurally related

elements for the coding of meaning. The target of language learning is seen to be

mastery of elements of its generally defined in terms of phonological units,

grammatical units, grammatical operations, and lexical items. Audio Lingual

Method (ALM), Total Physical Response (TPR) and Silent way (SW) are the

theories under this vies.

               Functional view; Language is a vehicle for the expression of

functional meaning. This theory emphasizes the semantic and communicative

dimensions rather than merely the grammatical characteristic of language, and

leads to a specification organization of language teaching content by categories of

meaning and function rather than by elements of structure and grammar. The



                                          20
Wilkins’s syllabus is the example of this view. The English For Special Purposes

(ESP) movement began from this view.

               Interaction view; Language as vehicle for the realization of

interpersonal relations of social transactions between individuals. Language is

seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations. Communicative

Approach is under this view.



2.3. Theory of Language Acquisition and Language Learning

   At the level of process, Kransen in Richard and Rodgers (1986:18)

   distinguished between acquisition and learning language. Acquisition refers to

   the natural assimilation of language rules through using language for

   communication. Learning refers to formal study of language rules and is a

   conscious process.




   2.3.1 Language Acquisition

               As usual, in acquiring the first and second language, teachers

especially should not blame the learners when they tray to acquire and develop it.

Therefore, there are two theories of language acquisition, consist of cognitive

code-learning theory that favored by the transformational generative linguists and

the habit-formation theory of the structural linguists.




                                         21
 Figure 2.1 Elements and sub elements of method (Richard and Rodgers, 1986)
 Rodgers,1986)                                         METHOD


       APPROACH                                        DESIGN                              PROCEDURE
a. A   theory      of        native The general and specific objectives of the a.         classroom       techniques,
  language                          method                                         practices,       and      behaviors
 An account of the nature of b. a syllabus model                                  observed when the method is
  language proficiency                Criteria for selection and organization of used
 An account of the basic              linguistic and/or subject-matter content     resources in terms of time,
  units of language structure       c. types of learning and teaching activities      space, and equipment used by
b. A theory of language  Kind of tasks and practice activities to be                 the teacher
  learning                             employed in the classroom and in materials  interaction pattern observed in
 An     account        of     the d. learner roles                                   lesson
  psycholinguistics            and  types of learning tasks set for learners       tactics and strategies used by
  cognitive process involved in  degree of control learners have over the            teachers and learners when the
  language learning                    content of learning                            method is being used
 An account of the conditions  patterns of learner grouping that are
  that allow for successful use        recommended or implied
  of these processes                 degree to which learner influence the
                                       learning of others
                                     the view of the learner as processor,
                                       performer, initiator, problem solver, etc
                                    e. teacher roles
                                     types of functions teachers fulfill
                                     degree of teacher influence over learning
                                     degree to which teacher determines the
                                       content of learning
                                     types of interaction between teachers and
                                       learners
                                    f. the role of instructional materials
                                     primary function of materials
                                     the form materials take (e.g. textbook,
                                       audiovisual)
                                     relation of materials to other input
                                     assumption made about teachers and
                                       learners




                                                              22
                       In detail, the first theory states that language is rule governed behavior and in language acquisition, to infant

learners the set of rules that will produce the sentences of a language. While the second theory, obviously, is in effect the application

of learning theory to language acquisition. It also based on the view that language is behaviors that result from habits and habits are

formed by practice and repetition.


                       From those, there are still another view of language acquisition theory in

which represented into Behaviorism and Nativism’s views. At the first, as stated by

Skinner in Richard and Rodgers (1986) a psycholinguist from Harvard, that language is

response to the stimulus characteristic of environment. In other words, language was

taught to be learned like any other physical behavior. In learning language, he states there

are three kind of response that based on the language development. These show how a

learner or a child learns a language by imitating language produce by his environment,

then reinforcement plays the important role in the shaping of a child language learning

for the correctness.

                       In contras, Noah Chomsky claimed that children language is more

complex than what skinner formulated. Skinner’s view (behaviorism) did not answer the

language-learning phenomenon. That is, how children able to produce the words or

sentences event if they never heard before or may be new structure which never spoken

by their parents.

                       The contras view come from basic belief that language acquisition is

determined innately. It means that since he was born, human have been completed by

device to acquire a language, frequently, it is called “innateness hypothesis”. Chomsky

(1965) also claimed there is innate nature (in born) of language which perhaps a child

understand the first language (mother tongue) in a little time quickly, even tough its

nature exist.




                                                                    23
                         Simply, every children is able to use his language based on pre-existent knowledge be programmed genetically

in his brain, the TG grammarian call it as Language Acquisition Device (LAD), which is enable the child to form a series of

hypothesis about a language that he heard, as he grows up. At each stage in his language development he tests his hypothesis against

what he hears and revises it, until he researches adult competence. This would allow children to proceed from an implicit knowledge

of what the rules of language must be in general, to a progressive elaboration or the rules of their mother tongue to the basis of the

utterances they heard.




2.3.2 Language Learning

                         A learning theory underlying an approach or method responds to two

questions: (a) what are the psycholinguistic and cognitive process involved in language

learning (b) what are the condition that need to be met in order for these learning process

to be activated? Learning theories associated with a method at the level of approach may

emphasize either one or both of these dimensions.

                         Process oriented theories build on learning process, such as habit

formation, induction, inference, hypothesis testing, and generalization. Condition-

oriented theories emphasize the nature of the human and physical context in which

language learning takes place. Monitor theory addresses both the process and the

condition dimensions of learning.

                         According to Krashen (1981), learning is available only as a “monitor”.

The monitor is the repository of conscious grammatical knowledge about a language that

is learned through formal instruction and that is called upon in the editing of utterances

produced through the acquired system. He also addressed that the condition necessary for

the process of acquisition to take place.




2.4 Communicative Language Teaching


                                                                   24
2.4.1 Brief history of Communicative Language Teaching

               Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) began in Britain in the 1960s

as a replacement of the earlier structural method, called Situational Language Teaching

(SLT). As stated by Howatt:

               “By the end of the sixties it was clear that the situational approach…had
run its course. There was no future in continuing to pursue the chimera of predicting
language on the basis of situational events. What was required was a closer study of the
language itself and a return to the traditional concept that utterances carried meaning in
themselves and expressed the meanings and intentions of the speakers and writers who
created them(1984:280)
                Moreover, Galloway argues that CLT could be said to be the product of

educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the Audio Lingual Method

(ALM) and Grammar- Translation Method (GTM) of foreign language instruction. They

felt that students were not learning enough realistic, whole language. They did not know

how to communicate using appropriate social language, gesture, or expression; in brief,

they were at a loss to communicate in the culture of the language studied (2001).

               It is partly response of Chomsky’s criticism that current standard structural

theories of language were incapable of accounting for the fundamental characteristic of

language- the creativity and uniqueness of individual sentences (1957). Here than, British

applied linguist emphasized another fundamental dimension of language teaching. They

saw the need to focus language teaching on communicative and functional potential of

language rather than on mastery the structures.

               CLT emerge at the time when British language teaching was in period of

shifting. SLT was felt no longer reflect a methodology appropriate for that current time.

CLT is chosen to be more humanism in teaching approach in which prior the interactive

process of communication. As stated by Littlewood (1981) that one of the most




                                            25
characteristic features of communicative language teaching is that it pays systematic

attention to functional as well as structural aspect of language.

               The changing of educational realities in Europe              supports the

communicative language view. Wilkins proposed a functional or communicative

definition of language that could serve as a basis for developing communicative syllabus

for language teaching (1976). In this point, Wilkins analyze that a language learner needs

to understand and express the language he had learnt rather than describe the core of

language through grammar and vocabulary concept. Margie S. Berns, an expert in the

field of CLT, writes in explaining Firth’s view that ‘language is interaction. It is

interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society. In this light, language

study has to look at the use (function) of language in context, both its linguistic context

(what is uttered before and after a given piece of discourse)and its social, or situational

context (who is speaking, what their social roles are, why they have come together to

speak (Berns,1984:5)

               All those works on theoretical basis for communicative or functional

approach in language teaching then internationally referred as the Communicative

approach, or simply Communicative language teaching( the terms notional-functional

approach, functional approach, notional-functional, teaching for proficiency, proficiency-

based instruction are also in common used).



2.4.2 Approaches

2.4.2.1 Theory of Language




                                             26
                The functional or communicative view of language is the primary one

behind the CLT. As written above that language is a vehicle for the expression of

functional meaning-language as communication. The goal of teaching is to develop

‘communicative competence’. Hymes use this term to contrast communicative view and

Chomsky’s theory of competence. In Hymes view, people who acquire communicative

competence acquire both knowledge and ability for language use with respect to:

1. Whether (and to what degree)something is formally possible

2. Whether (and to what degree)something is feasible in virtue of the means of

implementation available

3.Whether (and to what degree)something is appropriate (adequate, happy, successful) in

relation to a context in which it is used and evaluated

4.Whether (and to what degree) something is in fact done, actually performed, and what

its doing entails.

                                                                    (Hymes, 1972:281)

                Widdowson (1978) proposes another communicative theory. He presented

a view of the relationship between linguistics system and their communicative values in

text and discourse. He focused on the communicative acts underlying the ability to use

language for different purposes. A more recent but related analysis of communicative

competence is found in Canale and Swain, in which four dimension of communicative

competence are identified: grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence,

discourse competence, and strategic competence.

                Grammatical competence refers to linguistic competence or formally

possible. It is the domain of grammatical and lexical capacity. Sociolinguistic




                                             27
competence refers to an understanding of the social context in which communication

takes place.   Discourse competence refers to interpretation of individual message

elements in terms of their interconnectedness and how meaning is represented in

relationship to the entire discourse or text. Strategic competence refers to the coping

strategies that communicators employ to initiate, terminate, maintains, repair, and redirect

communication (Canale and Swain, 1980)

               Furthermore, at the level of language theory, jack and Richards mention

some of CLT characteristic as follow:

1.     Language is a system for the expression of meaning

2.     The primary function of language is for interaction and communication

3.     The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses

4.     The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural

features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in

discourse.




                                            28
2.4.2.2 Theory of Language Learning

              Not a great deal has been written about the learning theory behind the

CLT. Neither Brumfitt and Johnson (1979) nor Littlewood (1981) offers any discussion

of learning theory. However, Jack and Richards tried to describe such elements of an

underlying theory by discerning from some CLT practices (see Littlewood, 1981 and

Johnson 1982). There are three principles. First, is communication principle in which

activities that involve real communication promote learning. Second, is task principle

that activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote

learning. Third, is meaningfulness principle in which language that is meaningful to the

learner supports the learning process (1986:72)

              Johnson (1984) and Littlewood (1984) consider an alternative learning

theory that they also see as compatible with CLT-a skill-learning model of learning.

According to this theory, the acquisition of communicative competence in a language is

an example of skill development. This involves both a cognitive and a behavioral aspect.

              The cognitive aspect involves the internalization of plants for creating

appropriate behavior. For language use, these plans derive mainly from the language

system-they include grammatical rules, procedures for selecting vocabulary, and social

convention governing speech. The behavioral aspect involves the automation of these

plans so that they can be converted into fluent performance in real time. This occurs

mainly through practice in converting plans into performance (Littlewood, 1984:74)




                                           29
2.4.3 Design

2.4.3.1 Objectives

               Peipho (1981) in jack and Richard (1986) mentioned these following

levels of objectives in communicative approach:

   1. an integrative and content level (language as a means of expression)

   2. a linguistic and instrumental level (language as a semiotic system and an

       object of learning)

   3. an affective level of interpersonal relationships and conduct (language as

       means of expressing values and judgments about oneself and others)

   4. a level of individual learning needs (remedial learning based on error

       analysis)

   5. a general educational level of extra-linguistic goals (language learning within

       the school curriculum)

               These are general objectives, which are applicable to many teaching

situation. Specific objectives for CLT cannot be defined beyond these levels, since

specific objectives should reflect the need of target learners. However,

communicative goals that should have and be able to do by the learners at the end of

the lesson can be accurately describe. It should be accommodated the skill that being

taught-speaking, writing, listening, or reading. It also should appropriate with the

level of learner’s proficiency and communicative needs.



2.4.3.2 Syllabus

               One of the syllabus models was described as a notional syllabus

(Wilkins, 1976) which focuses to its attention to functions as the organizing elements

of English language curriculum, and its contras with a structural syllabus in which



                                         33
sequenced grammatical structures served as the organizers. It describes the situation

in which the foreign languages need to be used (concept of locations, motions,

dimension, speed, length of time, frequency, etc).

               It also attends strongly on the pragmatics purposes or topics to which

we need to put language (personal identifications, travels, health and welfare,

education, shopping, services, free time, etc). The functional pert of notional syllabus

corresponded to language functions. Curricula were organized around such functions

as identifying; reporting, denying, accepting, declining, asking permission,

apologizing, etc. (Brown, 2001: 33)

               The Wilkins’s notional syllabus then criticized by the British applied

linguists. Widdowson argued notional functional categories provide only a very

partial and imprecise description of certain semantic and pragmatic rules, which are

used for reference when people interact. They tell us nothing about the procedures

people employ in the application of these rules when they are actually engaged in

communicative activity (1979:254).

               Some designers of communicative syllabus also have looked to task

specification and task organization as the appropriate criteria for syllabus design. An

example of such a model is Malaysian English Language Syllabus in 1975 for upper

secondary level school. In the organizational schema three board communicative

objectives are broken down into twenty-four more specific objectives determined on

the basis of needs analysis. These objectives are organized into learning areas, for

each of which are specified a number of outcome goals or product. A product is

defined as apiece of comprehensible information, written, spoken, or presented in a

non linguistic form. The products, then, result from successful completion of tasks.




                                          34
2.4.3.3 Types of Learning and Teaching Activities

                The range of exercise types and activities compatible with a

communicative approach is unlimited. Classroom activities are often designed to

focus on completing tasks that are engage learners in communications, involve

process such as information sharing, negotiation of meaning, and interaction.

Littlewood (1981) distinguish between functional communicative activities and

social interaction activities.

                Functional communication activities include such tasks as learners

comparing sets of picture and noting similarities and different; working out a likely

sequence of events in a set of pictures; discovering missing features in a map or

picture, one learner communicating behind the screen to another learner and giving

instruction on how to draw a picture or shape, or how to complete a map; following

direction; and solving problems from shared clues. Social interaction activities

include conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role-plays, simulations,

skits, improvisations, and debates.



2.4.3.4 Learner roles

                Teacher-centered means ‘bad’. The teacher doles out formal

knowledge of the language like a cook giving prisoners thin soup and stale bread in a

Victorian prison. Learners-centered means ‘good’ (cited by O’Neill from Julian

Edge,2002).

                The emphasis in Communicative language Teaching on the process of

communication, rather than mastery of language forms, lead to different roles for

learners from those found in more traditional second language classroom. Breen and

Candlin describe the learner’s role within CLT in the following terms:



                                         35
               “The role of learner as negotiator-between the self, the learning
process, and the object of learning-emerges from and interacts with the role of joint
negotiator within the classroom procedures and activities which the group
undertakes. The implication for the learner is that he should contribute as much as he
gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent way (1980:110)”


2.4.3.5 Teacher roles

               There are two arguments of experts that will be cited here. Breen and

Candlin describe teacher roles in the following terms:

                “The teachers have two main roles: the first role is to facilitate the
communication process between all participants in the classroom, and between these
participants and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as an
independent participant within the learning-teaching group. The latter role is closely
related to the objectives of the first role and arises from it…first, as an organizer of
resources and a resource himself, second as a guide within the classroom procedures
and activities…a third role is that of researcher and learner, with much contribute in
terms of appropriate knowledge and abilities, actual and observed experience of the
nature of learning and organizational capacities (1980:99)”

               Other roles assumed for teachers are need analyst, Counselor, and

group process manager, as mentioned by Jack and Richards bellow:

               Need analyst; in CLT the teachers should take responsibility to

determine the language needs of the learners. It may be done informally through one-

to-one sessions with students or formally through administering a need assessments

instrument. Here, teachers are expected to plan group and individual instruction that

responds to the learners’ needs.

               Counselor; in CLT the teachers is expected to exemplify an effective

communicator seeking to maximize the meshing of speaker intention and hearer

interpretation, through the use of paraphrase, confirmation, and feedback.

               Group process manager; in CLT where teachers acquire less

teacher-centered classroom management skills. Teachers need to organize the

classroom as a setting for communication and communicative activities. During the




                                          36
activities, the teacher monitors, encourages, and suppresses the inclination to supply

gaps in lexis, grammar, and strategy but notes such gaps for later commentary and

communicative practice.



2.4.3.6 The Role of Instructional Materials

               Instructional materials have the primary role in promoting

communicative language use. There are two kinds of material currently used in CLT

labeled as task-based, and realia.

               Task-based materials offer such variety of games, role-plays,

simulations, and others task-based communication activities. These typically are in

the form of one-of-a-kind items: exercise handbooks, cue cards, activity cards, pair-

communication practice materials, and student-interaction practice booklets. In pair

communication materials, there are typically two sets of material for a pair of

students, each set containing different kinds of information. Sometimes, the

information is complementary, and partners must fit their respective parts of the

‘jigsaw’ into a composite whole. Still also provide drills and practice in interaction

formats.

               Realia is the ‘authentic’ or ‘from-life’ materials that re brought into

the classroom. These may include language-based realia such as signs, magazines,

advertisements, newspapers, or graphic and visual sources around which

communicative activities can be built, such as maps, pictures, symbols, graphs, and

charts. Different kinds of objects can be used to support communicative exercises,

such as a plastic model to assemble from directions (Richard and Rodgers,1986:80)



2.4.4 Procedures



                                         37
               It is a little bit difficult to summarize the procedure in CLT because of

the wide variety of activities and exercises used. As known that communicative

principle can be applied to the teaching of any skills and any levels. Such procedures

clearly have much in common with those observed in classes taught according to

SLT and ALM. Traditional procedures are not rejected but reinterpreted and

extended.

               CLT is best considered as an approach rather than a method. Thus

although a reasonable degree of theoretical consistency can be discerned at the levels

of language and learning theory, at the levels of design and procedure there is much

greater room for individual interpretation and variation than most method permit. It

could be that one version among the various proposals for syllabus models, exercise

types, and classroom activities may gain wider approval in the future, giving CLT a

status similar to other teaching methods. On the other hand, divergent interpretations

might lead to homogeneous subgroups (Richards and Rodgers, 1986: 83)


                                  CHAPTER IV



                           RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Data presentation

4.1.1 The whole design of Presentation Method

              As stated in the objectives of the study previously, this research is to

find the characteristic presentation method at Natya Language Service and program.

Here are the result of the syllabus observation and interview with the director:

Interview

Interviewer    : Diana A.V



                                          38
Interviewee     : Edi Rusdiono, S.Sos

Date due        : January 11, 2005

Time            : 10.00-11.30

Place           : Natya office Babatan Pilang XVI block H1-1A Wiyung, Surabaya

Syllabus Observation

Observer        : Diana A.V

Date due        : January 11-14, 2005

Place           : Natya’s office, Babatan Pilang XVI block H1-1A Wiyung, Surabaya

1. Approach

                Basically, Presentation Method focuses on communicative skill. The

learners encourage being able to interact among others by using language function

that is taught. Speaking ability is more emphasized rather than other skill. Yet, the

writing, reading, and listening skill are taught in the frame of communication. The

grammatical rules are taught through communicative activities in order to give

comprehension naturally. It is inductive process in which the language functions

given previously and the grammatical rules given later.

2. Objectives

                The general purposes of Presentation Method are:

1. The students can speak or communicate with others in English properly

2. The students can express their idea in English (speaking, writing)

3. Students able to catch the main information they heard from listening practice.

                These general objectives are broken down into specific purpose

depend on target language set up. It is different for each level of student. e.g.

                Level     : Apple
                Target language: Talking about abilities



                                           39
                  Objectives:
                  1.       Students can ask question using “Can you.... (V1)...?
                  2.       Students can answer question using “Yes, I can…(V1)..” and
                       “No, I can’t … (V1)”
                  These objectives also can be broken down again become specific

purposes depend on the skill being taught. e.g.

                  Writing exercise:
                  Objectives:
                 Students can fill the blank paragraph with appropriate form of pattern
                 “Can you…” and some auxiliary verb
                  Listening exercise:
                  Objectives:
                  Students can answer the question using form “Can you….”heard from
  the cassette
2. Syllabus model

                  The syllabus model is set based on the level of course. It is very

simple, contains of teacher guide list to conduct the class process (level, number of

meeting, time allocated, target language, marker sentence, tools, alternatives of

techniques, evaluation)

                  The syllabus’s content is almost the same for all level. The differences

only emerge at the level of marker sentence. It gives impact to the level of activities

conducted. The higher level of students the more difficult the marker sentence.

For example:

                 Level: Grape*
                 Number of meeting: 2 xs
                 Time allocated         : 1hours x 2
                 Target language        : Talking about Daily Routine (first person)
                 Marker sentence        : What time do you get up? I get up at 6
                                        What time do you go to school? I go to school at 7



                                               40
              Tools              : Clock, flash card,
              Technique          : Miming, body language, fill gap, interview
              Evaluation         : Game: quiz
* Level of students at Natya
1. Kids course
    Melon (Kindergarten)
    Apple (elementary, grade 1-2)
    Grape (elementary, grade 3-4)
    Banana (elementary level 5- junior high school)
 2. Adult course (senior high school-above)
    Elementary
    Pre intermediate
    Intermediate
    Post intermediate



3. Types of teaching and learning activities

              The teaching and learning process in Natya in which Presentation

Method is applied is based on fun activities. The main target is to emerge

communication among students and student(s)-teacher. Interaction activities such as

fill gap dialogue, interview, discovering missing picture, pair-work, group work,

class work, listening trough songs, listening comprehension, gap filling, jigsaw

reading, running dictation, text writing, story writing, games are sample of activities

can be chosen.



4. Teachers and learners role

              The role of teacher in Presentation Method is as facilitator and

organizer of the class activities, while the learners as the active participant. Those

why, the principle of Less Teacher Talking Time and Much Students Talking Time is




                                         41
emphasized here. As much as possible, the learners should speak up in the class and

talk using the language target given.

               During the process of teaching and learning, the teachers facilitate the

learners to do their activities. Teachers minimalist the speaking and replace it with

miming or gesture. Teachers also give appreciation to each activity that can be done

well by the learners. Appreciation could be done by the whole class also ( e.g. by

yell or sing, applause, etc)

               In other hand, learners should follow the class activities actively so

that they can practice the language target well. The more active the learner, the better

practice they have. Here, the teachers should able to manage the learners can

involved in pair-work, group work, or class work maximally.



5. The role of instructional material

               There is no student’s book used in Presentation Method. The material

used by the teacher only in the form of main material. It guides the teachers to what

ways they are going to use to present the language target to the students easily

understood. The exercises such as same paper exercise, gap-fill exercise, running

dictation, finding information, etc, are given to the learners as copied-paper pieces. It

because the focus of presentation method is not grammatical rules but

communicative practice.

               The teacher management is really needed at this point. He/she should

understand well how much paper they need for each level, each meeting, and each

teaching-step, how it will be delivered, and when it should be delivered. The former

teachers create the material provided, so each teacher may develop and create their

own material as far as in line with the topic/language target.



                                           42
For Example:

Language target       : Talking about daily routines
Marker sentence       :                       get up? / I get up at 6
                      What time do you        go to school?/ I go to school at 7
Level                 : Grape (lesson 2-3)


Presentation - board work
What time do you get up?


                   I get up______ __________ o’clock




_______ _______ do you have breakfast?


                             ____ have breakfast _____6.30


_______ _______ ______ _____ go to school?


                  ________ ______ _______ school at _________


_______ ________ _______ _______ go home?


               _______ _______      _______ _______ 2 o’clock


    What time do you _______ ______?


                            I _______ TV at _______ __________


  _______ _______ _______ _______ study?


                               ______ _____________ at 5 o’clock




                                         43
______ _______ ________ _______ have dinner?


                       ____ _______ __________ at 7 _________


What time do you_______ ___ ________?


                      ___ ______ ______ ___________ at 9 o’clock
Grape/2+3/1
YOUR DAILY ACTIITY
1. Complete the story about you. Write one word in each gap
My name is______________and I live in_____________
I get up at___________ and I have _________at________.
I go _______school at ________
I come home at _________and I _________lunch at__________
I watch TV at______________ and I study at________
I have_________at___________and I go to bed at___________
Oh yes,I___________English at Natya at__________on____________and_______




                                       44
2. Find two friends and interview them about their daily activities

What time..............

Get up?

Have breakfast?

Go to school?

Come home?

Have lunch?

Watch TV?

Study?

Have dinner?

Go to bed?

Grape /3+2/Running Games

                     BETTY BROWN DAILY ROUTINES

What time does she get up?

She gets up at__________o’clock

What_______does she have brekfast?

She _______breakfast___________ _________o’clock

_______ _________ _________she go to school?

She________ ________ _________ at________

What _____ _________ ________ _______ home?

She______ ________ at________




                                      45
What________ _______ _______ _______ lunch?

_____ ________ lunch_____ ______ ________

______ ________ ________ _______ ______ ______?

_______ watches TV ________ _________

_______ _______ _________ ________ _______dinner?

_______ _______ _______ _____ _________

_______ _______ _______ _______study?

_______studies ________ ________ ________

_______ ________ _________ ________go to bed?

_______ ________ to bed at___________ __________



Grape/ 2+3/ B

The story

Betty Browns gets up at ________. She breakfast at_______and she

_______to school at______. She goes _______at 12.30 and she _________

lunch at 1 o’clock. She ________television at 5 o’clock and she has

________at 7.30. She studies ____8 o’clock,and she_________to bed

at__________




                                 46
Picture/ place it on the wall outside
4.1.2 The practical guide of Presentation Method

                Beside the whole design above, the interview with the course-file

maker and the observation on course-file results these following practical guide

that must be present in Presentation Method.

1. Presentation

                This is the most important stage in Presentation Method. Here the

success of the teaching process is put. Teachers not only have to follow the steps

but also create creative and interesting technique to deliver the material. There

are eight steps in this stage. There are:

a. Target language set up/marker sentence

                At this step, the learning target is built. The introducing of

language function is more emphasized rather than the grammatical case. The

target language usually called as ‘function’ in which the function of the sentence

which is going to be taught is determined. While the marker sentence is the

sentences that is used on that ‘function’ or in specific situation determined. For

example;

Target language set up : Talking about abilities.

Marker sentence         : Can you sing a song? Yes, I can/ Yes, I can sing a song

  b. Vocabulary pre-teach

                This step is emphasizing on reminding previous vocabulary and

introducing new vocabulary that is going to use in the session. Vocabulary need to

be introduced previously in order to accelerate the presentation. To do this, the

teachers may use some tools such as realia, picture, flash card, or miming/gesture.




                                            42
For example, before introducing talking about abilities, the simple activities such

as sing, fly, run, swim, play football, drive, etc should be introduced first.

 c. Context building/ scene setting

                  The context has to be built based on the target language by setting

the appropriate situation. The use of Mother tongue is allowed here. For example:

when teacher is going to teach past activity, students should be driven to the

situation in which the language function of past activity is used.

 d. Elicitation

                  The students are elicited to guess ‘function’ that is being taught.

Teachers give the answer, and students guess the question. For example;

Teacher           : I have an answer “ Yes, I can swim”…”Ya, aku bisa berenang”

                  Please ask me question, coba pertanyaannya bagaimana?

Students          : Guess by mother tongue or in English

Then teachers guide the students until find the right format.

 e. Standardization

                  Teachers standardize the pronunciation, word order, and linking

sentences to get the same sound and intonation. It is done individually and

chorally. To make it easy, the use of Finger Correction Error have to be used. For

example,

THUMB↔DO
INDEX FINGER ↔ YOU
MIDLE FINGER ↔ HAVE
RING FINGER ↔ SOME
LITTLE FINGER ↔ APPLES?




                                          43
THUMB↔ YES

INDEX FINGER ↔ I

MIDLE FINGER ↔ HAVE

RING FINGER ↔ FOUR

LITTLE FINGER ↔ APPLES

 f. Drilling

               Once more, teachers ask the students to repeat the sentence/function to

ensure that they have already comprehended it well. Teachers may use substitution and

change communication among teacher-students, teacher-student, and student-student.

 g. Board stage

               Teachers write the function/marker sentence on the board with students’

involvement. It is needed for keeping the students focus of mind. Then the students

have given several times to write down on their book.

 h. Concept question

               At this stage, teacher re-asks to the students about the language function

of the day. For example: Apakah kalimat I went to Bali bisa digunakan untuk

mengucapkan kebiasaan? Untuk waktu yang akan datang? Untuk masa yang sudah

lewat?

               At this stage, the main Presentation Method is already completed. The

next steps is exercise practice. It could be in the form of speaking practice, listening

practice, reading practice, writing practice, and games.

2. Speaking practices

               There are two kind of practice in speaking activity,




                                           44
Controlled practices

In control practice, teacher gives some media to facilitate the students to interact in the

class. The format of pair-work (two students), group-work (3-5 students), and class-

work (whole students in class) can be used. The alternative techniques that can be

chosen are same paper, gap-fill paper, classroom survey, finding the fact, interview,

interpreting picture, etc.

 Free practices

The students encourage speaking fluently in free situation as function was taught.

There is no media used here. The teachers only facilitate by giving some topic and

correct some miss using words or sentences. Techniques that can be used are such as

interview, telling story, role play, brain storming, finding connection, etc.



3. Listening practices

                The listening practice is needed to exercise the students’ capability of

listening. The technique such as predictive listening, gap filling, listening

comprehension, and listening trough song can be used. In predictive listening, the

teacher gives clues before asking the students to listen a conversation or stories. To

encourage the students identify some words that is said by people in cassette or

teachers’ voice by concern on the context, gap-filling type can be used. In listening

comprehension, teachers guide the students to understand the content and main idea of

a conversation. If teachers need more fun situation and want to give easy memorize of

some words/sentences, song can be used as the media of teaching.




                                            45
4. Reading practices

               To give reading exercise, teachers should create fun activities that

encourage students to participate actively because usually reading practice is boring.

So that, some simple reading practice such as jigsaw reading or running dictation can

be used. It can be modify with other exercises such as spelling, speaking, or writing.



5. Writing practices

               The writing exercise should be interesting and fun. It must keep in

simple. Creative writing such as writing story, personal identity, simple description of

things, and others which are put on the wall with some creative picture made by

students could become alternatives.



6. Games

               After presentation stage, students can be given some games which are

dealt with the target language. Some suggested games can be used are:

Stick out, hands on head, teacher’s race, telegraph sentence, crosses and naught, the

fish monster, the beginning and the end, take a guess, snake and ladders, true or false,

anagram, water pistol shooting, wet tissue shooting, card quests, win, lose or draw,

match master, card memory game, pronunciation game, miming game, instruction

game.



7. Testing

               The test placed after several unit of target language passed. The test

contains of writing, speaking, reading, and listening.




                                           46
4.1.3 The application of Presentation Method

               This following data is resuming from the observation to four teachers at

Natya during the teaching and learning process. The observation focus on the teachers

act and interaction among students-teacher, student-teacher, and student-student. The

main data taken from teachers, while the interaction only as counter balanced to see to

what extends the communicative approach derived.

4.1.3.1 Result from teacher 1

TEACHER 1 (1st meeting)
Level                 : Grape 1, lesson 9

Target Language       : Making and Granting Request

Marker Sentence       : Can you open the door, please?

                       Yes, of course/ Yes, sure

                       I’m sorry, but I’m busy

                Activities                                               Notes
Before class    Prepare some cut-sheet, games, and consult with          Preparation
                the director about the technique going to use.
Teaching        Teacher does some actions and asks the students to       Vocabulary
process         guess what the teacher doing. (open/close the            pre-teach
                door/window, bring some books, turn on/off the
                light, turn on/off the tape, write some words on the
                board, drawing picture, take/put a ball on/under the
                table)
                Teacher said that the weather is so hot, he ask the      Scene setting
                students to guess what he will say to the student
                close to the window (in Bahasa Indonesia). He turn
                off the light so the classroom is getting dark, he ask
                to the students to guess what he will say to the
                student close to the light switch. Students also
                encourage giving the answer of what teacher say.
                Teacher give answer ‘Yes, of course’ and translate       Elicitation
                to Bahasa Indonesia ‘Ya, tentu’ (as what students
                say when asked to turn on the light) and ask the
                students to guess the question.
                Teacher gives the complete sentence and the              Standardization
                answer then asks the students to repeat what the
                teacher said individually and chorally. Finger
                correction error is used. “Can you turn on the


                                            47
               light?” “Yes, of course/ Yes, sure” “I’m sorry, but
               it’s too high”
               Teacher drill the students by substituting the verb.      Drilling
               It is done among teacher-students, teacher-student,
               students-teacher, student-teacher
               Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by          Board stage
               students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
               their book.
               Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
               works on their book.
               Teacher asks the students about the function of the       Concept
               sentence by giving situation on which the sentence        question
               used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
               Teacher distributes a sheet to each student and asks      Speaking
               them to guess what the people said in the picture. It     practice
               is done in game, who can guess the most right
               sentences, they will get Mr. Smile (it is a circle card
               with smiling icon)
               Teacher distributes two different sheets to each          Speaking
               student and asks them to do an interview in pairs.        practice
               Teacher facilitates the students to play a game           Games /       fun
               called ‘question and answer game’. The cards              activity
               contain of some different question such as Can you
               open the door? Can you post the letter? And some
               different negative answer with different reason. e.g.
               I’m sorry but I’m busy, I’m sorry but I have to pick
               my mother up. Each student get 4 cards, there is
               one opening card put, the game play turn right. The
               first student should put the pairs of the opening
               card, if he/she doesn’t have it, she/he should take
               from the bank card (remaining cards). If she/he
               finds it, she/he may give the next played card.
               Continuous until the card run out. The winner is the
               student who has no card on the hand.

TEACHER 1 (2nd meeting)
Level                : Grape 1, lesson 10
Target Language      : Asking for and giving permission
Marker Sentence      : May I open the window?
                      Yes, please/ I’m sorry, but I’m cold
               Activities                                         Notes
Before class   Teacher prepare the cut-sheet, games, set the Preparation
               cassette, and consult with other teacher about the
               technique going to use




                                            48
Teaching   Teacher reviews the last lesson. (Making request)         Vocabulary
process    and show some flash cards. Students are asked to          Pre-teach
           guess what the people are doing in the picture.
           (open/close the door/window, bring some books,
           turn on/off the light, turn on/off the tape, use
           telephone, writing, drawing, kiss, put bag, take
           picture, etc)
           Teacher said that the weather is hot, he ask the          Scene setting
           students to guess what he will say to the student if
           he wants to open the window by him self. (In
           Bahasa Indonesia). He asks one student to turn off
           the light so the classroom is getting dark. The
           students are asked to guess what he will say to the
           student if he wants to turn on the light by him self.
           Teacher gives answer ‘Yes, please’ and translate to       Elicitation
           Bahasa Indonesia ‘Ya, silahkan’ (as what he said
           when turn on the light) and ask the students to guess
           the question.
           Teacher gives the complete ‘function’ and the             Standardization
           answer then asks the students to repeat what the
           teacher said individually and chorally. Finger
           correction error is used. “May I close the door?”
           “Yes, please” “I’m sorry, but it’s hot’”
           Teacher drill the students by substituting the verb. It   Drilling
           is done among teacher-students, teacher-student,
           students-teacher, student-teacher
           Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by          Board stage
           students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
           their book.
           Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
           works on their book.
           Teacher asks the students about the function of the       Concept question
           sentence by giving situation on which the sentence
           used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
           Teacher shows some flash cards and asks them to           Speaking practice
           guess what the people said in the picture. It is done
           in game, who can guess the most right sentences,
           they will get Mr. Smile (it is a circle card with
           smiling icon)
           Teacher distributes two different sheets to each          Speaking practice
           student and asks them to do an interview in pairs.
           Teacher observes around and corrects some mistake
           made by the students.
           Teacher distributes a sheet to each student and asks      Listening practice
           them to listen to the cassette before fill the gap.
           After that they asked to match the sentence with the      Writing practice




                                   49
               pictures that are already put on the board. It is done
               by game. Teacher asks the students to compete write
               down the sentence on the board under the picture.
               The winner get Mr. smile


4.1.3.2 Result from teacher 2

TEACHER 2 (1st meeting)
Level                 : Apple, lesson 1

Target Language       : Giving personal information

Marker Sentence       : What’s your name? My name is Dodo

                       What is your telephone number?

                        My telephone number is 502298

                        How old are you? I’m 7 years old

               What is your address? My address is Pisang street number 54

               When is your birthday? My birthday is November 7, 1988

                Activities                                              Notes
Before class    Teacher prepare the cut-sheet, flash card, calendar,    Preparation
                and consult with other teacher about the technique
                going to use
Teaching        Teacher show some number in flash card (0-9) then       Vocabulary
process         show calendar and ask students to mention the           Pre-teach
                dates and the months.
                Teacher said that she wants to introduce with the       Scene setting
                students one by one. Students encourage guessing
                what questions that may be asked.
                Teacher gives answer ‘my name is Ida’, ‘My              Elicitation
                telephone number is 502298’, My address is
                babatan street number 50’, ‘I’m 24 years old’, ‘My
                birthday is January 7, 1981’, and translate to
                Bahasa Indonesia’. The students asked to guess the
                question.
                Teacher gives the complete ‘function’ and the           Standardization
                answer then asks the students to repeat what the
                teacher said individually and chorally. Finger
                correction error is used. (What’s your name? My
                name is Dodo. What is your telephone number?




                                       50
              My telephone number is 502298. What’s your
              address? My address is Babatan street number 50.
              How old are you? I’m 24 years old. When is your
              birthday? My birthday is January 7, 1981)
              Teacher drill the students by asking students one by    Drilling
              one.
              Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by        Board stage
              students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
              their book.
              Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
              works on their book.
              Teacher asks the students about the function of the     Concept
              sentence by giving situation on which the sentence      question
              used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
              Teacher distributes sheets to each student and asks     Speaking
              them to do an interview in pairs. Teacher observes      practice
              around and corrects some mistake made by the
              students.
              Teacher distributes sheets to each student and asks     Speaking
              them to do an interview to two friends. Students are    practice
              grouped into 3 students each group. Teacher
              observes around and corrects some mistake made
              by the students.
              Teacher gives ‘anagram’ game until end of class.        Games

TEACHER 2 (2nd meeting)
Level               : Apple, lesson 1 (continuous)
Target Language     : Giving personal information
Marker Sentence     : Do you like hamburger? Yes I do/ No, I don’t.
                     Can you swim? Yes, I can/ No, I can’t swim.
             Do you have a dog? Yes, I do./No, I don’t have a dog.

            Activities                                                Notes
Before      Teacher prepare the cut-sheet, picture, set the           Preparation
class       cassette, and consult with other teacher about the
            technique going to use
Teaching    Teacher show some flash cards. Students are asked to      Vocabulary
process     guess what picture is.(food, pet, hobbies)                Pre-teach




                                    51
Teacher said that she wants to know what student         Scene setting
like/dislike, can/can’t do, pet have. Students
encourage guessing what questions that may be
asked.
Teacher gives answer ‘Yes, I do. I like hamburger’,      Elicitation
‘Yes, I can and translate to Bahasa Indonesia’. The
students asked to guess the question.
Teacher gives the complete ‘function’ and the answer     Standardization
then asks the students to repeat what the teacher said
individually and chorally. Finger correction error is
used. (Do you like hamburger? Yes I do/ No, I don’t.
Can you swim? Yes, I can/ No, I can’t swim. Do you
have a dog? Yes, I do/No, I don’t)
Teacher drill the students by asking students one by     Drilling
one. Then report to the class by using third personal
pronoun. (She/He likes hamburger. She/He can sing.
She/ He has a dog)
Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by         Board stage
students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
their book.
Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
works on their book.
Teacher asks the students about the function of the      Concept
sentence by giving situation on which the sentence       question
used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
Teacher distributes sheets to each student and asks      Speaking
them to do an interview in pairs. Teacher observes       practice
around and corrects some mistake made by the
students.
Teacher distributes sheets with a short story in which   Listening
some mistake words occurred. Teacher then asks           practice
students to listen to the correct story from the tape
and correct the mistake.
Teacher takes a story on the wall outside the class      Reading
and asks students to re-write the story. It is done in   practice
running dictation game. Students divide into groups
and chose a student to become the reader/reporter.
While the others write down what the reporter said on
the book. The winner is the most correct and the
fastest one.




                        52
4.1.3.3 Result from teacher 3

TEACHER 3 (1st meeting)

Level                 : Banana, lesson 5

Target Language       : Talking about abilities (Third Person)

Marker Sentence       :

Can you/he/she sing? Yes, I/he/she can. No, I/he/she can’t.

What can you/he/she do?       I/He/She can speak English

What can’t you/He/She do? I/He/She can’t swim

                Activities                                                Notes
Before class    Teacher prepare the cut-sheet, picture, and consults      Preparation
                with the director about the technique going to use
Teaching        Teacher miming and act some activities. Students          Vocabulary
process         are asked to guess what the teacher do is.(play foot      Pre-teach
                ball, play guitar, play piano, ride bicycle, drive car,
                sing, read, cook, paint, eat, swim, type, dance,
                speak English)
                Teacher said that she wants to know what student          Scene setting
                can/can’t do. Students encourage guessing what
                questions that may be asked.
                Teacher gives answer ‘Yes, I can’, ‘No, I can’t’, ‘I      Elicitation
                can swim’, ‘I can’t swim’ and translate to Bahasa
                Indonesia’. The students asked to guess the
                question.
                Teacher gives the complete ‘function’ and the             Standardization
                answer then asks the students to repeat what the
                teacher said individually and chorally. Finger
                correction error is used. (Can you sing? Yes, I can.
                No, I she can’t// What can you do? I can speak
                English// What can’t you do? I can’t swim)
                Teacher drill the students by asking students one by      Drilling
                one. Then ask to the class by using third personal
                pronoun. (What can he/she do?// What can’t she/he
                do?)
                Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by          Board stage
                students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
                their book.
                Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
                works on their book.




                                        53
              Teacher asks the students about the function of the     Concept
              sentence by giving situation on which the sentence      question
              used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
              Teacher distributes sheets to each student and asks     Speaking
              them to answer the teacher’s question.                  practice
              Teacher distributes sheets to each student and asks     Speaking
              them to do an interview in pairs. Teacher observes      practice
              around and corrects some mistake made by the
              students.
              Teacher asks the students to stand in front of the      Games
              class one by one and miming some activities. The
              rest of the students guess what activity that is
              miming by using “he/she can……”

TEACHER 3 (2nd meeting)
Level               : Banana, lesson 6
Target Language     : Talking about likes/dislikes (Third Person)
Marker Sentence     : Do you like swimming? Yes, I do/ No, I don’t
                     What do you like?     What don’t you like?
                     What does he/she like? What doesn’t he/she like?
            Activities                                                Notes
Before      Teacher prepare the cut-sheet, picture, realia, and       Preparation
class       consults with the director about the technique going
            to use
Teaching    Teacher miming and act some activities. Students are      Vocabulary
process     asked to guess what the teacher do is.(play foot ball,    Pre-teach
            play guitar, play piano, ride bicycle, drive car, sing,
            read, cook, paint, eat, swim, type, dance, speak
            English) Review of previous material.
            Teacher pretend that she is going to give banana          Scene setting
            (bring on the right hand) and apple (on the left hand).
            Students encourage guessing what questions that
            teacher may be asked.
            Teacher gives answer ‘Yes, I do’, ‘I like swim’, ‘I       Elicitation
            don’t like jogging’ and translate to Bahasa
            Indonesia’. The students asked to guess the question.
            Teacher gives the complete ‘function’ and the answer      Standardization
            then asks the students to repeat what the teacher said
            individually and chorally. Finger correction error is
            used. (Do you like swimming? Yes, I do/ No, I don’t.
            What do you like? I like playing football. What don’t
            you like? I don’t like tennis. What does he/she like?
            What doesn’t he/she like?)
            Teacher drill the students by asking students one by      Drilling



                                     71
               one. Then ask to the class by using third personal
               pronoun. (What does she/he like?// What don’t she/he
               like?)
               Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by        Board stage
               students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
               their book.
               Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
               works on their book.
               Teacher asks the students about the function of the     Concept
               sentence by giving situation on which the sentence      question
               used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
               Teacher distributes sheets to each student and asks     Speaking
               them to work in pairs and make an dialog based on       practice
               the text.
               Teacher distributes sheets to each student and asks     Speaking
               them to do an interview in pairs. Teacher observes      practice
               around and corrects some mistake made by the
               students.
               Teacher play monopoly games                             Games


4.1.3.4 Result from teacher 4

TEACHER 4 (1st meeting)
Level                 : Grape, 15
Target Language       : Offering things
Marker Sentence       :
        Do you want           an ice cream? Yes, please. I’m thirsty
        Would you like        a banana? No, thanks. I don’t like banana

                Activities                                          Notes
Before class    Teacher prepare the cut-sheet, flash cards, realia, Preparation
                and consult with other teacher about the technique
                going to use

Teaching        Teacher show some flash cards and realia, then ask Vocabulary
process         students to guess what picture/realia is (food, fruit) Pre-teach

                Teacher brings two different fruit on hands and Scene setting
                pretends that he wants to offer those fruit to a
                student. Students encourage guessing what
                questions that may be asked.

                Teacher gives answer ‘Yes, please. I’m thirsty’, Elicitation




                                          72
‘No, thanks. I don’t like bananas’, The students are
asked to guess the question.

Teacher gives the complete ‘function’ and the Standardization
answer then asks the students to repeat what the
teacher said individually and chorally. Finger
correction error is used. (Do you want an ice
cream? Yes, please. I’m thirsty. Would you like a
banana? No, thanks. I don’t like banana)

Teacher drill the students by asking students one by Drilling
one with different things on hand.

Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by        Board stage
students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
their book.
Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
works on their book.
Teacher asks the students about the function of the     Concept
sentence by giving situation on which the sentence      question
used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
Teacher distributes gap fell-sheets to each student     Speaking
and asks them to fill the gap then do an interview in   practice
pairs. Teacher observes around and corrects some
mistake made by the students.




                       73
               Teacher distributes picture sheets to each student Speaking
               and asks them to do an interview in pairs. Teacher practice
               observes around and corrects some mistake made
               by the students.
               Teacher gives 3 realia to each student and asks Games
               them to offer those to other students. If it’s wanted,
               it’s given. If not,, it’s given to another students.



TEACHER 4 (2nd meeting)
Level                : Grape, 16
Target Language      : Expressing feelings and make simple suggestion
Marker Sentence      : I’m hungry – Let’s go to McDonald – All right
               Activities                                            Notes
Before class   Teacher consults with other teacher about the         Preparation
               technique going to use
Teaching       Teacher acts/mime some adjectives and asks            Vocabulary
process        students to guess what adjectives are. (hot, cold,    Pre-teach
               head ache, stomach ache, hungry, thirsty, sad,
               happy, bore, etc)
               Teacher acts that she feels hot by waging her hand    Scene setting
               in front of her face. Students encourage guessing
               what sentence that may be said by teacher. Then
               students asked, what they will do if there’s some
               body said that sentence (suggestion). All in bahasa
               Indonesia.
               Teacher gives suggestion ‘Let’s go to McDonald’,      Elicitation
               ‘Let’s turn on the fan’, The students are asked to
               guess the feeling expression.
               Teacher gives the complete ‘function’ and the         Standardization
               answer then asks the students to repeat what the
               teacher said individually and chorally. Finger
               correction error is used. (I’m hungry – Let’s go to
               McDonald. I’m hot – Let’s turn on the fan)
               Teacher drill the students by saying some             Drilling
               expression feeling and asks students to give the
               suggestion. It’s done chorally and individually.
               Teacher writes down the sentence on the board by      Board stage
               students’ involvement and asks students to copy on
               their book.
               Teacher corrects and gives mark to the students’
               works on their book.




                                     74
                 Teacher asks the students about the function of the     Concept
                 sentence by giving situation on which the sentence      question
                 used. (in Bahasa Indonesia)
                 Teacher asks each student to stand in front of the      Speaking
                 class and express their feeling. The rest of students   practice
                 ask to give suggestion. The suggestion may
                 different.
                 Teacher gives snake and ladder-game.                    Games



4.2 Discussion

4.2.1 The similarities between CLT and Presentation Method

               At the level of approach, Presentation Method has the same

characteristics with the characteristics in CLT. As Richard and Rodgers mention

that the characteristic of CLT are:

 5.    Language is a system for the expression of meaning

 6.    The primary function of language is for interaction and communication

 7.    The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses

 8.    The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and

structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as

exemplified in discourse.

               While characteristics in Presentation Method are:

   1. Focuses on communicative skill.

   2. The learners encourage being able to interact among others by using

language function that is taught.

   3. Speaking ability is more emphasized rather than other skill. Yet, the

writing, reading, and listening skill are taught in the frame of communication.




                                        75
   4. The grammatical rules are taught through communicative activities in

order to give comprehension naturally. It is inductive process in which the

language functions given previously and the grammatical rules given later.

                The main point in CLT and Presentation Method is the function

of language as tool of communication in interaction among individuals.



                At the level of design there are some characteristics that is similar

between CLT and Presentation Method. This following discussion will show it.

1. Objectives

                CLT only can describe the general objectives such as language as

a means of expression, language as a semiotic system and an object of learning,

language as means of expressing values and judgments about oneself and other,

remedial learning based on error analysis, and language learning within the

school curriculum. Specific objectives for CLT cannot be defined beyond these

levels, since specific objectives should reflect the need of target learners.

However, communicative goals that should have and be able to do by the

learners at the end of the lesson can be accurately describe. It should be

accommodated the skill that being taught-speaking, writing, listening, or reading.

It also should appropriate with the level of learner’s proficiency and

communicative needs.

                While in Presentation method the general purposes are:

4. The students can speak or communicate with others in English properly

5. The students can express their idea in English (speaking, writing)




                                         76
6. Students able to catch the main information they heard from listening

  practice.

               These general objectives are broken down into specific purpose

depend on target language set up. It is different for each level of student. These

objectives also can be broken down again become specific purposes depend on

the skill being taught.

               The similarities occurred at the functional skill as the objective.

 The skill of speaking, listening, writing, and reading are accommodated

 through communicative activity appropriate with the level of proficiency.



 2. Syllabus

               The syllabus in CLT developed based on the situation in which

the language needs to be used. It also attends strongly on the pragmatics

purposes or topic to which a language needs to be put (personal identification,

shopping, service, free time, etc). Meanwhile, in Presentation Method, the

syllabus model is set based on the target language (function of a sentence/ to

which function is an utterance used). The syllabus’s content is almost the same

for all level. The differences only emerge at the level of marker sentence. The

higher level of students the more difficult the marker sentence.

               Whether in CLT or in Presentation Method, the syllabus

structured based on the situation context in which language is used. But, in

Presentation Method more specific to the language function by giving Marker

Sentence to each topic/situation.




                                       77
3. Types of teaching and learning activity

               In CLT the types of exercise and activities is unlimited.

Classroom activities are often designed to focus on completing tasks that are

engage learners in communications, involve process such as information sharing,

negotiation of meaning, and interaction. Communication activities include such

tasks as learners comparing sets of picture and noting similarities and different;

working out a likely sequence of events in a set of pictures; discovering missing

features in a map or picture, one learner communicating behind the screen to

another learner and giving instruction on how to draw a picture or shape, or how

to complete a map; following direction; and solving problems from shared clues,

conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role-plays, simulations,

skits, improvisations, and debates.

              While the teaching and learning process in Presentation Method is

applied is based on fun activities. It is important things that should be present in

Presentation Method. The main target is to emerge communication among

students and student(s)-teacher. Interaction activities such as fill gap dialogue,

interview, discovering missing picture, pair-work, group work, class work,

listening trough songs, listening comprehension, gap filling, jigsaw reading,

running dictation, text writing, story writing, games are sample of activities can

be chosen.



4. Teacher and learner roles

               The role of learner in CLT as negotiator-between the self, the

learning process, and the object of learning-emerges from and interacts with the




                                        78
role of joint negotiator within the classroom procedures and activities which the

group undertakes. The implication for the learner is that he should contribute as

much as he gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent way (Candlin,

1980:110)

               The teacher’s roles as the facilitator the communication process

between all participants in the classroom and act as an independent participant

within the learning-teaching group. Teacher also become Need analyst that

should take responsibility to determine the language needs of the learners,

Counselor in which teacher is expected to exemplify an effective communicator

seeking to maximize the meshing of speaker intention and hearer interpretation,

through the use of paraphrase, confirmation, and feedback, Group process

manager in where teachers acquire less teacher-centered classroom management

skills and need to organize the classroom as a setting for communication and

communicative activities.

              In Presentation Method teacher is as facilitator and organizer of

the class activities, while the learners as the active participant. Those why, the

principle of Less Teacher Talking Time and Much Students Talking Time is

emphasized here. As much as possible, the learners should speak up in the class

and talk using the language target given.

              In other hand, learners should follow the class activities actively

so that they can practice the language target well. The more active the learner,

the better practice they have. Here, the teachers should able to manage the

learners can involved in pair-work, group work, or class work maximally.




                                       79
              The similarity CLT and Presentation Method occurred in the type

of learner centered in teaching and learning process. Teacher only monitor and

facilitate interaction among learners.



5. The role of instructional material

               There are two kinds of material currently used in CLT labeled as

task-based, and realia. The same type of material also used in Presentation

Method.

               Task-based materials offer such variety of games, role-plays,

simulations, and others task-based communication activities. These typically are

in the form of one-of-a-kind items: exercise handbooks, cue cards, activity cards,

pair-communication practice materials, and student-interaction practice booklets.

Realia is the ‘authentic’ or ‘from-life’ materials that re brought into the

classroom. These may include language-based realia such as signs, magazines,

advertisements, newspapers, or graphic and visual sources around which

communicative activities can be built, such as maps, pictures, symbols, graphs,

and

               In Presentation Method such kind of game tool also needed. It is

for supporting the fun activities that must be occurred. This game is the media

that is used to deliver the learners into interaction and communication.



4.2.2 The differences between CLT and Presentation Method

               At the level of procedure there is significance concept that differ

CLT from presentation Method. As to summarize the procedure in CLT is quite




                                         80
difficult because of the wide variety of activities and exercises used, CLT is best

considered as an approach rather than a method. Thus although a reasonable

degree of theoretical consistency can be discerned at the levels of language and

learning theory, at the levels of design and procedure there is much greater room

for individual interpretation and variation than most method permit.(Richard and

Rodgers, 1986: 83)

Otherwise, Presentation Method has specific rules and steps in the procedure of

application. These are:

1. Presentation

This step contains of eight rules that have to be occurred in teaching and learning

procedure. They are:

A. Target language set up/marker sentence

B. Vocabulary pre-teach

C. Context building/ scene setting

D. Elicitation

E. Standardization/Finger correction error

F. Drilling

G. Board stage

H. Concept question

2. Speaking practices

3. Listening practices

4. Reading practices

5. Writing practices

6. Games




                                        81
7. Testing

               Much type of exercises can be chosen for practicing speaking,

writing, listening, and reading. It depends on the learners’ need and the teachers’

creativity. The function of this activity is as practical exercise to strengthen

learners’ comprehension of the material. Several kinds of technique also can be

used to apply those each step as far as in the context of the topic. From the

observation result, can be pointed that teacher often give inappropriate games at

the end of the lesson just to spend the rest of time.

               Presentation Method has many similarities to CLT at the level of

design. However, it has specific rules at the level of procedure. Although many

kinds of techniques can be applied, but the rules in the Presentation Stage- that

has to be occurred-, close Presentation Method as a method rather than approach

or technique. Since CLT is considered as an approach rather than a method

(Richards and Rodgers, 1986: 83), then Presentation Method reasonable enough

to be called as a method based on CLT approach.




                                 CHAPTER V



                     CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


5.1 Conclusion


               As stated in the former chapter, the purpose of this study is to

identify and describe the design characteristics and practical procedures of




                                         82
Presentation Method at Natya Language Service and Program, here are the

characteristics of Presentation method.

1. Design Characteristic

               a)        At the level of approach, Presentation Method views

language as means of expression in communication and interaction among

people. The grammatical rules are taught inductively trough communicative

activity.

               b)        The functional skill of language is the general objective.

These general objectives are broken down into specific purpose depend on target

language set up. It is different for each level of student. These specific objectives

also can be broken down become more specific based on the language skill.

               c)        The syllabus structured based on the situational context in

which language is used. It more specific to the language function by giving

Marker Sentence to each topic/situation.

               d)        The teaching and learning process is fun activities which

encourage learners to communicate and each other.

               e)        The role of learner is as active participant. Less Teacher

Talking Time and Much Students Talking Time in teaching and learning

process. Teacher only monitor and facilitate interaction among learners.

               f)        Task-based    activity   is   instructional   material   that

encourages learners to interact and communicate.



2. Practical procedure




                                          83
                  The practical procedure of Presentation Method has to fulfill this

following steps and rules:

1. Presentation

                  This step contains of eight rules that have to be occurred in

teaching and learning procedure. They are:

                  A. Target language set up/marker sentence

                  B. Vocabulary pre-teach

                  C. Context building/ scene setting

                  D. Elicitation

                  E. Standardization/Finger correction error

                  F. Drilling

                  G. Board stage

                  H. Concept question

2. Speaking practices

3. Listening practices

4. Reading practices

5. Writing practices

6. Games

7. Testing



5.2 Suggestion

                  Presentation method needs much creativity of the teacher. The

preparation of material needs much considerable time and energy too. Teacher

have to make a provided-games become different games that suitable to the topic




                                          84
of lesson. Teacher also needs to deliver the material or exercise in funny

atmosphere to avoid the students’ boredom. To fulfill this requirement, teacher

have to provide adequate knowledge that can be obtained from resent books,

internet, own-record cassette, radio, television, and other multimedia. It can

encourage teachers’ creativity to develop the material. So, inappropriate games

to the topic can be avoided.

               This study concerns on the description of Presentation Method

only. To the further study is suggested to concern on the effectiveness of using

Presentation Method dealing with the out put of the teaching and learning

process to the learners.




References


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      Teaching 17:63-67

Berns,M.S.1984. Functional Approaches to Language Teaching: another Look.
      In S. Savignon and M.S Berns(Eds). Initiatives in Communicative
      Language Teaching: A Book of Reading (pp.3-21). Reading,PA: Addiso-
      wesley

Breen,M., and C.N. Candlin.1980. the essential of a communicative curriculum
      in language teaching. Applied Linguistics. 1(2):89-112

Brown, H. Douglas. Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to
      Language Pedagogy. 2001. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Brumfit,C.J., and K. Johnson(eds).1979. The Communicative Approach to
      Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Canale,M., and Swain,M. Theoretical bases of communicative approach to
       second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics 1(1):1-47




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Chaudron, Craig.1988. Second language Classroom: Research on Teaching and
      Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press

Chomsky, N.1957. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton

Galloway, Ann.2001.Communicative Language Teaching: An introduction and
      sample     Activities.http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/gallow01.html.
      Accessed September 6, 2005

Howatt, A.1984. A History of Foreign Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford
      University Press

Hymes, D.1972.On Communicative Competence. In J.B. Pride and J. Holmes
      (eds), Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth : Penguin

Johnson.1982. Communicative Syllabus Design and Methodology. Oxford :
      Pergamon

Krashen, S.D.1981. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language
      Learning. Oxford: Pergamon

Littlewood,W.1981. Communicative          Language   Teaching.    Cambridge:
       Cambridge University Press

_________,1984. Foreign and Second Language Learning: Language
      Acquisition Research and Its Implication for the Classroom. Cambridge:
      Cambridge University Press



O’Neill, 2000.The Appeal and Poverty of CLT. Accessed October18, 2005.
       http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/esl0404.html

Piepho,H.E.1981. Establishing Objectives in The Teaching of English. In
       C.Candlin(ed) The communicative Teaching of English: Principles and
       Exercise Typology. London: Longman

Richard C. Jack and Rodgers. Theodore S. 1982. Method: Approach, Design,
       Procedure. TESOL Quarterly 16:153-68

_______.1986. Approach and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description
      and Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Septiasari,Reni D.2001. The use of Multiple Player Games to Increase Speaking
       Ability at Natya Language Service and Program. Unpublished S-1 thesis.
       FBS. Jurusan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris, Universitas Negeri Surabaya.

Susanto.2002.Developing A Research Proposal: A Practical Guide. FBS.
       Jurusan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris. Universitas Negeri Surabaya.
       Unpublished



                                     86
Widdowson, H.G.1972. Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford: Oxford
     University Press.

_______1979. The Communicative Approach and Its Application. In H.G.
      Widdowson, Exploration in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford
      University Press

Wilkins,D.A.1976. Notional Syllabuses: A Taxonomy and Its Relevance to
       Foreign Curriculum Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Appendix 1
Sample of teaching and learning process
Teacher 3
Name                  : Awang
Level                 : Banana, Lesson 5
Number of students    :6
Time allocated        : 60 minutes
Date due              : January 17, 2005
Target Language       : Talking about abilities
Marker sentence       : Can you /he/she sing?
                      Yes, I/he/she can. No, I/she/he can’t
                      What can you/she/he do? I/he/she can speak English
                      What can’t you/he/she do? I/he/she can’t swim
Vocabulary pre-teach
T     : Good evening everybody……….
S     : good evening………..
T     : OK, now please guess what I’m doing (act driving a car)
S     : Drive… (Some students answer)
T     : Good…OK then… (Act kicking a ball)
S     : Foot ball…
T     : hm…hm…hm…foot ball
S1    : Play football
T     : Very good Rio…. Next… (Act playing guitar)
S     : Play guitar
T     : Very good, then… (Play piano)
S     : Play piano
T     : Right, next (act riding bicycle)
S     : naik sepeda (Some students answer)
T     : Sepeda …hayo apa sepeda?
S2    : bicycle
T     : Yup, kalo ‘naik sepeda’?
S     : silent
T     : R…. R…
S1    : Ride
T     : Very Good Rio. OK now guess, (act singing)
S     : Singing
T     : Right, then (act cooking)
S     : cooking



                                     87
T      : Good. Then… (Act drawing picture)
S1     : Draw (some students answer)
S2     : Paint (some students answer)
T      : very good…semua benar….sekarang …dua lagi coba (act swimming)
S      : Swimming
T      : Good…once more..(Act dancing)
S      : Dance….dancing…
T      : Very good…..give applause……….

Scene setting
T        : OK, sekarang kalau misalnya bapak pengen ngajak kalian renang, tapi
         bapak nggak tahu kalian bisa renang apa nggak,. Kira-kira bapak
         nanyanya gimana ya?
S3       : Kamu bisa renang?
S        : Kamu bisa renang gak?
T        : Trus jawabnya gimana?
S        : Bisa
S        : Gak bisa

Elicitation
T         : OK, sekarang bapak punya jawaban in English
          “Yes,I can” Ya, saya bisa. Dan “No, I can’t” Tidak, saya tidak bisa
          Give me question….!!
S         : “You….. bisa…. swim?”
T         : “No. no…no….
S         : “You are swimming?”
T         : “Hm……No……” (Shaking head and laying hands)
S         : “Do you swim?”
T         : “Hmm…No.no..still wrong
S         : Silent for a while

Standardization
T        : OK, now follow me
         “Can you swim?” (Using Finger Correction Error)
S        : Can you swim?
T        : Yes, I can (nodding head, Using Finger Correction Error,)
S        : Yes, I can
T        : No, I can’t (shaking head, Using Finger Correction Error)
S        : No, I can’t
S        : Rio, can you swim?
T        : Yes, I can
(Then drill students one by one)
T        : OK,sekarang kalu bapak mau nanya, bisakah Rio berenang?
         Nanyanya gimana?
S        : Can Rio swim?
T        : Very good…Rio laki-laki apa perempuan?
S        : Laki-laki
T        : Kalau laki maka pakai…?



                                       88
S         : He…
T         : Good…jadi ..can….?
S         : Can he swim?
T         : Very good. Can he swim? (Asking to a students and pointing Rio)
S         : Yes, he can
T         : Good…very good.
T         : Can she swim? (Pointing a students who can’t swim)
S         : No, she can’t
T         : Rio tidak bisa berenang. Apa yang bisa kamu lakukan Rio? Give me
          question
S         : Silent
T         : What…
S         : Whan… can …you… do? Bener ya pak?
T         : Yes,right. What can you do? Repeat all
S         : What can you do? (Finger correction error)
(Drill one by one)
T         : What can you do, Rio?
S1        : I can……em…..sing
T         : Good….What can he do? (Ask to class)
S         : He can sing
T         : very good….
(Drill by asking ‘What can you do?’ and ‘What can’t you do?’ to each student
and asking to class by ‘What can she/he do?’ and ‘What can’t he/she do?’)

Board stage
T      : OK, now let’s write on the board. Help me
(Write down the function on the board by asking students involvement)
T      : Now, please write down on your book
S      : (write on the book)
(Teacher corrects the students’ works and gives mark/signature)

Concept question
T     : Jadi kalau mau menanyakan seseorang bisa melakukan sesuatu atau
      tidak, tadi pakai apa?
S     : Can you swim?
T     : Kalau menanyakan dia bisa melakukan apa, dengan?
S     : What can you do?

Speaking practice 1
(Teacher distribute picture sheet to each students-see sheet 1)




                                        89
Sheet 1




          90
T        : Coba sekarang lihat gambar. Can David play football?
S        : Yes, he can
T        : Can Susan sing?
S        : Yes, she can
T        : Can Bob driving?
S        : No, he can’t
T        : What can he do?
S        : He can ride bicycle
T        : What Timbul can do?
S        : He can play guitar
(And so do until the rest of picture)


Speaking practice 2
(Teacher distribute interview sheet to each students and monitor them on work in
pairs)
Sheet 2/for student A
    1.   Can Stevy swim? What can/can’t he do?
    2.   Can Nelly swim? What can/can’t she do?
    3.   Can Shorty type? What can/can’t he do?
    4.   Can Mr. Frown swim? What can/can’t he do?
    5.   Can Dandy play guitar? What can/can’t he do?
    6.   Can Jack sing? What can/can’t he do?
    7.   Can Tom and Tina speak English? What can/can’t they do?
    8.   Can Vicky play basketball? What can/can’t she do?
    9.   Can Jerry and Dono play football? What can/can’t they do?

Sheet3/for student B
    1.   Can Sylvana ride bicycle?
    2.   Can Merry play kit? What can/can’t she do?
    3.   Can Elisa cook? What can/can’t she do?
    4.   Can Bill play tennis? What can/can’t he do?
    5.   Can Mr. Johnson play chess? What can/can’t he do?
    6.   Can Robbotto eat?
    7.   Can Dick play violin?
    8.   Can Tita play Tennis? What can/can’t she do?
    9.   Can Mr. Fool play football?




                                        91
Sheet 4/ for student B




                         92
Sheet 5/ for student A




                         93
Student A       : Can Stevy swim? (Sheet 2)
Student B       : (see picture in sheet 4) No, he can’t
Student A       : What can he do?
Student B       : (see picture in sheet 4) he can sharpen the pencil
Change
Student B       : Can Sylvana ride bicycle?
Student A       : (see picture in sheet 5) No she can’t
Change
(So do until the rest of picture)
Games
T         : OK, now let’s play a game. Wulan, please come forward…!
S1        : (Wulan stand up in front of the class)
T         : Wulan boleh jawb tapi gak boleh pakai mulut ya, jawabnya pakai
          gerak . What can you do Wulan?
S1        : (Wulan act as she dancing)
S         : dance….dance…..
S1        : Right
T         : Ok, what she can do? (Ask to class)
S         : She can dance
T         : OK, sekarang gantian….Rio….you, please…
S2        : (Rio comes forward)
T         : What can you do, Rio?
S2        : (act play video games)
S         : PS…PS…play PS…..Video game
S2        : Right
T         : OK, What can he do? (Ask to class)
S         : He can play video game
(So do until the rest of students)




                                         94
Appendix 2
                         Interview Guidance List

   1. What are the objectives of PM?

   2. How is the syllabus model of PM?

   3. What is the teaching type in PM?

   4. What is the learning type in PM?

   5. What is the teacher’s role in teaching and learning process in PM?

   6. What is the learner’s role in teaching and learning process in PM?

   7. What is the function of the material in PM?

   8. How the materials support the teaching and learning process in PM?

   9. How is the procedure of applying PM?

   10. What tools/equipment is needed to support PM?

   11. How to modify PM?

   12. What teacher should do before/after teaching?




                                    95
Appendix 3


                                   Observation list

                       Design of Presentation Method

     POINTS                                       Course-file
                                                  observation
     Objectives
     Syllabus model
     Type of learning activities
     Type of teaching activities
     Teacher role
     Learners role
     The role of instructional material


                       Presentation Method's Procedure
                                                                Teacher's activities   Note
      TEACHER ACTIVITIES Preparation

                                    Opening the class
                                    Process during the class
                                    Closing the class
      EQUIPMENT                     Realia
      RESOURCES USED
                                    Video
                                    Picture
                                    Flash card, etc




                                             96

				
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