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Status of NEMO 3 SuperNEMO experiments

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					   Status of NEMO 3/
SuperNEMO experiments
           Vladimir Vasiliev
          UCL, London, UK
 on behalf of the NEMO collaboration

                Physics of Massive Neutrinos
              Joint Annual Meeting of N4 IDEA and N6/WP1
                                ENTApP
                   Blaubeuren, 1-5 July 2007
                                           Outline
       • NEMO-3 experiment
               – Overview of the NEMO-3
               – NEMO-3 background
               – Highlights of the main NEMO-3 results
       • SuperNEMO project
               – Challenges and R&D program
               – Current status



1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   2
NEMO 3: Neutrino Ettore Majorana Observatory



                 •     Czech Republic
                 •     Finland
                 •     France
                 •     Japan
                 •     Russia
                 •     Spain
                 •     UK
                 •     Ukraine
                 •     USA




                                                                             LS Modane, FR
                                                                             Tunnel Frejus

1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status        3
key techniques: tracking, calorimetry, timing

      Goal: reconstruct 2 electrons of the final
       state
                                                                                                     NEMO-3
              E1 + E2 = Qbb                                                   20 sectors
      Particle physics - like approach:
              Measure several observables of the final
               state
                        Trajectories of 2 electrons
                        Energies of 2 electrons
                        Time
                        Magnetic field curvature ("+" vs "-")
              Reconstruct the final state topology and




                                                                          3m
               kinematics
      Several requirements for candidate
       events
              Topology (vertex, track-scintillator
               correlation)
              Time coincidence                                                                        B (25 G)
              2-electron invariant mass
              Identify e-, e+, g, a
              Able to measure backgrounds



1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                4
                                           Multi source detector


                                                                         bb2n measurement
                                                                                  116Cd         405 g
                                                                                       Qbb = 2805 keV

                                                                                  96Zr           9.4 g
                                                                                       Qbb = 3350 keV

                                                                                  150Nd         37.0 g
                                                                                       Qbb = 3367 keV

                                                                                  48Ca           7.0 g
                                                                                       Qbb = 4272 keV

                                                                                  130Te         454 g
                                                                                       Qbb = 2529 keV
                                                                                                         Detector bkg
           100Mo                            82Se                                  natTe         893 g
                           6.914 kg                0.932 kg                                              measurement
                 Qbb = 3034 keV               Qbb = 2995 keV
                                                                                    Cu          621 g

                                bb0n search
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren           Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                   5
                                           Sector interior view




                                                                                             cathode rings
         PMTs                                                                                wire chamber


                                                                                              Calibration tube

    scintillators




     bb isotope foils



1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren        Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status             6
                                           Installation in Modane




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren         Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   7
                                           Installation in Modane




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren         Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   8
                                           With shielding




                                                                                          water tank
              wood

                        coil


            iron shield




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren     Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                9
                                           Full detector now




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren       Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   10
      Typical bb2n event observed from 100Mo


            Transverse view                        Run Number: 2040
                                                                                          Longitudinal
                                                   Event Number:
                                                   9732                                      view
                                                   Date: 2003-03-20

                                                         Vertex
                                                         emission


                                                                                                                Vertex
                                                                                                                emission
             Deposited energy:
               E1+E2= 2088 keV
             Internal hypothesis:
               (Dt)mes –(Dt)theo = 0.22 ns                                                               (Dvertex)// = 5.7 mm
             Common vertex:
               (Dvertex) = 2.1 mm
                                                                                                      100Mo    6.914 kg
                                               Criteria to select bb events:                            Qbb = 3034 keV
                                • 2 tracks with charge < 0
                                                                  • Internal hypothesis TOF (external event rejection)
                                • 2 PMT, each > 200 keV
                                                                  • No other isolated PMT (g rejection)
                                • PMT-Track association
                                                                  • No delayed a track (214Bi rejection)
                                • Common vertex
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                 Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                        11
                                           NEMO backgrounds




                                                        External
                                                                            double          Compton +       pair
                                                                           Compton            Moller     production




                                                        Internal

                                                                        b- +Compton         b- +Moller    b- +IC




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren       Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                  12
                                       Backgrounds: external g




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren      Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   13
      Backgrounds : internal from b- decay


                                                                              single electron events




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                  14
      Backgrounds: Radon, delayed 214Po a


                                           Bi-Po Process
                   238U                           214Po

                                             b   (164 ms)
                                  214Bi
                                                     a
                                (19.9 mn)
                                                  210Pb
                                  0.021%




                                                  22.3 y
                                 210Tl
                                (1.3 mn)




       a track length & event topology allows to separate 214Bi on
             surface of GG wires
             tracking gas
             surface of the foil
             inside the source foil


1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                    Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   15
      Backgrounds: Radon purification facility




                    Running since Oct. 4th, 2004 in FréjusUnderground Lab.
                                1 ton charcoal @ -50oC, 7 bars
                                        Flux: 150 m3/h
                                       Activity of 222Rn :
                                  Before Facility = 15 Bq/m3
                                 After Facility < 15 mBq/m3
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   16
Radon purification facility, effect inside NEMO3




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   17
               Backgrounds: bb-like events from Cu


                          Phase II data; ~ 1.5 y.




                                           MC prediction: 130 ev.




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren              Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   18
                                                NEMO 3 highlights: 2b2n 100Mo

                                        Sum energy spectrum                                                       Angular distribution




                                                                                      Number of events
    Number of events/0.05 MeV




                                12000                       219 000 events                               12000                    219 000 events
                                         NEMO-3                                                                   NEMO-3
                                                                    6914 g                                                                6914 g
                                10000
                                        100Mo                     389 days                               10000   100Mo                  389 days
                                                                  S/B = 40                                                              S/B = 40

                                                                                                          8000
                                8000                                                                                       • Data
                                                                                                                              2b2n
                                                           • Data                                                             Monte Carlo
                                6000                                                                      6000
                                                              2b2n                                                            Background
                                                              Monte Carlo                                                     subtracted
                                                              Background                                  4000
                                4000                          subtracted

                                2000                                                                      2000


                                    0                                                                        0

                                                                   E1 + E2 (MeV)                                                            Cos()

                                                  T1/2(bb2n) = 7.11  0.02 (stat)  0.54 (syst)  1018 years

                                                              Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 182302 (2005)
                                                              «bb factory» → tool for precision test

1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                               Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                             19
      NEMO 3 highlights: 2b2n preliminary

                                        932 g
                82Se                 389 days
                                                   Preliminary results for ~360 d Phase I data. Additional
                                  2750 events
                                      S/B = 4
                                                    statistics is being analysed and to be published soon.
                                                82Se     T1/2 = 9.6 ± 0.3 (stat) ± 1.0 (syst)  1019 y
                                                116Cd    T1/2 = 2.8 ± 0.1 (stat) ± 0.3 (syst)  1019 y
                                                150Nd    T1/2 = 9.7 ± 0.7 (stat) ± 1.0 (syst)  1018 y
                                                96Zr     T1/2 = 2.0 ± 0.3 (stat) ± 0.2 (syst)  1019 y
                                                48Ca     T1/2 = 3.9 ± 0.7 (stat) ± 0.6 (syst)  1019 y


                                                                                                     48Ca




                                                Background subtracted

1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status           20
              NEMO 3 highlights: 2b0n 100Mo & 82Se
             100Mo,      Phase I + II, 693 days                              82Se    ,Phase I + II, 693 days




               T1/2bb0n > 5.8 x 1023 (90 % CL)                               T1/2bb0n > 2.1 x 1023 (90 % CL)
                    <mn> < 0.6 – 1.2 eV                                              <mn> < 1.2-2.3 eV
    expected in 2009: T1/2bb0n > 2 x 1024 (90 % CL)                          T1/2bb0n > 8 x 1023 (90 % CL)
                         <mn> < 0.3 – 0.65 eV                                       <mn> < 0.6-1.2 eV
     Collaboration decided to perform blind analysis with mock data
     Plan to open the box and update the results ~ summer 2008
          and once again @ the end of the experiment ~ early 2010.
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren          Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                   21
                                 SuperNEMO project




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   22
                                       ~ 60 physicists, 27 laboratories, 12 countries,




                                             Marocco                                                                      Japan
       USA                                    Fes U                                                                      U Saga
       MHC                                                                                                                KEK
       INL                                                                                                               U Osaka
     (U Texas)
                                            UK                Finland              Poland                  Russia
                                        UC London           U Jyvaskula           U Warsaw              JINR Dubna
                                       U Manchester                                                     ITEP Mosow
                                      Imperial College                                                Kurchatov Institute
                                                                                                         Ukraine
                                         France                                                         INR Kiev
                                      CEN Bordeaux                                                    ISMA Kharkov
                                     IReS Strasbourg                                                     Slovakia
                                       LAL Orsay                                                      (U. Bratislava)
                   Spain
                                        LPC Caen
                U Valencia                                                                            Czech Republic
                                     LSCE Gif/Yvette
                U Zaragoza                                                                             Charles U Praha
                U Barcelona                                                                             IEAP Praha


1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                 Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                           23
                                 From NEMO-3 to SuperNEMO
                                                               NA   M    Tobs
                                      T1/2 (bb0n) > ln 2         
                                                               A       N90% CL


                  NEMO-3                                                                           SuperNEMO
                       100Mo                                                                         150Nd   or   82Se
                                                        isotope

                         7 kg                       isotope mass M                                      100-200 kg
                      8%                              efficiency                                       ~ 30 %
              208Tl: < 20 mBq/kg                                                                    208Tl< 2 mBq/kg
                                                  internal contaminations
             214Bi: < 300 mBq/kg
                                               208Tl and 214Bi in the bb foil                if 82Se: 214Bi < 10 mBq/kg


                  8% @ 3MeV                    energy resolution (FWHM)                              4% @ 3 MeV



            T1/2(bb0n) > 2 x 1024 y                                                               T1/2(bb0n) > 2 x 1026 y




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren             Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                             24
                            Conceptual SuperNEMO design

         Planar and modular design: ~ 100 kg of isotope (~20 modules  5-7 kg)

          1 module:

          Source (~40 mg/cm2) 4 (length) x 3(height) m2
         Tracking : drift chamber ~3000 cells in Geiger
        mode
         Calorimeter: scintillators + PM
                       ~1 000 PM if scint. blocks
                       ~ 100 PM if scint. bars
      Top view



                                                             1m




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren
                                           5m   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   25
                                R&D: SuperNEMO calorimeter
•    Goal: FWHM  7%/E  4% at 3 MeV (Currently 14-16%/E in NEMO3)
•    A combination of energy losses in the foil and calorimeter DE/E
•    Studies
      – Organic (plastic or liquid),
      – Shape, size, coating
      – PMTs (Photonis, Hamamatsu, ETL)
      – Light guides, optical contact
      – Chemistry

                                           High QE Hamamatsu
                                                  tube



                                                                                                           DE/E = 6.5%

                                                +                                                  =          at 1 MeV
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                           3.8% at 3 MeV
                                                                                              BC404            if 1/E
                                                                                            scintillator
                                                                                            wraped in
     See Jean-Stephane's talk for details                                                     teflon


1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren              Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                   26
                                R&D: tracker optimisation
     optimize:
             wire length and diameter
             wire material and diameter,
             read-out, gas mixture etc
     9-cell prototype built
     90 cell prototype + 300 cell prototype to be
      built by Spring 2008
     About 500k wires to be strung, crimped,
      terminated => wire robot under development




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   27
        R&D : radio purity and BiPo device
    Need to measure radio purity at a few mBq/kg
     level
            Beyond sensitivity of conventional Ge detectors
            BuildBi-Po Process BiPo detector.
                   new tool,
        238U                          214Po
                                     (164 ms)
                                                                                    e- prompt
                                 b                                                              Scintillator + PMT
                       214Bi
                                           a                         e-
                     (19.9 mn)
                                      210Pb                                         e-          Tracking
                       0.021%




                                                                                                (wire chamber)
                                       22.3 y                             a delay
                      210Tl
                                                                                                Source foil
                     (1.3 mn)
                                                                                                (40 mg/cm2)
                                                                                         a
      232Th                            212Po                                     Delay a        Shield
                                                                                                radon, neutron,g
                                 b    (300 ns)
                         212Bi
                                            a
                      (60.5 mn)
                                       208Pb
                       36%




                                       (stable)     See Xavier's talk for more details
                       208Tl
                      (3.1 mn)
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren          Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status             28
      R&D: 82Se production and purification


            Gaseous compound exist (SeF6)
              can enrich with ultracentrifugation!
            Test sample of few kilograms has
           been produced
               purity of the production under
              investigation on Ge detector
               several purification methods
              proposed
                   chemical purification
                   distillation, physical
                  purification




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   29
      R&D: 150Nd production at CEA-MENPHIS
         No gaseous compuond! need alternative technology.
Laser-vapor interaction 1973 : Atomic isotope separation by laser : initial patent
      SILVA / AVLIS     1980 : Basic research at CEA (spectroscopy, evaporation)
   (Atomic Vapor Laser Ionization S)       1985 : SILVA/AVLIS selected as advanced process :
2 Isotopes 235U and 238U                          USA, France, Japan

5 energy levels (3 transitions)            1994 : Tens of grams produced at the industrial assay
                                           1994-1998 : Technological demonstrations (by parts)
                                           Mid 1999 : AVLIS shut down in US ; early 2003 in Japan

                                           2000 : Decision for a conclusive 4 years program
                                           2000 - 2003 : MENPHIS construction and preliminary R&D.

              3                           2003 : Demonstrations on MENPHIS
                                                204 kg @ 2.5% 235U


            2                             Current status: mothbolled
                                           150Nd is possible, but:

                                                •Cost?
       1                                       •Enrichement?
                                                •Purity?

            235U             238U

       Photoionization
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren           Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status        30
                                      R&D: physics simulations
          Full MC simulation under development
              GEANT4 for low energy physics simulation
              Use NEMO-3 & prototype data for accurate tracking chamber
               simulation
              Simulate light transmission for accurate calorimeter simulation
              DECAY-4 library for decay kinematics (bb and all radioactive
               backgrounds)
              Cellular automate + Kalman filter for track fit
          Will be used to provide input for TDR




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren      Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   31
                             SuperNEMO schedule summary
2007             2008                      2009          2010                2011               2012    2013
                    NEMO3 Running

        R&D SuperNEMO                         TDR

     BiPo1
    Canfranc
                  BiPo construction

                                                  BiPo                    BiPo running @ Canfranc
                                              installation
                                                                 SuperNEMO 1st
                                                                module construction
                                                                 Preparation
                                                                 of the site
                                                                                  construction of
                                                                                    20 modules
                                                                                        6 SuperNEMO modules running @
                                                                                                  Canfranc

                                                                                  Final SuperNEMO modules installation

                                                                                                             RUNNING of
                                                                                                             Full detector
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                 Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                32
                     neutrino mass limits comparison
                                                                          QRPA
                                                                                                       Shell model    SU(3)

     Experiment           Isotope              T1/2       [1], eV        [2], eV          [3] , eV        [4], eV      [5], eV

    NEMO 3               Mo-100            >5.8 1023 y   <1.06        <0.58-0.92       <1.01-1.20

    NEMO 3               Se-82             >2.1 1023 y   <1.96        <1.20-2.56       <1.70-2.04       <3.38

    COURICINO            Te-130            >2.2 1024 y   <0.42        <0.31-0.60       <0.42-0.53       <1.38

    KDHK claim           Ge-76             ~1.2 1025 y   ~0.56        ~0.41-1.06       ~0.42-0.48       ~1.21

    SuperNEMO            Se-82             2.0 1026 y    63 meV       39-82 meV        55-66 meV        110 meV

    SuperNEMO            Nd-150            2.0 1026 y                                  16-21 meV*                    44-52 meV

                                                                     * Deformation of 150Nd nucleus is not taken into account

   NME calculatios from the following works:

   [1] O. Civatarese and J. Suhonen, Nucl. Phys. A 729 (2003) 867 (Table 4)
   [2] S. Stoica and H. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Nucl. Phys. A 694 (2001) 269
   [3] V.A. Rodin et al., Nucl. Phys. A 766 (2006) 107 (nucl-th/0503063) + erratum (Table 1)
   [4] E. Caurier, F. Nowacki, A. Poves and J. Retamosa, Nucl. Phys. A654 (1999) 973c (Shell model
   calculation)
   [5] H.G. Hirsch, O. Castanos, P.O. Hess, Nucl. Phys A582 (1995) 124


1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren                  Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                    33
                                           Conclusion


            • NEMO 3 will continue to take data for few years
            more
               • detector background at low energies (2n)
               understood
               • analysis of ~ 3y of 2b2n data for all isotopes in
               progress and to be published soon
               • update of 2b0n results ~ next summer
            • SuperNEMO is undergoing R&D stage
               • extensive TDR report to be submitted in 2009 to
               funding agencies




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren      Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   34
                                           Backup slides




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren       Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   35
                                             NEMO 3: details

    Fréjus Underground Laboratory : 4800 m.w.e.
                                                                       Source: 10 kg of bb isotopes
                                                                           cylindrical, S = 20 m2, 60 mg/cm2
                                                                       Tracking detector: drift wire
                                                                       chamber operating in Geiger mode
                                                                       (6180 cells)
                                                                           ┴ = 5 mm, z = 1 cm ( vertex )
                                                                       Calorimeter: 1940 plastic scintillators
                                                                       coupled to low radioactivity PMTs
                                                                       • Energy Resolution FWHM=14% (1 MeV)
                                                                       • Time resolution = 0.25 ns @ 1MeV
                                                                       • g veto efficiency ≈ 50 %

                                                                          Magnetic field: 25 Gauss
                                                                          Gamma shield: Pure Iron (18 cm)
                                                                          Neutron shield: borated water
                                                                                                 + Wood


                                   Background: natural radioactivity, mainly 214Bi and 208Tl (g 2.6 MeV)
                                                Radon, neutrons (n,g), muons, bb(2n)
1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren            Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status            36
   exotic processes search in 100Mo & 82Se

 • Neutrino coupled axions c (majorons)
 • V+A current in electroweak lagrangian

                                                   V+A *             n=1 **                  n=2 **      n=3 **         n=7 **

                                           Mo      >3.2∙1023         >2.7∙1022               >1.7∙1022   >1.0∙1022      >7∙1019
                                                   <1.8∙10-6 [1]    g<(0.4-1.8)∙10-4 [3]

                                           Se      >1.2∙1023         >1.5∙1022               >6.0∙1021   >3.1∙1021      >5.0∙1020
                                                   <2.8∙10-6 [2]    g<(0.7-1.9)∙10-4 [3]
                                           *PI+PII data
                                           ** R.Arnoldet al. Nucl. Phys. A765 (2006) 483
                                           NME Calculations:
                                           [1] J. Suhonen, Nucl. Phys. A 700 (2002) 649
                                           [2] M. Aunola and J. Suhonen, Nucl. Phys. A 463 (1998) 207
                                           [3] F. Simkovic et al., Phys. Rev. C 60 (1999) 055502; S.Stoica and H. Klapdor-
                                           Kleingrothaus, Nucl. Phys. A 694 (2001) 269; O. Civatarese and J. Suhonen, Nucl. Phys.
                                           A 729 (2003) 867




1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren        Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status                             37
                                   Challenges & R&D program


    Radio purity
       source isotope purification
       new tools for extra low radioactivity measurement (BiPo)
    Better calorimeter resolution
       R&D on individual counter design
        calibration system R&D
    Bigger scale
        optimise tracker parameters
        wiring robot
    Detector efficiency
        source thickness
        geometry optimisation
        reconstruction software
    Better background rejection
        150Nd
        extra veto counters
        alternative, "sandwich", layout

1-5 July 2007, ILIAS meeting, Blaubeuren   Vladimir Vasiliev NEMO 3/ SuperNEMO status   38

				
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