What is Cyber

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                                  What is Cyber




                                LTC Frank J. Snyder
                         Deputy Commander, CYBERPAC(P)
                                  18 August 2011
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             Distribution Statement: Approved for Release to Thailand National Cybersecurity Conference
Updated 17 August 2011
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                                                Agenda
   •   CYBERPAC Focus Points
   •   US Military CyberSecurity Structure
   •   10 Propositions Regarding Cyberspace Operations
   •   Cyber Concepts
   •   Recommended Reading




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             Distribution Statement: Approved for Release to Thailand National Cybersecurity Conference
Updated 17 August 2011                                      2
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         CYBERPAC (Provisional) Focus Points


      • “Seek first to understand…” – Stephen Covey
      • “Organization, as much as a battleship or a bayonet, is
        a weapon of war.” – Martin van Crevald
            – DoD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace, July 2011
            – DoD Joint Concept for Cyberspace, Draft: Aug 2011
            – U.S. Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) Command and Control
              (C2) Concept of Operations (CONOP), Draft: Aug 2011
            – CYBERPAC (P) CONOP and C2 Construct, Draft: Aug 2011
      • Have a great defense – if your opponent doesn’t score,
        he can’t win.
      • A great offense has the potential to be a strong
        deterrent.
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             Distribution Statement: Approved for Release to Thailand National Cybersecurity Conference
Updated 17 August 2011
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               US Military CyberSecurity Structure
                               Secretary of
                                Defense                             Chairman, Joint
                                                                    Chiefs of Staff

      TIER 1

               USSTRATCOM                     USPACOM             USSOCOM

      TIER 2
                                                                                            Combat
                CYBERCOM              SOCPAC         REGIONAL CYBER CMD
                                                                                            Support
                             USFK        USFJ        ALCOM
                                                                                            Agencies

                          USARPAC     PAFLT        MARFORPAC        PACAF


      TIER 3

                ARCYBER                              COMPONENT CYBER ELEMENTS
                                                        USARPAC        PACAF
                    FLTCYBER
                          AFCYBER
                                                         PAFLT       MARFORPAC
                               MARFORCYBER                                               COCOM
                                                                                         OPCON
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Updated 17 August 2011
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           10 Propositions
           Regarding Cyberspace Operations *
      1.      Cyberspace is a warfighting domain. At the operational level
              of war, cyberspace operations are most similar to operations
              in the air, land, and maritime domains.
      2.      The Joint Force Commander (JFC) must have Command and
              Control (C2) of cyberspace just as he does the air, land, and
              maritime domains.
      3.      C2 of cyberspace is the key enabler for exercising
              operational C2
      4.      Defense is the main effort in cyber at the operational level of
              war.
      5.      Cyber is the only manmade domain. We built it; we can
              change it. Creating a cyber Joint Operations Area (JOA) is
              the first requirement.
      * This concept was originally presented by Brig Gen Brett Williams, former
      PACOM J6, and was last modified on 22 DEC 2010
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             Distribution Statement: Approved for Release to Thailand National Cybersecurity Conference
Updated 17 August 2011
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           10 Propositions
            Regarding Cyberspace Operations
      6.      Cyberspace operations must be fully integrated with
              missions in the physical domains.
      7.      The JFC must see and understand cyberspace to defend it,
              and he cannot defend it all.
      8.      Networks are critical and will always be vulnerable.
              Disconnecting is not an option. We must fight through the
              attack.
      9.      Our understanding of non-kinetic effects in cyberspace is
              immature.
      10.     Understanding operational impact is the critical measure of
              cyberspace engagements.


      * This concept was originally presented by Brig Gen Brett Williams, former
      PACOM J6, and was last modified on 22 DEC 2010
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             Distribution Statement: Approved for Release to Thailand National Cybersecurity Conference
Updated 17 August 2011
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                                       CYBER CONCEPTS

                            Blue Networks      Department of Defense (DOD)
                                               Global Information Grid (GIG)
                            DGO                Operations
                                                                Blue Networks

                         •24/7 Watch
                         •DIACAP
               ACTIONS




                         •IA Compliance
                         •Ports Protocols Services
                         •SANM Privileges
                         •Patching
                         •Scanning
                         •Remediation UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO
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                                  CYBER CONCEPTS

                Defensive Cyber Operations
     Grey Networks                   Green Networks
     Commercial                            Coalition



                                                    DCO



                                                                                     ACTIONS
                                                  Grey / Green Networks                         •Measure Risk
                                                                                               •Analyze Threat


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                                  CYBER CONCEPTS

        Offensive
        Cyber
        Operations
                                           Red Networks
                                           Unfriendly
                •Planning, not execution
      ACTIONS




                   •Planning Information Gathering
                   •Planning Effects                                                   Red
                •Capability serves as Deterrent                                      Networks


                   •No action necessary
                                                                                OCO
                                                                   •Authorities – Restricting
                                                                 •International Law / Norms
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                                  CYBER CONCEPTS
                        Proactive
                          Blue Networks


                          DGO                        Reactive


       Constant
        Quick

                                                    DCO
        Produces The COP                                                               Red
                                                                                     Networks
                                                  Grey / Green Networks


                                                                                OCO             S L O W
                                                                   Produces Courses of
                                                                      Proactive
                                                UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO        Action
             Distribution Statement: Approved for Release to Thailand National Cybersecurity Conference
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                              Recommended Reading
   •   White House National Security Strategy
   •   White House International Strategy for Cyberspace
   •   National Military Strategy of the U.S.A.
   •   National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations
   •   DOD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace
   •   DOD IA Strategic Plan
   •   Cyber War by Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake
   •   Inside Cyber Warfare by Jeffrey Carr




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Updated 17 August 2011
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                             FINAL COMMENTS
   • QUESTIONS?




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   • END OF PRESENTATION – Following slides are for
     backup purposes




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                                             CYBERCOM
   • Established 2009
   • Commander has dual function as Director, NSA
   • Mission USCYBERCOM plans, coordinates, integrates, synchronizes and
   conducts activities to: direct the operations and defense of specified Department of
   Defense information networks and; prepare to, and when directed, conduct full
   spectrum military cyberspace operations in order to enable actions in all domains,
   ensure US/Allied freedom of action in cyberspace and deny the same to our
   adversaries.
   • Intent Protection, Integrated Dynamic System, COP, Early Warning System, and
   Synchronized Operations
   • Service cyber components (Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force)




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                                                What is IA
   • Information Assurance – measures that protect and defend information systems by
     ensuring availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation;
     includes restoration planning and continuity of operations.
       • Confidentiality - assurance that information is not
         disclosed to unauthorized individuals, processes, or
         devices
            • DON’T LET SOMEONE SEE MY CREDIT CARD
              INFORMATION
       • Integrity – protection against unauthorized modification
         or destruction of information –
            • DON’T LET SOMEONE CHANGE MY EMAIL
              AFTER I HIT “SEND”
       • Availability - timely, reliable access to data and
         information services for authorized users
            • MAKE SURE I CAN GET TO MY BANK ACCOUNT
              ANY TIME
       • Authentication – assurance that parties involved are
         who they claim to be – YOU ARE YOU
       • Non-repudiation – parties must fulfill their obligations.
         One party can’t claim to have been involved in a
         transaction. –YOU CAN’T SAY IT WASN’T YOU
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             Distribution Statement: Approved for Release to Thailand National Cybersecurity Conference
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                                           What is Cyber
   • Cyber – a prefix related to computers, electronic information and/or digital networks, generally
     “cyberspace”
   • Cyberspace - the impression of space and community formed by computers, electronic
     information and devices, digital networks, and their users
   • Cybersecurity - protecting computers, networks and information from unauthorized access, use,
     disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction
   • Cyber Warfare
        – Cyber Defense, protecting Cyberspace, activities to detect, analyze, mitigate and prevent
           vulnerabilities in order to protect computers, electronic information and/or digital networks
             • Defensive Network Operations (aka Computer Network Defense) – actions taken to
                protect, monitor, analyze, detect, and respond to unauthorized activity within
                information systems and computer networks, TOOLS (e.g. IDS, IPS, firewalls, sensors)
             • Defense Cyber Operations – actions taken to measure risk and assess threats
        – Offensive Cyber Operations - through the use of cyberspace, actively gather information
           from computers, information systems, or networks, or manipulate, disrupt, deny, degrade,
           or destroy targeted computers, information systems or networks
             • Computer Network Exploitation - Includes enabling actions and intelligence collection
                via computer networks that exploit data gathered from target or enemy information
                systems or networks.
             • Computer Network Attack - Includes actions taken via computer networks to disrupt,
                deny, degrade, or destroy the information within computers and computer networks
                and/or the computers/networks themselves
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