Document Sample
nea_lit Powered By Docstoc
					     National Endowment for the Arts

NEA Literature Fellowships

                      40 Yea s
                      of Supporting American Writers
 This year, the National Endowment for the Arts marks its 40th
anniversary of leadership in the arts. The NEA is a public agency
   dedicated to supporting excellence in the arts, both new and
 established; bringing the arts to all Americans; and providing
  leadership in arts education. Established by Congress in 1965
     as an independent agency of the federal government, the
    Arts Endowment is the largest national funder of the arts,
      bringing great art to all 50 states, including rural areas,
                  inner cities, and military bases.
 National Endowment for the Arts

NEA Literature Fellowships

                     40 Yea s
                     of Supporting American Writers

             March 2006
This publication is published by:                                          Photo Credits
                                                                           Dana Gioia: Photo by Vance Jacobs (page 1)
National Endowment for the Arts                                            John Steinbeck and Ralph Ellison: Photo by R. Philip Hanes, Jr. (page 3)
Office of Communications                                                     Julia Alvarez: Photo by Bill Eichner (page 12)
                                                                           T. C. Boyle: Photo by Pablo Campos (page 13)
Felicia Knight, Director                                                   Jared Carter: Photo by Diane Carter (page 14)
Don Ball, Publications Manager/Editor                                      Annie Dillard: Photo by Carin Clevidence (page 15)
                                                                           Rita Dove: Photo by Fred Viebahn (page 16)
Designed by Nancy Bratton Design                                           Andre Dubus: Photo by Marion Ettlinger (page 17)
                                                                           Ernest J. Gaines: Photo by Dianne S. Gaines (page 18)
Cover Photo by Nancy Bratton
                                                                           Christina Garcia: Photo courtesy of Lavin Agency (page 19)

Thanks to Amy Stolls, David Kipen, Jon Peede, Paulette Beete, Campbell     Kaye Gibbons: photo by Marion Ettlinger (page 20)
Irving, Pamela Kirkpatrick, and Garrick Davis for their contributions to   John Haines: Photo by Peter Iseman (page 21)
the publication.                                                           Joy Harjo: Photo courtesy of author (page 22)
                                                                           Oscar Hijuelos: Photo by Dario Acosta (page 23)
Voice/TTY: (202) 682-5496                                                  Jane Hishfield: Photo by Nick Rosza (page 24)
For individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing.                           Mark Jarman: Photo by Peyton Hoge (page 24)
                                                                           Edward P. Jones: Photo courtesy of HarperCollins (page 26)
Individuals who do not use conventional print may contact the Arts         Suji Kwock Kim: Photo by Jim Saah (page 27)
Endowment’s Office for AccessAbility to obtain this publication in an       Ted Kooser: Photo courtesy of University of Nebraska-Lincoln (page 28)
alternate format.                                                          Philip Levine: Photo courtesy of author (page 29)
Telephone: (202) 682-5532                                                  Bobbie Ann Mason: Photo courtesy of Viking Penguin (page 30)
                                                                           Davis McCombs: Photo courtesy of author (page 31)
National Endowment for the Arts                                            Marilyn Nelson: Photo by Fran Funk (page 32)
1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW                                               Ishmael Reed: Photo courtesy of author and Basic Books (page 33)
Washington, DC 20506-0001                                                  Norman Rush: Photo by Jerry Bauer (page 34)
(202) 682-5400                                                             Kay Ryan: Photo courtesy of Grove Press (page 35)
                                                                           Charles Simic: Photo by Philip Simic (page 36)
Additional copies of this publication can be obtained free of charge by    Jeffrey Skinner: Photo courtesy of author (page 37)
contacting the NEA Web site:                                 Jane Smiley: Photo by Jack Canning (page 38)
                                                                           Cathy Song: Photo by John Eddy (page 39)
This publication was printed on recycled paper.                            Virgil Suárez: Photo by Jason Flom (page 40)
                                                                           Larissa Szporluk: Photo courtesy of author (page 41)
                                                                           Nancy Willard: Photo courtesy of author (page 42)
                                                                           Joy Williams: Photo by Rollie McKenna (page 43)
                                                                           Tobias Wolff: Photo by Giliola Christe (page 44)
                                                                           Erdag Göknar: Photo courtesy of author (page 46)
                                                                           David Hinton: Photo courtesy of author (page 47)
                                                                           Lynne Sharon Schwartz: Photo courtesy of author (page 48)
                                                                           William Jay Smith: Photo courtesy of author and Curbstone Press
                                                                           (page 49)
                                                                           Donald A. Yates: Photo courtesy of author (page 50)

                                                                           Poet Laureate photos (page 52):

                                                                           Billy Collins: Photo courtesy of Library of Congress
                                                                           Rita Dove: Photo by Fred Viebahn
                                                                           Louise Glück: Photo by Sigrid Estrada
                                                                           Ted Kooser: Photo courtesy of University of Nebraska-Lincoln
                                                                           Stanley Kunitz: Photo by Ted Rosenberg
                                                                           Robert Pinsky: Photo by N. Alicia Byers
                                                                           Mark Strand: Photo by Jim Higgins
                                                                           Mona Van Duyn: Photo courtesy of Library of Congress

Preface ....................................................................... 1

The NEA Literature Fellowships
Turn Forty: An Introduction ................................... 3

NEA Literature Fellowships:

        Creative Writing Fellows .............................. 11

        Translation Fellows ....................................... 45

National Awards and Honors
Won by NEA Literature Fellows ............................ 51
                                                                                     Chairman Dana Gioia


B      efore I assumed my current position, I sup-
      ported my family for 12 years as a full-time
    writer. Although primarily a poet, I also reviewed
                                                          important, the NEA Fellowships have also recognized
                                                          many writers years before their talents were acknowl-
                                                          edged by a wider audience, including Paul Auster,
 books and music, edited anthologies, gave readings,      T. C. Boyle, Ernest J. Gaines, Tobias Wolff, Kay
 wrote for radio, and even taught college part-time. I    Ryan, Ted Kooser, Oscar Hijuelos, X. J. Kennedy,
 did what it took to make a living—while always trying    Maxine Hong Kingston, and Alice Walker.
 to guard a little time for poetry. Making one’s way           In the fortieth year of the Arts Endowment’s ex-
 as a literary writer in America is hard work. Conse-     istence, it seems both proper and timely to celebrate
 quently, I understand only too well the importance       the history of the NEA Literature Fellowship pro-
 of the NEA Literature Fellowship program. Over the       gram. Through this program of competitive indi-
 past 40 years, these awards have helped new writers      vidual grants—3,256 individual grants to date—the
 find their voices and established authors continue        agency has made a direct investment in American
 their work. The program represents one of the            creativity. By helping writers at every stage of their
 great successes of the Arts Endowment in enriching       careers, the National Endowment for the Arts has
 American culture.                                        supported the excellence and diversity—cultural,
      Many important authors have been recognized         stylistic, and geographic—of American letters.
 by the NEA. Some of our early grants went to writers          The NEA awards also have had an importance
 whose work is now a permanent part of America’s          beyond their immediate financial impact. By recog-
 literary legacy—Gwendolyn Brooks, Isaac Bashevis         nizing many writers at critical and often early stages
 Singer, John Berryman, Raymond Carver, Donald            of their careers, the Fellowships have brought sig-
 Justice, Wallace Stegner, Malcolm Cowley, Denise         nificant attention to these individuals—publication
 Levertov, Robert Penn Warren, and Eudora Welty,          opportunities, critical reviews, job offers, academic
 to name only a few immortals. The notable variety of     tenure, and especially added self-confidence. Such
 their talents testifies to the inclusivity of the NEA’s   forms of recognition bring enduring benefit to a
 program. You have to respect any poetry list broad       writer’s life long after the fellowship check has been
 enough to include both Anthony Hecht and Charles         cashed and spent.
 Bukowski—Allen Tate and Allen Ginsberg. More

                          NEA Literature Fellowships         1
By helping writers at every stage of their careers, the               Walt Whitman once claimed that, “The United
National Endowment for the Arts has supported                    States themselves are essentially the greatest poem.”
the excellence and diversity—cultural, stylistic, and            If that metaphor is true, then the Arts Endowment
                                                                 has helped enrich and enlarge the national poem
geographic—of American letters.
                                                                 with 40 years of bold and constant support. I cannot
                                                                 imagine anyone surveying the pages of names that
          The NEA Literature Fellowship program includes
                                                                 follow without appreciating the enormous investment
      four award categories—fiction, poetry, creative nonfic-
                                                                 in American creativity represented by our program.
      tion, and translation. While the creative writing awards
                                                                 Most of these authors are still writing at the peak of
      have gathered most of the attention, the importance of
                                                                 their powers. As Whitman observed, “The strongest
      the translation awards can hardly be overstated. This
                                                                 and sweetest songs yet remain to be sung.”
      program has been especially significant in a period
      when the publication of newly translated works by
      American presses has become a marginal activity. By
      supporting translation, the Arts Endowment broad-
      ens conversations among cultures and provides op-
                                                                     Dana Gioia
      portunities for Americans to gain perspective on our
                                                                     Chairman, National Endowment for the Arts
      own complex national identity by exploring the work
      of writers from around the world.

                                                                 2        National Endowment for the Arts
     Authors John Steinbeck and Ralph
     Ellison at one of the first National Council
     on the Arts meetings in Tarrytown, NY.

The NEA Literature Fellowships
Turn Forty: an introduction
By Amy Stolls, NEA Literature Specialist

  o          ne sweltering summer day in the nation’s capital,
             when the bureaucratic static of meetings and
            deadlines and clerical crises had peaked, I looked
                                                                   writers find the time and energy to write with night
                                                                   shifts and dirty diapers and a continual stream of re-
                                                                   jection letters? They struggle, might be one answer.
      at our wall of fellowship applications and said to our       Or they stop, might be another. “If man needs bread
      hardworking intern we need art. After eight years at the     and justice,” wrote Albert Camus, “he also needs
      agency, I knew the feeling of being buried in thou-          pure beauty, which is the bread of his heart.” If it’s
      sands of folders and files and piles of paper three-hole      a struggle to find this bread of the heart because it is
      punched, boxed in, and taped shut. I knew, too, that         not being created and not reaching audiences, then
      when the job felt like a job, it was time to remind          the logical next question for us as Americans should
      ourselves why we do what we do, and why we love it. We       be: how can we best help?
      grabbed copies of a manuscript from the stacks and                For 40 years, the National Endowment for the
      took a moment to read. And we were transported.              Arts has been asking that very question. The answers
           When the language sings, you can find yourself:          haven’t always come easy, but if you look through
      in a civil war or a morning routine, a filthy fifth-           the following list of 2,756 writers and translators
      floor walkup or a thousand acres of sagebrush and
      sky, staring and listening and understanding the pain        In its noble and unprecedented service to American letters,
      of a wounded soldier, the rage of a silenced citizen,        the Literature Fellowship program has made an invaluable
      the simple joy of kicking a stone. On this particular        contribution to the manifold expression of American culture.
      afternoon, we were led to a crescendo of a moment,
      powerful in its subtlety, of an old Jewish woman             who have received NEA Literature Fellowships,
      who, after fifty years of sleeping through suburban           you’ll see a varied landscape of the best contempo-
      afternoons and snapping insults, whispered for the           rary literature America has to offer. And if you take
      first time the circumstances of her horrific capture           into consideration that the majority of these writers
      during the Holocaust. We ended the story with our            received their fellowships early in their careers, when
      hands over our hearts, our breath quickened, and a           they most needed financial support and acknowledge-
      visceral desire to say to everyone in the office read this!   ment to keep them writing, you’ll understand why we
      Then we wanted to know who this writer was.                  at the Endowment feel we have something to celebrate.
           Art leads us to the artists because we are curious      In its noble and unprecedented service to American
      creatures. How do they do it? we wonder. If only a           letters, the Literature Fellowship program has made an
      few hundred literary authors in America can make             invaluable contribution to the manifold expression of
      a living from royalties on books alone, how do most          American culture.

                                 NEA Literature Fellowships           3
How the NEA Literature                                     A Unique System
Fellowship Process Works Today
                                                           The NEA Literature Fellowship program is argu-
                                                           ably the most egalitarian grant program in its field.
Writers who meet the Endowment’s eligibility               The $20,000 fellowships for general writing-related
requirements may apply by filling out a form (avail-        costs are highly competitive, but unlike most other
able on the NEA Web site: and send-          literary awards, they are selected through an anony-
ing in a sample of their best work. In a year when
prose is reviewed, applicants submit 30 pages of fic-
                                                           mous process in which the sole criterion for review is
tion or creative nonfiction; in the alternate year for      artistic excellence.
poetry, they submit 10 pages of poems (translation              How, then, is it possible to ensure the diversity
is a separate category with different requirements).       of the group of writers to whom we give grants? We
To facilitate the process of blind judging, our staff      assemble a different panel of judges every year, each
assigns a tracking number to each anonymous
                                                           diverse with regard to geography, ethnicity, gender,
manuscript, copies of which are then sent to a panel
of distinguished American writers who spend five            age, aesthetics, and life experience. This system helps,
months evaluating them.                                    but it’s no guarantee; a Latina poet, for example, can
                                                           speak out for poetry by and about Latinas or be its
To ease the workload (and entice panelists to serve),      harshest critic. And yet, the NEA’s commitment to
we split the panel into teams, each of which receives
                                                           artistic excellence leads consistently to diversity. Take
a portion of the total number of manuscripts (which
came in just under 1,600 in FY 2005). Each team            the 42 prose Fellows from FY (fiscal year) 2004:
picks its favorites, thus creating a pool of manuscripts   they hailed from 22 states; 43 percent of them were
to be discussed at a meeting all panelists will attend     women; and they ranged in age from 27 to 58. Also
in Washington, DC. Every chosen manuscript is read,        demonstrating the openness and inclusiveness of
discussed, and scored by a subset of judges (panelists
                                                           the program is the fact that 93 percent of them were
include a layperson, who acts as a representative of
the public and is not in the business of writing books     first-time NEA grant recipients. The two things the
but is an avid reader and knowledgeable on the genre       2004 Fellows all have in common? They are Ameri-
of the manuscripts being reviewed). At this point,         can, and their writing made a panel of distinguished
any panelist who is in conflict with a manuscript is        authors sit up and take notice.
removed from the subset of reviewers.                           The fundamental emphasis of the program has
Manuscripts are ultimately rank-ordered according
                                                           always been on artistic excellence. Despite an anony-
to their combined scores. The full panel looks at the      mous process, the Endowment has had an outstand-
ranked list and makes its final recommendations,            ing track record of finding and supporting talent.
which then go through two more levels of review:           For example, 46 of the 70 recipients of the National
the presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed           Book Award, the National Book Critics Circle
National Council on the Arts and the NEA Chairman.
                                                           Award, and the Pulitzer Prize in Poetry and Fiction
Fellows are announced to the public at the end of
each year. They may use their grant as they wish,          since 1990 were previous NEA Fellows. All but three
as long as it relates to their writing. They will send     received NEA Literature Fellowships before any ma-
us a progress report during the grant period and a         jor national award, usually at least a decade earlier.
final report at the end, usually outlining publishing
achievements and speaking engagements.
                                                           In the Beginning
In this ever-changing world, there are always timely       In May 1966, eight months after the NEA and its ad-
issues that demand attention. What exactly is cre-         visory board—the National Council on the Arts—were
ative nonfiction? Should certain self-published work        established, Council members Ralph Ellison, Paul
be eligible? Should we accept manuscripts in other         Engle, Harper Lee, and John Steinbeck proposed
languages? How do graphic novels or blogs or per-
                                                           the development of a program to provide grants to
formance poems fit into the picture? At the end of
every panel meeting, the Endowment holds a public          creative writers.
policy session in which panelists (who are sometimes           While the Endowment awarded individual
former NEA Fellows themselves) raise these sorts of        grants to all types of artists in 1966—Donald Justice,
questions and offer suggestions. This, in fact, is how     X. J. Kennedy, Léonie Adams, and W. D. Snodgrass
the Endowment arrived at a system that works: by
                                                           among them—a formal program to support creative
listening to the advice of those over the years who
sailed, stumbled, or slogged through it all.               writers began in 1967 with 23 individual grants to

                                                            4         National Endowment for the Arts
   Initial Goal of the Program in 1967                     NEA Literature Program’s first controversy. Aram
                                                           Saroyan’s seven-letter poem—lighght—for which a
                                                           federally funded effort indirectly paid $750—was
   To help all writers, but in particular those writers
                                                           among those selected for the anthology. Though the
   who were—to use a modern term—underserved,
   such as:                                                poem was picked by Plimpton rather than an NEA
                                                           panel, it caused a flurry of agency criticism. Michael
   · Non-teaching writers;
                                                           Straight, then deputy chairman of the Endowment,
   · Women with domestic responsibilities and              was personally called to the offices of 46 members of
     dependent children;                                   Congress to explain the matter.
   · Talented writers from disadvantaged                       Other individual grants in Literature made
     backgrounds, including urban ghettos;                 an immediate impact on developing writers. The
   · Young writers who do not yet have the kind            Endowment gave grants to writers to visit predomi-
     of established reputations to appeal to private       nantly black colleges in the South. It gave grants to
     foundations; and                                      help writers and other artists teaching in institutions
   · Older writers whose reputations have faded,           of higher learning to take one-year leaves to pursue
     but who have made distinguished contributions         their creative work. And it gave grants for travel or
     to the cultural fabric of this country, and whose     research or finishing a work-in-progress. Most of
     productive years may be extended and enriched         these grantees were hand-selected by a Literature
     by aid and recognition.
                                                           advisory panel.
                                                               The issue of whether to fund established writers
                                                           for their accomplishments or help younger writers
such writers as William Gaddis, Tillie Olsen, Grace        find time and resources to write was at the forefront
Paley, May Sarton, Richard Yates, and Isaac Bashe-         of the debates in the early days of the program. For
vis Singer. With his grant money, Singer was able to       a time, the Endowment gave lifetime achievement
focus on completing his novel The Manor; 11 years later,   awards designed to attract national attention to writ-
he received the Nobel Prize for Literature. Similarly,     ers of significant accomplishment, writers such as
numerous poets well known today—Hayden Carruth,            John Berryman, Denise Levertov, Wallace Stegner,
Maxine Kumin, Robert Duncan—were awarded NEA               and Gwendolyn Brooks. These fellowships never gar-
grants that year at a time when their national literary    nered enthusiastic support from Congress, and even
reputations were still developing.                         in the arts community one could hear rumblings
     To facilitate the new program, the Endowment          about “aesthetic partisanship.”
appointed poet Carolyn Kizer in 1968 as the first
NEA Literature Director. From that time to today,          Discovery Grants
the NEA Literature Program has been committed to           The Endowment initially decided it could make
the support of the individual writer.                      a greater contribution through Discovery Awards
     For the first six years of the program, there were     to emerging writers. The Endowment hired “tal-
several variations of such support. While most of          ent scouts” to find these gifted, financially needy,
the NEA’s grants were not controversial, the agency
learned early on that it would be criticized for deci-
sions, including ones it did not make directly. For
                                                              NEA’s Lifetime Achievement Awards
example, in 1970, the NEA gave a grant in support of
The American Literary Anthology, edited by George Plimp-
ton. Under the guidelines then in place, editors of           In the late 1960s, there were Distinguished Ser-
leading literary magazines were asked to submit works         vice Awards, worth $10,000; in the 1980s, they
of authors presented in their magazines that year.            were called Senior Fellowships, worth $15,000
                                                              at the start, climbing to $25,000 in 1984 and
These authors were paid a cash award and included
                                                              $40,000 in 1986. They were finally cut in 1992
in the anthology. The program ended in part due               due to shifting priorities.
to delays in publication of the first volume, con-
cerns of self-sustainability, and what became the

                           NEA Literature Fellowships         5
      unknown writers. The response from the scouts was          which 120 were awarded grants at $5,000 each (the
      “overwhelming,” claims a 1967 report to the Council,       number of applications escalated to nearly 2,500
      citing “a young Negro poet who supports her three          the next year). Reflective of the time, most of them
      children by running a general store in Alabama,” and       were from men, and more than half were from poets.
      another “young Southern writer, blind since birth          Four years later, the number of successful fiction
      and seriously crippled in infancy, who has managed         applicants would substantially exceed the number of
      to struggle through her teacher’s certificate, and is       poets. And by the mid-1980s, applicants would come
      now teaching young children in Tennessee, and writ-        to represent American writers living in all 50 states
      ing poems and stories for three hours each evening.”       and Washington, DC, and women would make up
      Grants were then awarded according to need: $1,000         a significant portion of each year’s grantees. What
      to the single writer without dependents; $1,500 to         hasn’t changed significantly over the decades is the
      the writer with one dependent; and $2,000 to the           percentage of applicants who are chosen to receive
      writer with two or more dependents. Among these            grants; on average it has been only five percent, with
      recipients one can find the 25-year-old Alexander           recent years showing two or three percent.
      Theroux and the 26-year-old Nikki Giovanni.                     The Endowment periodically tweaked the fellow-
           The Discovery Awards didn’t last long. The first       ship process to meet the demands of the times and
      advisory panel on literature, consisting mostly of edi-    the ever-increasing workload. To adjust for cost-of-
      tors and publishers, held its first meeting in Septem-      living, the amount of the grant was incrementally
      ber 1970 and recommended these awards be terminat-         increased over the years. Film and television script-
      ed. Members voted almost unanimously in opposition         writers were transferred to the Endowment’s Media
                                                                 Arts Program; playwrights were sent to the The-
The fundamental emphasis of the program has always               ater Program. Guidelines were amended to accept
been on artistic excellence.                                     manuscripts in languages other than English if they
                                                                 came with an English translation. Eligibility require-
      to the addition of economic need as a determining          ments became more stringent to address the growing
      factor in making grant selections. In 1972, therefore,     number of applications. “Belles lettres” was added
      the Endowment began what can be called the precur-         as a genre eligible for funding and then changed to
      sor to the current system—a competitive fellowship         “creative nonfiction.” And when Congress signifi-
      program based on artistic merit.                           cantly reduced the budget in FY 1996, the Endow-
                                                                 ment moved to judging genres in alternate years
      Creating the Process                                       (prose one year, poetry another).
      To receive a fellowship in the early 1970s, a writer had
      to be nominated by an established writer. An oversight     Translation Awards
      committee composed of a broad spectrum of publish-         Perhaps the most successful outgrowth of the 1980s
      ers, editors, agents, critics, and other experts in the    was the development of a process to review fellowships
      field from around the country selected the nomi-            in translation, which began in 1981 and flourished
      nators—among them James Dickey, Eudora Welty,              under the leadership of then Literature Director
      George P. Elliott, Kenneth Koch, Adrienne Rich,            Frank Conroy. Translation Fellowships in poetry and
      and William Stafford. (The Endowment publicized            prose are currently offered to published literary trans-
      the names of committee members and nominators to           lators for specific translation projects from other lan-
      avoid the perception that decisions were being made in     guages into English. Unlike the other fellowships, the
      secret.) The nominators were to recommend potential        Translation Fellowships are not reviewed anonymous-
      writers who had published a book or at least two short     ly, and they can be for either $10,000 or $20,000,
      stories or poems or essays in magazines, or had a play     depending on the scope and merit of the project. To
      staged. From their recommendations, the NEA Litera-        date, the Endowment has awarded 246 Translation
      ture Fellowship program was launched with 27 awards.       Fellowships, bringing to the American public more
           When the system of nominations was replaced           than 200 foreign works in 46 languages from 60
      with an open application policy in 1974, the Endow-        countries. Among them one can find Khaled Matta-
      ment received a whopping 1,500-plus proposals, of          wa’s (FY 1999) translation of Without an Alphabet, Without a

                                                                  6        National Endowment for the Arts
           Translation Fellows: Languages and Countries
           The NEA has awarded 246 Translation Fellowships since the program began in 1981,
           bringing to the American public more than 200 foreign works in 46 languages from
           60 countries.

           Languages                         Countries                        Languages                        Countries
           Albanian .......................Albania                            Japanese .......................Japan
           Arabic ............................Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon,          Korean ...........................Korea
                 .............................Libya                           Latin .............................Italy
           Armenian ......................Armenia                             Lithuanian ....................Lithuania
           Aztec .............................Mexico                          Malagasy ......................Madagascar
           Bengali ..........................Bangladesh, India                Malay.............................Malaysia
           Burmese ........................Burma                              Nepali ............................Nepal
           Carib .............................Venezuela                       Norwegian ....................Norway
           Catalan ..........................Spain                            Polish .............................Poland
           Chinese..........................China                             Portuguese ...................Brazil, Portugal
           Tamil .............................India                           Rajasthani ....................India
           Cree/                                                              Romanian .....................Romania
           Swampy Cree ...............Canada
                                                                              Russian .........................Russia
           Czech .............................Czech Republic
                                                                              Serbo-Croatian ............Bosnia, former Yugoslavia
           Danish ...........................Denmark, Sweden
                                                                              Sinhala ..........................Sri Lanka
           Dutch .............................Holland
                                                                              Spanish .........................Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
           Finnish ..........................Finland                               .............................Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba,
           French ...........................Czech Republic, France,               .............................Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru,
                 .............................Martinique, Romania,                 .............................Puerto Rico, Spain,
                 .............................Switzerland, Uruguay,                .............................Uruguay
                 .............................Vietnam, West Indies,           Swedish ........................Finland, Sweden
                                                                              Turkish ..........................Turkey
           German .........................Germany, Romania
                                                                              Ukrainian ......................Ukraine
           Greek .............................Cyprus, Greece
                                                                              Urdu .............................Pakistan
           Hebrew..........................Germany, Israel, Spain
                                                                              Vietnamese ..................Vietnam
           Hindi .............................India
                                                                              Welsh ............................Wales
           Hungarian ....................Hungary
                                                                              Yiddish ..........................Poland, Russia
           Italian ............................Italy

Face by Saadi Youssef, one of the Arab world’s foremost                lobbied for its demise. Some criticism has come
contemporary poets who deftly shows us a glimpse into                  from writers. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, for example,
modern Iraqi culture; and Howard Goldblatt’s (FY                       told the Washington Post in 1992 that he “objected to a
1992) translation of Red Sorghum by Chinese author Mo                  welfare system that would turn wild artists into tame
Yan, which received publicity through the critically                   lapdogs.” Many vocal critics came from the halls of
acclaimed 1987 film by the same name.                                   Congress, which exercises legal oversight and budget
                                                                       control of the NEA, as it does with all federal agen-
Transition: The 1990s                                                  cies. “Aid to individuals is nothing more than a
Throughout the life of the fellowship program,                         subsidy for hippies, beatniks, junkies, and Vietniks,”
critics have questioned its worth or, in some cases,                   stated one member of Congress during the Vietnam

                                 NEA Literature Fellowships               7
War. Congressmen with concurring views, if not             The Program Today
concurring quotes, were successful in moving the           Celebrating the discipline from which he emerged,
House to curtail the Endowment’s ability to award          Chairman Dana Gioia has increased the allocation
individual grants. The agency, however, made a             for support to writers, thus raising the number of
strong case for the restoration of this power. A Con-      NEA Literature Fellowships from 42 in FY 2004 to
gressional compromise allowed grants to continue,          50 in FY 2006. In addition, he has tightened the
as long as the words “of exceptional talent” were          conflict of interest requirements for panelists both
inserted to describe persons who would be eligible.        to ensure the integrity of the process and to prevent
     A larger threat to the program, and to the agency     even the appearance of any conflicts. “The fellowship
as a whole, came in 1995 when measures emerged in          process for a public agency needs to be fair, open,
the House to phase out the Endowment or, at the            democratic, and inclusive,” stated Gioia.
very least, slash the budget and abolish all grants to          Gioia also supported a policy shift in FY 2005,
individual artists. The literature field, in pure grass-    initiated by Literature Director Cliff Becker, to
roots fashion, rose up in protest to the cuts. Hun-        separate the review process for fellowships in transla-
dreds of writers published opinion pieces and wrote        tion from the review process in creative writing to
letters. Representatives from literary organizations       highlight the importance of translation as its own
held meetings every month and brought writers to           art form. “The American arts are most vibrant when
Capitol Hill to meet with Congressmen, writers such        they include the best works of art from other na-
as E. L. Doctorow, Wendy Wasserstein, Bobbie Ann           tions,” said Gioia. “Through our commitment to
Mason, and Walter Mosley.                                  funding translation, the NEA has been an essential
     “People all across America came together to           catalyst for bringing the world’s literature to our
prioritize the fellowships,” said Gigi Bradford,           country.”
NEA Literature Director from 1992 to 1997. “The                 Since 1996, the number of Literature Fellow-
individual fellowships made up 50 percent of our           ships has increased overall and the review process
budget in literature, so we had a lot to lose.” Ulti-      continues to impress its participants. “Scrupulous-
mately, Congress voted to eliminate individual grants      ness was the watchword of those overseeing our
awarded by application in all disciplines, except for      discussions and our voting, and scrupulousness was
Literature Fellowships in poetry, fiction, creative         our guide,” wrote Elinor Lipman, a judge for the FY
nonfiction, and translation. (Congress also voted to        2006 Creative Writing Fellowships. “My experience
continue two popular lifetime achievement fellow-          on the panel, listening and discussing, arguing or
ships awarded through public nominations—the NEA           defending, restored my faith in level playing fields
National Heritage Fellowships and the NEA Jazz             and art for art’s sake.”
Masters Fellowships.)                                           The present-day NEA Literature Division
     The Congressional decision to continue the            administers several other programs in addition to
Literature Fellowships affirmed the integrity of the
anonymous panel review process and the undeniable
excellence of Literature Fellowship recipients. “The
committee recognizes that a great many of the grants                                                       $20,000
to individuals have been for projects of superior               Grant Amounts
merit and worth,” states a 1995 majority report on
the Arts, Humanities, and Museums Amendments
from the Senate Labor and Human Resources Com-
mittee. “It was a victory not to have to change policy,”                               $10,000
said Bradford. “After the cuts, there was intense                             $7,500
Congressional scrutiny of the process, but it was                    $6,000
always affirmed by both the agency and by erstwhile
Congressional critics.”                                    1972–74 1976 1977 1979 1981 1985–present

                                                           8         National Endowment for the Arts
   NEA Literature Directors
                                                                    The Fellows
   Carolyn Kizer ....................................1968–69        Fellows are freelance writers and university lecturers.
   Len Randolph ...................................1970–78          But they are also registered nurses and gardeners,
   David Wilk ........................................1979–81       diplomats and farmers. One Fellow I called about
   Frank Conroy ....................................1982–87         winning a grant said she was a mother of 12. Another
   Stephen Goodwin............................1988–90               said he had been volunteering as a subject for medi-
                                                                    cal experiments to make money and he was glad not
   Joe David Bellamy ...........................1990–92
                                                                    to have to do that anymore.
   Gigi Bradford....................................1992–97
                                                                         Most Fellows will tell you the money they received
   Cliff Becker .......................................1998–2005
                                                                    provided an essential boost to their career. But they
   David Kipen ......................................2005–present
                                                                    also will tell you the benefits of an NEA grant extend
                                                                    far beyond the cash. They’ll tell you it allowed fam-
                                                                    ily, friends, and colleagues to accept them as serious
the Literature Fellowships, all designed to build an                writers, that it brought them into first or further
infrastructure that can support American writers                    contact with editors, publishers, and other writers at
and connect them with communities nationwide.                       the national level. It got them invitations to conduct
“Through its grants to literary journals and presses,               workshops, give readings, or teach. It allowed them
literary centers, reading series, festivals, writers-in-            to undertake longer or different kinds of work, to
the-schools programs, libraries, and other literary                 take risks, to write with confidence. And it gave them
organizations, the Endowment ensures that the writ-                 a desire to give back to their country.
ing of our Fellows is published and preserved,” Gioia                    In his final report at the completion of his FY
stated. “We should remember the words of Whitman                    1999 grant, poet Dainis Hazners from Wyoming
who said, ‘To have great poets, there must be great                 recounted the following anecdote:
audiences, too.’” These grants to organizations con-
nect Fellows with audiences across the country—from                       At the feed store, buying grain for my
soccer moms to soldiers, radio listeners to subway                      goats and chickens, I was introduced to the
riders, secondary-school students to senior citizens.                   new owner as Our Local Poet. “He’s the one
     To further cultivate an audience for literature,                   got that big award. Quite the honor.”
Chairman Gioia announced in December 2005                                 “I was … shocked,” I offered.
the launch of The Big Read, headed by Literature                          “You mean that NBA outfit back East?”
Director David Kipen. Modeled after successful “city                    the new guy asked.
reads” programs, The Big Read is a national initiative                    “National Endowment for the Arts,” I
to encourage literary reading by asking communities                     said, meekly. “Washington.”
to come together to read and discuss one book. In                         “That’s it. I’m proud to know you!” he
partnership with Arts Midwest, the NEA will provide                     grinned.
organizer’s guides, reader’s guides, teacher’s guides,
CDs of readings, a Web site, and additional fund-                       “It’s amazing to me,” wrote Hazners, that “even
ing to selected communities to initiate activities and              after a year, people remember. I belong to them, in
partnerships with schools, arts organizations, and lo-              a funny kind of way—like the mountains and the bad
cal government. “The NEA’s landmark 2004 study,                     weather, I’m out there somewhere.”
Reading At Risk, showed that literary reading in the U.S.               May the bread of the heart be plenty, may the bak-
is in steep decline,” said Gioia. “No single program                ers be always out there. Happy 40th anniversary, NEA.
can entirely reverse this trend. But if cities nationally
unite to adopt The Big Read, together we can restore
reading to its essential place in American culture.”

                                 NEA Literature Fellowships            9
Creative Writing Fellows
                                  The fiscal year(s) NEA Literature Fellows received the award is in parentheses following the name. Residence listed
                                  is that of the Fellow at the time of award (for multiple awards, residence of most recent award is used).

                                                                                 Sandra Alcosser (85, 91)                       Margaret Anderson (84, 91)
                                                                                 Encinitas, CA                                  Kent, OH
                                                                                 Daisy Aldan (69)                               Rodney L. Anderson (80)
                                  Chester Aaron (76)                             New York, NY                                   New York, NY
                                  Moraga, CA                                     Elizabeth Alexander (92)                       Bruce Andrews (79)
                                  Jonathan Aaron (84)                            Washington, DC                                 New York, NY
                                  Cambridge, MA                                  Margaret Walker Alexander                      Claudia Emerson Andrews
                                  Lee K. Abbott (79, 85)                           (91)                                           (94)
                                  Cleveland, OH                                  Jackson, MS                                    Chatham, VA
                                  Louise Abbott (68)                             Sherman Alexie (92)                            Jeanne Andrews (74)
                                  Louisville, GA                                 Wellpinit, WA                                  St. Paul, MN
                                  Raymond Abbott (79)                            Nelson Algren (76)                             Thomas Andrews (93)
Julia Alvarez (87), born in
                                  Louisville, KY                                 Hackensack, NJ                                 Athens, OH
New York City to Dominican
                                  Robert Abel (78)                               Jody Aliesan (77)                              Bim Angst (81)
parents, has written 14 books
                                  Lake Pleasant, MA                              Seattle, WA                                    Starkville, PA
of essays, poetry, short sto-
ries, novels, children’s books,   Walter Abish (79, 85)                          Debra Allbery (86, 93)                         A. Manette Ansay (93)
                                  New York, NY                                   Carlisle, PA                                   Exeter, NH
and young adult novels,
including How the García Girls    Thomas Absher (76, 84)                         Dick Allen (84)                                Carol Anshaw (95)
Lost Their Accents (1991) and     Plainfield, VT                                  Trumbull, CT                                   Chicago, IL
In the Time of the Butterflies     Diana Abu-Jaber (94)                           Mary Allen (02)                                Robert Antoni (88)
(1994). Alvarez has also          Eugene, OR                                     Iowa City, IA                                  Iowa City, IA
translated the poetry of          Diane Ackerman (76, 86)                        Paula Gunn Allen (77)                          Donald Antrim (02)
Pablo Neruda.                     St. Louis, MO                                  Cubero, NM                                     Brooklyn, NY
                                  Jennifer Ackerman (04)                         Samuel Allen (79)                              Gloria Anzaldua (91)
                                  Charlottesville, VA                            Boston, MA                                     Santa Cruz, CA
I had been writing for over       Duane Ackerson (75)                            John Allman (84, 90)                           Max Apple (76)
two decades and thinking I        Eugene, OR                                     Katonah, NY                                    Houston, TX
would never be considered         Ralph Adamo (03)                               Margaret Almon (97)                            Philip Appleman (75)
a true American writer            New Orleans, LA                                Dunmore, PA                                    New York, NY
because I was an immigrant        Alice Adams (76)                               Juan Alonso (73)                               James Applewhite (75)
girl with English as my           San Francisco, CA                              Somerville, MA                                 Durham, NC
second language. But I kept       Dock Adams (68)                                S. Keith Althaus (76)                          Ricardo Aquilar (89)
working at the craft, writ-       Charleston, MO                                 Provincetown, MA                               El Paso, TX
ing, revising, trying to keep     Glenda Adams (81)                              Julia Alvarez (87)                             Ray Aranha (77)
                                  New York, NY                                   Urbana, IL                                     Stamford, CT
faith with the dream inside
me. Every year I’d send off       Léonie Adams (66)                              Bay Anapol (06)                                Anthony Ardizzone (85, 90)
                                  New York, NY                                   Santa Fe, NM                                   Bloomington, IN
my application for an NEA
grant, hoping that this           Mary Adams (05)                                Rudolfo Anaya (79)                             Linda Arking (76)
                                  Cullowhee, NC                                  Albuquerque, NM                                New York, NY
would be the year my work
                                  Elizabeth Adcock (84)                          Barbara Anderson (86)                          Jose Armas (83)
was recognized. When I got                                                       Tucson, AZ                                     Albuquerque, NM
                                  Raleigh, NC
my NEA grant, I felt as if
                                  Kim Addonizio (90, 95)                         Calvin Anderson (76, 87)                       Carroll Arnett (75)
I was now included among          San Francisco, CA                              El Paso, TX                                    Mecosta, MI
the storytellers and poets of                                                                                                   Craig Anthony Arnold (99)
                                  Chris Adrian (02)                              Daniel Anderson (03)
my new country!                   Norfolk, VA                                    Sewanee, TN                                    Salt Lake City, UT
                                  Joel Agee (87)                                 Donald Anderson (96)                           Alfred Arteaga (95)
                                  Brooklyn, NY                                   Colorado Springs, CO                           Berkeley, CA
                                  Jonis Agee (78)                                Jack Anderson (69, 73)                         Elizabeth Arthur (83, 89)
                                  St. Paul, MN                                   New York, NY                                   Waterville, ME
                                  Thomas Ahern (79)                              James Anderson (79)                            L. S. Asekoff (97)
                                  Providence, RI                                 Oxford, IA                                     St. James, NY
                                  Ai (79, 85)                                    Jon Anderson (81, 86)                          John Ashbery (69)
                                  Lexington, KY                                  Tucson, AZ                                     New York, NY
                                  Ellen Akins (88)                               K. Douglas Anderson (93)                       Sandra Asher (77)
                                  Chicago, IL                                    Florence, MA                                   Springfield, MO

                                                                         12             National Endowment for the Arts
Renee Ashley (97)             Wendy Barker (86)            Peter S. Beagle (78)
Ringwood, NJ                  Boerne, TX                   Watsonville, CA
Daphne Athas (68, 74, 79)     Bradford Barkley (94)        Bruce Beasley (92)
Chapel Hill, NC               Fayetteville, AR             Charlottesville, VA
Samuel Atlee (00)             Coleman Barks (79)           Laura Beausoleil (81)
Lancaster, PA                 Athens, GA                   San Francisco, CA
Alvin Aubert (73, 81)         Anna Marie Barlow (76)       Geoffrey Becker (95)
Detroit, MI                   New York, NY                 Iowa City, IA
Jessica Auerbach (85)         Djuna Barnes (80)            Robin Becker (89)
Ridgefield, CT                 New York, NY                 Cambridge, MA
Paul Auster (79, 85)          Jim Barnes (78)              Barry Beckham (83)
Brooklyn, NY                  Macon, MO                    Providence, RI
                              Helen Barolini (76)          John Beecher (76)          T. C. Boyle (78, 83) has

                              Ossining, NY                 Burnsville, NC             written 11 novels and
                              Rick Barot (01)              Ralph Beer (86)            seven collections of short
                              Oakland, CA                  Helena, MT                 stories, including World’s End
Jimmy Santiago Baca (87)                                                              (1987), for which he won the
Albuquerque, NM               Elizabeth Barr (89)          Robin Behn (92)
                              Philadelphia, PA             Tuscaloosa, AL             PEN/Faulkner Award. Boyle
Charlotte Bacon (00)                                                                  founded the creative writing
Lee, NH                       Dorothy Barresi (97)         Ben Belitt (66)
                              Northridge, CA               Bennington, VT             program at the University of
William Baer (94)                                                                     Southern California in 1978
Evansville, IL                Andrea Barrett (92)          M. Shayne Bell (91)
                                                                                      and still directs it.
                              Rochester, NY                Salt Lake City, UT
Robert Bagg (74)
Northampton, MA               Carol Barrett (91)           Madison Smartt Bell (92)
                              San Antonio, TX              Baltimore, MD
Thomas Bailey (94)
Binghamton, NY                Lynne Barrett (91)           Marvin Bell (77, 84)       Both grants came early in
                              Miami, FL                    Iowa City, IA              my career and were invalu-
Julene Bair (04)
Laramie, WY                   Gregory Barron (90)          Joe David Bellamy (85)     able not only for buying
                              London, England              Canton, NY                 me time to complete two
David Baker (85, 05)
Granville, OH                 Anita Barrows (90)           Sally Bellerose (95)       novels, but as a psychologi-
                              Berkeley, CA                 Northampton, MA            cal boost too—here was a
Donald Baker (74)
Crawfordsville, IN            John Barry (76)              Lance S. Belville (80)     ratification that what I was
                              Estes Park, CO               St. Paul, MN
William Baker (81)                                                                    doing was worthwhile.
Nampa, ID                     Quan Barry (03)              Karen E. Bender (02)
                              Madison, WI                  New York, NY
Constantine Bakopoulos (06)                                                           I should say, too, that I
Madison, WI                   Frederick Barthelme (79)     Dianne Benedict (86)       served on the Literature
                              Hattiesburg, MS              Scarborough, ME
John Balaban (77)                                                                     Panel under Frank Con-
State College, PA             Emily Barton (06)            Pinckney Benedict (00)
                              Brooklyn, NY                 Roanoke, VA
                                                                                      roy in 1986-87 as a way of
Peter Balakian (04)                                                                   expressing my gratitude
Hamilton, NY                  Rick Bass (91)               Michael Benedikt (79)
                              Troy, MT                     Boston, MA                 for a program that I feel is
Angela Ball (91)
                                                           Dina Ben-Lev (94)
                                                                                      essential to fostering the
Hattiesburg, MS               Claire Bateman (91)
                              Clemson, SC                  Seattle, WA                arts—particularly for begin-
Toni Cade Bambara (83)                                                                ning or out-of-the-way
Atlanta, GA                   Randolph Bates (86)          George Bennett (81)
                              New Orleans, LA              New York, NY               artists whose work is not
Russell Banks (78, 83)                                                                immediately apprehended
Concord, NH                   Wendy Battin (88)            Paul Bennett (73)
                              Syracuse, NY                 Granville, OH              in a commercial way.
Stanley Banks (90)
Kansas City, MO               Douglas Bauer (90)           Robert Benson (96)
                              Boston, MA                   Oneonta, NY
Amiri Baraka (81)
Newark, NJ                    Jonathan Baumbach (68)       Stephen Benson (90)
                              Brooklyn, NY                 Berkeley, CA
Tom Barbash (04)
San Francisco, CA             Richard Bausch (83)          Beth Bentley (76)
                              Fairfax, VA                  Seattle, WA
Walter Bargen (91)
Ashland, MO                   Charles Baxter (83)          Roy Bentley (01)
                              Ann Arbor, MI                Granville, OH
Joshua Barkan (06)
New York, NY

                              NEA Literature Fellowships      13
                                   Sharona Ben-Tov (01)             Wayne Biddle (79)               Donald Bogen (89)
                                   Perrysburg, OH                   Altamonte Springs, FL           Cincinnati, OH
                                   Nancy Berg (92)                  Linda Bierds (88, 96)           Nina Bogin (89)
                                   Fairfield, IA                     Bainbridge Island, WA           Giromagny, France
                                   Stephen Berg (76)                David Biespiel (97)             Michelle Boisseau (89)
                                   Philadelphia, PA                 Portland, OR                    Morehead, KY
                                   Carol Berge (79)                 George Bilgere (89)             Isabel Bolton (67)
                                   Albuquerque, NM                  Santa Cruz, CA                  No city listed, NY
                                   Linda-Ruth Berger (97)           Laurel Bird (66)                Joseph Bolton (89)
                                   Contoocook, NH                   Knoxville, TN                   Gainesville, FL
                                   Lou Berger (80)                  Ann Birstein (81)               Bruce Bond (01)
                                   Brooklyn, NY                     New York, NY                    Denton, TX
Jared Carter (81, 91) was          Deidre L. Bergson (73)           Becky Birtha (88)               Harold Bond (76)
born in Indiana, where he          New York, NY                     Philadelphia, PA                Melrose, MA
still lives. He has written four   Judith Berke (01)                John Bishop (80)                Philip Booth (79)
books of poetry, the latest—       Miami Beach, FL                  New York, NY                    Castine, ME
Cross this Bridge at a Walk—
                                   William Berkson (79)             Trim Bissell (68)               Audrey Borenstein (76)
to be published in 2006.           Southampton, NY                  Detroit, MI                     New Platz, NY
Among the honors he has
                                   Lucia Berlin (87)                David Black (79)                Millicent Borges (97)
received are a Guggenheim          Oakland, CA                      West Stockbridge, MA            Long Beach, CA
Fellowship, the Walt Whitman
                                   Kenneth Bernard (78)             Gus Blaisdell (79)              Ruth Borson (87)
Award from the Academy of
                                   West Winfield, NY                 Albuquerque, NM                 Los Alamos, NM
American Poets, the New Let-
ters Literary Award for Poetry,    Pamela Bernard (96)              Clark L. Blaise (81)            Marianne Boruch (84, 99)
                                   Duxbury, MA                      Saratoga Springs, NY            West Lafayette, IN
the Indiana Governor’s Arts
Award, and the Poets’ Prize.       Suzanne Berne (94)               Laurie Blauner (90)             Phillip Bosakowski (80)
                                   Watertown, NY                    Seattle, WA                     San Francisco, CA
                                   Alan Bernheimer, Jr. (79)        Richard A. Blessing (81)        Malcolm Bosse (76)
In 1985 and 1986, I was            San Francisco, CA                Seattle, WA                     New York, NY
invited to serve on a variety      Charles Bernstein (79)           Corinne Demas Bliss             Robert Boswell (87, 93)
                                   New York, NY                      (78, 83)                       Las Cruces, NM
of panels convened by                                               South Hadley, MA
the Literature Program. I          Jane Bernstein (83, 00)                                          David Bosworth (79)
                                   Pittsburgh, PA                   Chana Bloch (89)                Cambridge, MA
witnessed firsthand the hard                                         Berkeley, CA
                                   Lisa Bernstein (92)                                              David Bottoms (88)
work on the part of the staff
                                   San Francisco, CA                Ron Block (02)                  Marietta, GA
and the panel members                                               North Platte, NE
                                   Gina Berriault (86)                                              Marilyn Boucher (79)
that goes into making the          Mill Valley, CA                  Steven Bloom (98)               Berkeley, CA
grant-giving process as fair                                        Heidelberg, Germany
                                   Ted Berrigan (79)                                                Vance Bourjailly (66, 79)
and equitable as possible. In      New York, NY                     Laurel Blossom (87)             Iowa City, IA
retrospect, this experience        David Berry (77)                 New York, NY                    Kevin Bowen (03)
was a valuable complement          Providence, RI                   Michael Blumenthal              Dorchester, MA
to the welcome financial            John Berryman (68)                (84, 05)                       Faubion Bowers (67)
assistance provided by the         Minneapolis, MN                  Clarksville, TN                 No city listed, NY
two grants I received, and by      Leo Bersani (69)                 Judy Blunt (04)                 Neal Bowers (89)
serving on the panels, I was       New Brunswick, NJ                Missoula, MT                    Ames, IA
able to give something in          Mei-Mei Berssenbrugge            Elaine F. Boatin (81, 86)       Paul Bowles (78, 80)
return.                              (76, 81)                       Somerville, MA                  New York, NY
                                   El Rito, NM                      Alan Boatman (74)               Blanche McCrary Boyd (88)
                                   James Bertolino (75)             Saginaw, MI                     New London, CT
                                   Ithaca, NY                       Victor Bockris (78)             Kay Boyle (80)
                                   Alvah Bessie (78)                New York, NY                    San Francisco, CA
                                   Terra Linda, CA                  Deborah L. Boe (81)             T. C. Boyle (78, 83)
                                   Harvey Bialy (76)                Princeton, NJ                   Tujunga, CA
                                   Ile-Ife, Nigeria                 Louise Bogan (68)               Barry Boys (68)
                                   Frank Bidart (76, 85)            New York, NY                    New York, NY
                                   Cambridge, MA

                                                               14         National Endowment for the Arts
Allen Braden (05)           Lucie Brock-Broido (84, 99)   William Brown (66)
Tacoma, WA                  Cambridge, MA                 Graham, NC
Scott Bradfield (92)         Kevin Brockmeier (02)         Michael Dennis Browne (77)
Storrs, CT                  Little Rock, AR               Minneapolis, MN
C. Jane Bradley (92)        Harold Brodkey (85)           Michael Brownstein (79)
Toledo, OH                  New York, NY                  Boulder, CO
David Bradley (91)          Barbara Brody (92)            Jane Brox (94)
La Jolla, CA                Cambria, CA                   Dracut, MA
George Bradley (90)         Leslie Brody (81)             Joseph Bruchac (74)
Chester, CT                 San Francisco, CA             Greenfield Center, NY
John Bradley (88)           David Bromige (79)            James Brummels (84)
Fort Collins, CO            San Francisco, CA             Winside, NE
Joan Brady (86)             Esther Broner (79, 87)        Thomas Brush (84)              Annie Dillard (81) is the
New York, NY                Detroit, MI                   Issaquah, WA                   author of 11 books, often
John Brandi (79)            Donna Brook (81)              C. D. B. Bryan (80)            about nature and spirituality,
Guadalupita, NM             Brooklyn, NY                  Guilford, CT                   including the Pulitzer Prize-
                                                                                         winner Pilgrim at Tinker Creek
Beth Brant (91)             Gwendolyn Brooks (89)         Sharon Bryan (87, 96)
Melvindale, MI              Chicago, IL                   Salt Lake City, UT             (1974). She is currently living
                                                                                         and teaching in Connecticut.
Giannina Braschi (95)       Chandler Brossard (78)        Charlie Elizabeth Buck (98)
Santurce, PR                La Mesa, CA                   Virginia City, NV
James Brasfield (01)         J. Alan Broughton (76)        Claudia Buckholts (88)
State College, PA           Burlington, VT                Ardmore, OK                    The grant freed me from
Samuel Brasfield (66)        Olga Broumas (77)             Christopher Buckley (84, 01)   teaching and enabled me to
Demopolis, AL               Eugene, OR                    Lompoc, CA                     write two books: a book of
Richard Brautigan (69)      Joel Brouwer, II (99)         Julia Budenz (88)              thoughts about contempo-
San Francisco, CA           East Lansing, MI              Cambridge, MA                  rary fiction, Living By Fiction,
Mark Brazaitis (00)         Brock Brower (69)             Judy Budnitz (02)              and a book of essays, Teach-
Washington, DC              Princeton, NJ                 New York, NY                   ing a Stone to Talk.
Donald Bredes (79)          Alan Brown (98)               Andrea Hollander Budy (91)
St. Johnsburg, VT           New York, NY                  Mountain View, AR              I try to describe what it
Sean Brendan-Brown (97)     Carrie Brown (04)             Frederick Buell (72)           feels like to be alive in the
Olympia, WA                 Sweet Briar, VA               New York, NY
                                                                                         United States. My books
Harold Brenna (90)          Claude Brown (83)             Michael Bugeja (90)            are about rural Virginia,
San Diego, CA               Newark, NJ                    Athens, OH
                                                                                         about Pittsburgh, about
Karen M. Brennan (96)       James D. Brown (91)           Charles Bukowski (73)          the Pacific Northwest
Salt Lake City, UT          Eugene, OR                    Los Angeles, CA
                                                                                         Coast . . . Literature has all
Jack Brenner (68)           James M. Brown (95)           Ed Bullins (74)
Seattle, WA                 San Bernardino, CA            Bronx, NY
                                                                                         my heart and mind. That
                                                                                         the NEA supports litera-
Wendy Brenner (00)          James W. Brown (80, 95)       Jerald Bullis (72)
Wilmington, NC              South Dartmouth, MA           Appleton, WI                   ture in the United States
                                                                                         enhances and confirms our
Lee Breuer (80)             Kenneth Brown (73)            R. Michael Bundgaard (66)
New York, NY                Brooklyn, NY                  Colorado Springs, CO           cultural status. All civilized
Richard Brickner (74)       Lennox Brown (76)             Michael Burkard (85, 91)
                                                                                         nations support artists;
New York, NY                Queens, NY                    Rome, NY                       we know nations by their
Kim Suzanne Bridgeford      Linda J. Brown (81)           Kenneth Burke (69)             works of art.
 (99)                       New York, NY                  Andover, NJ
Wallingford, CT             Rita Brown (78)               Cherly Burket (01)
Besmir Brigham (70)         Boston, MA                    San Francisco, CA
Horatio, AR                 Rosellen Brown (73, 81)       Derick Burleson (99)
John Malcolm Brinnin (83)   Peterborough, NH              Houston, TX
Cambridge, MA               Stephanie Brown (01)          Deborah Burnham (91)
Geoffrey Brock (03)         San Clemente, CA              Philadelphia, PA
Dallas, TX                  Sterling Brown (80)           Gerald Burns (85)
James Brock (90)            Washington, DC                Dallas, TX
Nashville, TN

                            NEA Literature Fellowships       15
                                Michael Burns (95)              Hortense Calisher (68, 89)     Steve Carter (80)
                                Willard, MO                     New York, NY                   Rego Park, NY
                                Ralph Burns (84, 93)            Robert Callahan (77)           Xam Cartier (79)
                                Little Rock, AR                 Berkeley, CA                   San Francisco, CA
                                Timothy Burns (80)              Kathy Callaway (84, 90)        Raymond Carver (70, 80)
                                Los Angeles, CA                 Nome, AK                       Tucson, AZ
                                Madeleine Burnside (79)         Peter Cameron (87)             Oscar Casares (06)
                                Great River, NY                 New York, NY                   Austin, TX
                                Franklin Burroughs, Jr. (94)    Francois Camoin (85)           Deborah Ann Casey (88)
                                Bowdoinham, ME                  Salt Lake City, UT             Eugene, OR
                                Janet Burroway (76)             Bebe Moore Campbell (80)       Jane Casey (76)
                                Tallahassee, FL                 Takoma Park, MD                Charlottesville, VA
Rita Dove (77, 89) has writ-    Christopher Bursk (87)          Ewing Campbell (90)            John Casey (83)
ten eight books of poetry,      Langhorne Manor, PA             Hearne, TX                     Charlottesville, VA
including the Pulitzer Prize-   Frederick Busch (76)            James Campbell (77)            Cyrus Cassells (86, 05)
winning Thomas and Beulah       Poolville, NY                   Staten Island, NY              Austin, TX
(1986), as well as books
                                Barney Bush (81)                Richard Campbell (94)          Turner Cassity (79)
of fiction and essays. Her       Herod, IL                       Quincy, FL                     Decatur, GA
numerous honors include the
                                Mary Bush (95)                  Ethan Canin (88, 95)           Ana Castillo (90, 95)
National Humanities Medal       Pasadena, CA                    San Francisco, CA              Gainesville, FL
and an NAACP Great Ameri-
                                Naomi Bushman (75)              Steve Cannon (81)              Anne Caston (99)
can Artist Award. From 1993
                                New York, NY                    New York, NY                   Lexington Park, MD
to 1995, Dove served as the
U.S. Poet Laureate. In 2004,    Bill Butler (70)                Alfred Cantor (88)             Rosemary Catacalos (93)
                                Missoula, MT                    Cambridge, MA                  Palo Alto, CA
she was appointed the Poet
Laureate of Virginia.           Robert Olen Butler (94)         Robert Cantwell (87)           Joann Cattonar (68)
                                Lake Charles, LA                Gambier, OH                    Kalamazoo, MI
                                Kathryn Byer (88)               Nick Carbo (97)                Ann Cavallaro (80)
                                Cullowhee, NC                   San Antonio, TX                West Haven, CT
It is impossible for me to
                                Sarah Shun-lien Bynum           Alvaro Cardona-Hine (78)       Maura Stanton Cecil (74)
say what I would have done       (06)                           St. Paul, MN                   Richmond, VA
had I not received a fel-       Los Angeles, CA                 Robin Carey (90)               Joseph Ceravelo (72)
lowship; I can only say that    Robert J. Byrd (90)             Ashland, OR                    Bloomfield, NJ
I believe the course of my      El Paso, TX                     David Carkeet (83)             Lorna Dee Cervantes (77, 93)
literary career would have                                      St. Louis, MO                  Boulder, CO

been markedly different.                                        Henry Carlile (70, 76)         Cydney Marie Chadwick (02)
Because of my gratitude, I                                      Portland, OR                   Petaluma, CA
have served on several pan-                                     Ron Carlson (85)               May-Lee Chai (06)
                                Mary Cable (78)
els for the Endowment—my        Santa Fe, NM                    Salt Lake City, UT             Laramie, WY
way of repaying, in part,                                       John Carpenter (76)            Marisha Chamberlain (76)
                                Alison Cadbury (95)
the support and encour-         Berkeley, CA                    Seattle, WA                    St. Paul, MN
agement provided me at a        Teresa Cader (88, 94)           William Carpenter (84)         George Chambers (80)
young and tentative age.        Lexington, MD                   Stockton Springs, ME           Peoria, IL
                                Michael Cadnum (84)             Hayden Carruth                 Veronica Chambers (98)
                                Albany, CA                       (67, 69, 75, 88)              Brooklyn, NY
                                                                Munnsville, NY                 Marianne Halley Chametzky
                                Jack Cady (92)
                                Port Townsend, WA               Jared Carter (81, 91)           (81)
                                                                Indianapolis, IN               Amherst, MA
                                Shannon Cain (06)
                                Tucson, AZ                      Lonnie Carter (74)             Lan Samantha Chang (98)
                                                                Lakeville, CT                  Appleton, WI
                                Anne Calcagno (89)
                                Manhasset, NY                   Mary Carter (86)               Leslie Chapman (70)
                                                                Tucson, AZ                     Laguna Pueblo Reservation, AZ
                                Bo Caldwell (04)
                                Cupertino, CA                   Michelle Carter (87)           Jerome Charyn (80, 85)
                                                                East Palo Alto, CA             New York, NY
                                Conyus Calhoun (81)
                                San Francisco, CA               Randolph Carter (80)           E. Hale Chatfield (74)
                                                                New York, NY                   Huntsburg, OH

                                                           16        National Endowment for the Arts
Julie Checkoway (95)        Jan Clausen (81)             Phyllis Collier (88)
Baltimore, MD               Brooklyn, NY                 Kent, WA
Alexander Chee (04)         John Clayton (80)            Billy Collins (88)
Brooklyn, NY                Montague, MA                 Scarsdale, NY
Terrence Cheng (06)         Michelle Cliff (83, 89)      Kathleen Collins (86)
New York, NY                Santa Cruz, CA               Piermont, NY
Kim Chernin (90)            Lucille Clifton (70, 73)     Martha Collins (90)
Berkeley, CA                Baltimore, MD                Cambridge, MA
Thalia Cheronis-Selz (81)   Michelle Clinton (92)        Jack Collom (79, 90)
Columbia, MD                Santa Monica, CA             Boulder, CO
Kelly Cherry (80)           Joshua Clover (94)           Laurie Colwin (85)
Madison, WI                 Berkeley, CA                 New York, NY
Laura Chester (79)          Lawrence Coates (00)         Phil Condon (93)              Andre Dubus (78, 85) was
Berkeley, CA                Cedar City, UT               Missoula, MT                  the author of nine works of
Alan Cheuse (80)            William Cobb (78, 92)        Leo Connellan (70)            fiction, including the short
Knoxville, TN               Houston, TX                  Clinton, CT                   story collection Dancing After
                                                                                       Hours (1996). In 1986, he was
Thomas Chiarella (93)       Amanda Cockrell (98)         Geraldine Connolly (87, 95)
Greencastle, IN             Roanoke, VA                  Bethesda, MD                  struck by a car, but continued
                                                                                       to write; his 1991 collection of
Frank Chin (74, 80)         George Codegan (76)          Frank Conroy (68, 69)
Seattle, WA                 Los Angeles, CA              Brooklyn, NY                  essays, Broken Vessels, deals
                                                                                       with this accident. Dubus
Marilyn Mei Ling Chin       Andrei Codrescu (73)         Jack Conroy (77)
                                                                                       passed away in 1999.
 (85, 93)                   San Francisco, CA            Moberly, MO
La Mesa, CA                 Judith Ortiz Cofer (89)      Mary Conselmann (76)
Yvonne Chism-Peace          Athens, GA                   Gadsden, AL
  (74, 84)                                                                             In my career I have mostly
                            Lisa Coffman (97)            Gerald Constanzo (74, 88)
Riverdale, NY               Morrisville, PA              Mount Lebanon, PA             made a living from teach-
Susan Choi (00)                                                                        ing jobs, readings, grants—
                            Helen Degen Cohen (88)       Carolyn Cooke (98)
Brooklyn, NY                Deerfield, IL                 Point Arena, CA               and have rarely made a
Paul Christensen (91)       Jonathan S. Cohen (91)       Nicole Cooley (96)
                                                                                       living from sales of books,
College Station, TX         Swarthmore, PA               Atlanta, GA                   or stories to magazines.
John Christgau (83)         L. Keith Cohen (78)          Clark Coolidge (77)           The 1985 NEA grant was
Belmont, CA                 Madison, WI                  New Lebanon, NY               bountiful for me. It was
Ann Christie (97)           Nan Cohen (03)               Bernard Cooper (04)           $20,000, an amount I
Baltimore, MD               Sherman Oaks, CA             Los Angeles, CA               would have earned had I
Nicholas Christopher (87)   Valerie Colander (91)        Jane Cooper (81)              still been teaching, and
New York, NY                Fairmont, WV                 Iowa City, IA                 that year I got a lot of
Peter Christopher (91)      Charles T. Cole (80)         Stephen Cooper (91)           work done, finishing a
Brooklyn, NY                                             Los Angeles, CA
                            Kent, CT                                                   book of four novellas
Jill Karen Ciment (95)      Henri Cole (93)              Robert Coover (85)            and two stories called The
New York, NY                Portland, OR                 Providence, RI                Last Worthless Evening.
Sandra Cisneros (81, 88)    Lewis Cole (83)              William Corbett (79)
Chicago, IL                 New York, NY                 Boston, MA
David Citino (86)           Richard D. Cole (86)         Barbara Corcoran (78)
Marion, OH                  New York, NY                 Missoula, MT
Sybil Claiborne (80)        James Coleman (78)           Robert Cording (91, 05)
New York, NY                Norwichtown, CT              Woodstock, CT
George Clark (02)           Wanda Coleman (81)           Raymond Coreil (76)
Lafayette, LA               Los Angeles, CA              Ville Platte, LA
Naomi Clark (87)            Katherine Coles (90)         Cid Corman (75)
Los Gatos, CA               Salt Lake City, UT           Boston, MA
Tom Clark (69, 85)          Michael Collier (84, 94)     Alfred Corn (79, 91)
Berkeley, CA                Catonsville, MD              New York, NY
David Clarke (78)           Peter Collier (80)           Jennifer Cornell (98)
New York, NY                Oakland, CA                  Corvallis, OR

                            NEA Literature Fellowships      17
                                 Sam Cornish (68)                 Douglas Crowell (83)           Tina Darragh (79)
                                 Cambridge, MA                    Lubbock, TX                    Mt. Rainier, MD
                                 James Corpora (80)               Victor Hernández Cruz (81)     Mich Daugherty (74)
                                 Escondido, CA                    San Francisco, CA              North Hollywood, CA
                                 Mary Corrigan (78)               Elizabeth Cullinan (74)        Tracy Daugherty (98)
                                 Los Angeles, CA                  New York, NY                   Corvallis, OR
                                 Jayne Cortez (79, 86)            James Cummins (88)             Cecil Daukins (76)
                                 New York, NY                     Cincinnati, OH                 Taos, NM
                                 Kathleen Coskran (91)            James Cunningham (66)          Diana Davenport (92)
                                 Minneapolis, MN                  Waltham, MA                    Willow Street, PA
                                 Gerald Costanzo (88)             Laura Cunningham (91)          John Davidson (80)
                                 Mount Lebanon, PA                Stone Ridge, NY                Austin, TX
Ernest J. Gaines (68) pub-       Mark P. Costello (73, 91)        Michael Cunningham (88)        Michael Davidson (76)
lished his first short story in   Champaign, IL                    La Ca~
                                                                       nada, CA                  La Jolla, CA
1956, and since has written      Sarah Cotterill (90)             George Cuomo (76)              Peter Ho Davies (98)
eight books of fiction that       Silver Spring, MD                Amherst, MA                    Eugene, OR
examine African-American
                                 Henri Coulette (77)              Silvia Curbelo (90)            Alfred I. Davis (73)
life in the American South,      Los Angeles, CA                  Tampa, FL                      Bronx, NY
specifically in his home state
                                 Nancy Couto (87, 99)             Richard Currey (81, 87)        Allen Davis (77)
of Louisiana. A Lesson Before    Ithaca, NY                       Las Lunas, NM                  New York, NY
Dying won the 1993 National
                                 Dennis Covington (96)            David Curry (76)               Christopher Davis (74)
Book Critics Circle Award.
                                 Birmingham, AL                   Springfield, IL                 Philadelphia, PA
                                 Vicki Covington (88)             Bruce Cutler (89)              Cortney Davis (94)
                                 Birmingham, AL                   St. Paul, MN                   Redding, CT
The NEA grant—a thou-            Michael Covino (81)              Janet Cutler (68)              Jon Davis (86, 05)
sand dollars at that time—       Berkeley, CA                     Roanoke, AL                    Santa Fe, NM
encouraged me to keep            Malcolm Cowley (68)                                             Kathryn Davis (81, 88)

writing. I was finally being      Milford, CT                                                     East Calais, VT
recognized by critics and        Louis Coxe (77)                                                 Lydia Davis (89)
                                 Brunswick, ME                                                   Kingston, NY
my colleagues. The young                                          Richard Dabney (75)
writer needs that. He needs      Steven Cramer (84)               Arlington, VA                  Melody Davis (95)
                                 Cambridge, MA                                                   Brooklyn, NY
the money, yes—but he                                             John Dacey (75, 79)
also needs a little recogni-     Max Crawford (76)                Cottonwood, MN                 Sally Dawidoff (05)
                                 Missoula, MT                                                    New York, NY
tion now and then to keep                                         Edward Dahlberg (66, 73)
                                 Stanley Crawford (73, 90)        New York, NY                   Ariel Dawson (89)
pushing himself. I know          Dixon, NM                                                       San Francisco, CA
many young, very talented                                         Charles D’Ambrosio (95)
                                 Thomas Crawford (74, 85)         Los Angeles, CA                Jean Day (01)
people who gave up out of        Cloverdale, OR                                                  Berkeley, CA
despair. I feel that I was       Bobbie Creeley (80)
                                                                  Robert Dana (85, 93)
                                                                                                 Richard Day (85)
lucky. The recognition by                                         Coralville, IA
                                 Bolinas, CA                                                     Arcata, CA
the NEA gave me enough                                            John Daniel (98)
                                 Robert Creeley (81)              Elmira, OR                     Robert Day (83)
push to start my next novel,     Buffalo, NY                                                     Hays, KS
The Autobiography of Miss Jane                                    Rosemary Daniell (74, 81)
                                 Frederick Crews (69)             Savannah, GA                   Ann Deagon (81)
Pittman. I have not looked       Berkeley, CA                                                    Greensboro, NC
back since.                                                       James Daniels (85, 05)
                                 Harry Crews (74)                 Pittsburgh, PA                 Philip Deaver (89)
                                 Gainesville, FL                                                 Longwood, FL
                                                                  Ann Darby (04)
                                 Moira Crone (90)                 New York, NY                   David Deck (70)
                                 Baton Rouge, LA                                                 San Francisco, CA
                                                                  Oreste D’Arconte (66)
                                 Justin Cronin (04)               Allentown, PA                  John Deck (73)
                                 Houston, TX                                                     Santa Cruz, CA
                                                                  Alice Elliott Dark (95)
                                 James Cross (74)                 Montclair, NJ                  Lynne H. deCourcy (91)
                                 Chevy Chase, MD                                                 Oxford, OH
                                                                  Ann Darr (76)
                                 Mary Crow (84)                   Chevy Chase, MD                Jonathan Dee (06)
                                 Ft. Collins, CO                                                 New York, NY

                                                             18        National Endowment for the Arts
Bill Deemer (68)             Deborah Digges (87)           Albert Drake (74, 83)
Eugene, OR                   Chevy Chase, MD               Okemos, MI
Madeline DeFrees (81)        Annie Dillard (81)            Barbara Drake (66, 86)
Amherst, MA                  Middletown, CT                Portland, OR
Tom DeHaven (80, 86)         Sharon Dilworth (00)          John Dranow (92)
Jersey City, NJ              Pittsburgh, PA                Plainfield, VT
Constance DeJong (80)        Ray DiPalma (79)              Joel Dressler (68)
New York, NY                 New York, NY                  Detroit, MI
James DeJongh (78)           Stuart Dischell (96)          John Driscoll (81)
New York, NY                 Las Cruces, NM                Interlochen, MI
Nicholas Delbanco (73, 83)   Melvin Dixon (84)             Merle Drown (93)
Bennington, VT               New York, NY                  Concord, NH
Rick DeMarinis (76, 83)      Stephen Dixon (74, 90)        Anthony D’Souza (06)           Cristina Garcia (04) was
Missoula, MT                 Baltimore, MD                 Sarasota, FL                   born in Havana, Cuba, in
Alison Deming (90, 95)       Charles Dizenzo (72)          Norman Dubie (85)              1958, and emigrated to the
Tucson, AZ                   New York, NY                  Tempe, AZ                      U.S. with her family in 1960.
                                                                                          She is the author of three
James DenBoer (76)           Gregory Djanikian (86)        Maggie Dubris (01)
Santa Barbara, CA            Philadelphia, PA              New York, NY                   novels and has been a finalist
                                                                                          for the National Book Award.
Deborah DeNicola (97)        Patricia Dobler (85)          Andre Dubus (78, 85)
Brookline, MA                Pittsburgh, PA                Bradford, MA                   Garcia’s work has appeared
                                                                                          in many anthologies, and she
Reuel Denney (66)            Stephen Dobyns (74, 81, 86)   Gary Duehr (01)
                                                                                          is the editor of Cubanisimo:
Honolulu, HI                 Watertown, MA                 Somerville, MA
                                                                                          Readings in Contemporary
Candace Denning (88)         Susan Dodd (92)               Joseph Duemer (84, 92)         Cuban Literature.
Great Falls, VA              Bristol, RI                   Potsdam, NY
Carl Dennis (88)             Wayne Dodd (84)               Laurie Duesing (91)
Buffalo, NY                  Athens, OH                    Benicia, CA
Theodore Deppe (93, 03)      Judy Doenges (02)             Richard Duggin (92)            I had been struggling long
Bloomington, IN              Fort Collins, CO              Omaha, NE                      and hard on my third
Toi Derricotte (85, 90)      Anthony Doerr (02)            Denise Duhamel (01)            novel, Monkey Hunting, when
Potomac, MD                  Boise, ID                     Woonsocket, RI                 I got a call from the NEA
Janet Desaulniers (92)       Harriet Doerr (83)            E. Norman Dukes (79)           telling me I had won a fic-
Evanston, IL                 Pasadena, CA                  Cambridge, MA                  tion fellowship. It lifted me
Alexis DeVeaux (81)          Ivan Doig (85)                Margaret Dukore (83)           from a state of desperate
Brooklyn, NY                 Seattle, WA                   Honolulu, HI                   futility (what was I do-
James DeVita (04)            J. D. Dolan (06)              Harris Dulany (74)             ing writing a book about
Spring Green, WI             Kalamazoo, MI                 Brooklyn, NY
                                                                                          a 19th-century Chinese
Pete Dexter (70)             John Domini (77)              Adele Dumaran (90)             farmer in colonial Cuba,
Fort Lauderdale, FL          Cambridge, MA                 Honolulu, HI
                                                                                          anyway?) to one of op-
Ramola Dharmaraj (05)        Matthew Donovan (05)          Jeffrey Duncan (78)
Arlington, VA                                              Ypsilanti, MI
                                                                                          timistic determination.
                             Hudson, OH
                                                                                          Thanks to the grant, I was
Pietro di Donato (77)        D.W. Donzella (77)            Robert Duncan (67, 80)
Setauket, NY                 Bridgeport, CT                San Francisco, CA              able to concentrate exclu-
                                                                                          sively on my writing, see
Monica Di Emidio (70)        Edward Dorn (69)              Camille Dungy (03)
San Francisco, CA            West Newbury, MA              Lynchburg, VA                  my way through the book’s
W. S. Di Piero (89)          Michael Dorris (89)           Stephen E. Dunn (73, 81, 89)
                                                                                          cultural and chronologi-
Menlo Park, CA               Cornish, NH                   Port Republic, NJ              cal obstacles, and do what I
Diane di Prima (73, 79)      Mark Doty (87, 95)            Stephen R. Dunn (76)           love best: tell a good story.
San Francisco, CA            Provincetown, MA              Anchorage, AK
William Dickey (77)          Rita Dove (77, 89)            Pam Durban (98)
San Francisco, CA            Tempe, AZ                     Atlanta, GA
John Dickson (90)            Philip Dow (79)               Flora Durham (90)
Evanston, IL                 Pittsburgh, PA                Portland, OR
Margaret Diehl (92)          Michael Downs (06)            David Dwyer (87)
New York, NY                 Missoula, MT                  Lemmon, SD

                             NEA Literature Fellowships       19
                                 Stuart Dybek (81, 94)              Mary Engh (83)                 Larry Fagin (79)
                                 Kalamazoo, MI                      Pullman, WA                    New York, NY
                                                                    Ted Enslin (76)                Ronald Fair (74)

                                                                    Temple, ME                     Chicago, IL
                                                                    George Garrett Epps (78)       Bertram Fairchild, Jr.
                                                                    Richmond, VA                    (88, 05)
                                 Joan Eades (81)                                                   Claremont, CA
                                 Grand Forks, ND                    Phillip Anthony Eprile
                                                                     (83, 94)                      Nancy Fales (80)
                                 Cornelius Eady (85)                Del Mar, CA                    Brooklyn, NY
                                 Sweet Briar, PA
                                                                    Daniel Epstein (74)            Thomas Farber (78, 83, 94)
                                 Patricia A. Eakins (81, 87)        Baltimore, MD                  Berkeley, CA
                                 New York, NY
                                                                    Leslie D. Epstein (72, 81)     Nancy Farmer (92)
                                 Debra Earling (06)                 Brookline, MA                  Arcata, CA
Kaye Gibbons (89) has writ-
                                 Polson, MT
ten eight novels, two of which                                      Sandra Epstein (80)            Robert Farnsworth (89)
were chosen as Oprah Book        Robert Early (80)                  Oxford, CT                     Lewiston, ME
                                 Bowling Green, OH
Club selections in 1997: Ellen                                      Pamela Erbe (83)               James T. Farrell (78)
Foster (1986) and A Virtu-       George Economou (88, 99)           Kalamazoo, MI                  New York, NY
ous Woman (1989). Gibbons        Norman, OK
                                                                    Louise Erdrich (83)            Raymond Federman (85)
continues to live in North       Russell Edson (76, 81, 92)         Cornish, NH                    Eggertsville, NY
Carolina, the state in which     Stamford, CT
                                                                    Stephen C. Erhart (73)         Cheri Fein (81)
she was raised.                  Kim Edwards (94)                   San Jose, CA                   New York, NY
                                 Pittsburgh, PA
                                                                    Steve Erickson (87)            Ross Feld (85)
                                 Margaret Edwards (78)              Los Angeles, CA                Cincinnati, OH
                                 Burlington, VT
Before I received an NEA                                            Clayton Eshleman (79)          Alan Feldman (86)
Literature Fellowship in         William Edyvean (68)               Santa Barbara, CA              Framingham, MA
                                 Fort Collins, CO
1989, I did not have the                                            Martin Espada (86, 92)         Irving Feldman (87)
                                 Jennifer Egan (91)                 Boston, MA                     Buffalo, NY
money for the February
                                 New York, NY
rent. But that grant enabled                                        Jill Alexander Essbaum (03)    John Felstiner (69)
                                 Paul Eggers (02)                   Austin, TX                     Woodside, CA
me to pay the rent, feed         Forest Ranch, CA
my children, and work in                                            Barbara Esstman (90)           Anita Feng (92)
                                 Gretel Ehrlich (81)                Oakton, VA                     Champaign, IL
peace. However, I never saw      Shell, WY
the grant as something to                                           Paul Estaver (86)              Beth Ann Fennelly (03)
                                 Nancy Eimers (89, 96)              Gainesville, VA                Galesburg, IL
which I was entitled. I felt I   Kalamazoo, MI
could contribute something                                          Jeffrey Eugenides (95)         David Fenza (95)
                                 Jill Eisenstadt (92)               New York, NY                   Washington, DC
of value to the American         Brooklyn, NY
                                                                    David Allan Evans (74)         Margaret Ferguson (66)
letters and therefore to my      Sergio D. Elizondo (81)            Brookings, SD                  Richmond, VA
country. Because of the          Las Cruces, NM
                                                                    Elizabeth Evans (98)           Carolyn Ferrell (04)
book I wrote with the grant      Stanley Elkin (72)                 Tucson, AZ                     Bronx, NY
and because of subse-            Universal City, MO
                                                                    George Evans (84, 89)          Robert Ferrell (87)
quent books, I have paid         Gary Eller (94)                    Plymouth, CA                   New York, NY
over $750,000 in federal         Ames, IA
                                                                    Brian Evenson (95)             Lucy Ferriss (88)
income tax. The govern-          Richard Elman (72)                 Provo, UT                      Staatsburg, NY
ment has been more than          New York, NY
                                                                    Welch Everman (78)             Andrew Fetler (76, 83)
repaid for its investment in     James Scott Ely (92)               Philadelphia, PA               Amherst, MA
my work, and for that, we        Rock Hill, SC
                                                                    William Everson (81)           James Fetler (80)
should both be grateful.         Lynn Emanuel (84, 92)              Davenport, CA                  Mountain View, CA
                                 Pittsburgh, PA
                                                                    Peter Everwine (75)            Marlon Lee Fick (05)
                                 Carolyn F. Emshwiller (80)         Fresno, CA                     Overland Park, KS
                                 Wantagh, NY
                                                                                                   Julia Fields (68)

                                 Susan Engberg (87)                                                Scotland Neck, NC
                                 Milwaukee, WI
                                                                                                   James L. Files (83)
                                 John Engels (84, 92)                                              Glenwood Springs, CO
                                 Burlington, VT                     Kathy Fagan (91)
                                                                    Delaware, OH                   Warren Fine (72, 80)
                                                                                                   Lincoln, NE

                                                               20        National Endowment for the Arts
Donald Finkel (73)
St. Louis, MO
Caroline Finkelstein (84, 01)
                                Paul Foster (73)
                                New York, NY
                                Gene Fowler (70)
                                                             William Gaddis (67, 74)
Westport Point, MA              Berkeley, CA                 Piermont, NY
John Finlay (66)                Karen Joy Fowler (88)        Frank Gagliano (73)
Tuscaloosa, AL                  Davis, CA                    Tallahassee, FL
David Fisher (81, 93)           Paula Fox (74)               Ernest J. Gaines (68)
Santa Rosa, CA                  Brooklyn, NY                 San Francisco, CA
Harrison Fisher (77)            Sarah Elizabeth Fox (99)     Fred Gaines (72)
Bethesda, MD                    Minneapolis, MN              Somerset, WI
Molly Fisk (99)                 George Foy (94)              Tess Gallagher (76, 81, 88)
Nevada City, CA                 Osterville, MA               Port Angeles, WA
Christina Fitzpatrick (06)      Richard France (73, 80)                                    John Haines (68) has lived
                                                             Richard Gallup (79)
New York, NY                    Appleton, WI                                               and worked in the Alaska
                                                             Boulder, CO
Thomas Fitzsimmons (89)         Patricia Francisco (95)                                    wilderness much of his life. He
                                                             Brendan James Galvin          has written thirteen volumes
Rochester, MN                   Minneapolis, MN               (75, 77, 88)
                                                                                           of poetry, and his many prose
Robert Flanagan (74)            Joseph Frank (69)            Everett, MA
Delaware, OH                    Princeton, NJ                                              works include a memoir,
                                                             James Galvin (77, 86)
                                                                                           The Stars, the Snow, the Fire
Jane Flanders (77)              Sheldon Frank (74)           Iowa City, IA
Washington, DC                  Chicago, IL                                                (1989). Haines currently lives
                                                             Catherine Gammon (80)         in Helena, Montana.
Kathleen Flenniken (05)         Edward Franklin (89)         Fredonia, NY
Seattle, WA                     San Anselmo, CA              Forrest Gander (01)
Daniel Fleshler (83)            J. E. Franklin (80)          Barrington, RI
Kalamazoo, MI                   Saratoga Springs, NY         James Gander (89)             When one has no bank ac-
Roland Flint (70, 81)           Jonathan Franzen (02)        Providence, RI                count for at least ten years,
Silver Spring, MD               New York, NY                 Bruce Gans (74)               and no money at all to speak
Maria Flook (88)                Gregory Fraser (05)          Iowa City, IA                 of, when $20 constituted
Black Mountain, NC              Carrollton, GA               John Gantos (86)              a fortune to be spent with
Mary Florey (86)                Kathleen Fraser (70, 77)     Boston, MA                    considerable care, the gen-
Hamden, CT                      San Francisco, CA            Eugene Garber (78)            erosity of a grant like this
Arthur Flowers (91)             Kenneth Frederick (93)       Bellingham, WA                can easily be appreciated.
Memphis, TN                     West Newton, MA              Cecilio García-Camarillo
Starkey Flythe, Jr. (87)        Lynn Freed (87)                (81)                        I doubt that many people
Augusta, GA                     San Francisco, CA            Albuquerque, NM
                                                                                           have had their lives changed
Richard Foerster (95)           Stuart Friebert (79)         Cristina Garcia (04)
York Beach, ME                                               Santa Monica, CA
                                                                                           as drastically as mine was at
                                Oberlin, OH
                                                                                           the time, but I don’t doubt
Alice B. Fogel (97)             Alan Friedman (74)           Richard Louis Garcia (91)
Acworth, NH                     New York, NY                 Santa Monica, CA              that many others have had
                                                                                           some related experience
Josephine Foo (01)              Carol Frost (81, 93)         John R. Gardiner (78)
Philadelphia, PA                Otego, NY                    Middleburg, VA                and a period free from im-
Calvin Forbes (81)              Richard Frost (92)           John Gardner (72)
                                                                                           mediate money concerns.
Columbia, MD                    Otego, NY                    Carbondale, IL
Carolyn Forche (77, 84, 89)     Abby Frucht (87, 96)         Leonard Gardner (68)
Provincetown, MA                Oshkosh, WI                  San Francisco, CA
Richard Ford (80, 86)           Charles Fuller (76)          Thomas Gardner (95)
Coahoma, MS                     Philadelphia, PA             Blacksburg, VA
Maria Irene Fornes (74)         Alice Fulton (05)            Rita Garitano (87)
New York, NY                    Ithaca, NY                   Tucson, AZ
Phillip Foss (87, 01)           Allison Funk (88)            Max Garland (89)
San Juan Pueblo, NM             Groveland, MA                Paducah, KY
John Foster (94)                Virginia Furtwangler         Ruth-Miriam Garnett (92)
Columbia, MO                     (78, 94)                    New York, NY
                                Sackville, Canada            Christine Garren (99)
                                                             Greensboro, NC

                                NEA Literature Fellowships      21
                                George Garrett (66)             John Gilhooley (77)             Albert Goldbarth
                                Charlottesville, VA             New York, NY                     (74, 79, 86)
                                William Garrison (95)           Laura Gilpin (81)               Austin, TX
                                Kensington, MD                  New York, NY                    Barbara Goldberg (86, 91)
                                Barbara Garson (77)             Allen Ginsberg (79, 87)         Chevy Chase, MD
                                New York, NY                    New York, NY                    Lester Goldberg (80)
                                Frank X. Gaspar (91)            Marisa Gioffre (80)             Cranford, NJ
                                Long Beach, CA                  New York, NY                    Sidney Goldfarb (70)
                                Tim Gautreaux (93)              Nikki Giovanni (70)             New York, NY
                                Hammond, LA                     New York, NY                    Martin M. Goldsmith (80)
                                Thomas Gavin (80)               Cecil Giscombe (86)             Sherman Oaks, CA
                                Middlebury, VT                  Ithaca, NY                      Jewelle Gomez (97)
A member of the Muskogee        Joseph Geha (88)                Celia Gittelson (93)            San Francisco, CA
Tribe, Joy Harjo (77, 92)       Ames, IA                        New York, NY                    Genaro González (90)
is the author of six books      Jack Gelber (74)                Diane Glancy (90, 03)           Mission, TX
of poetry, including In Mad     New York, NY                    St. Paul, MN                    Rigoberto González (06)
Love and War (1990), which                                                                      Urbana, IL
                                Paul Genega (90)                Kenneth Glantz (86, 91)
received an American Book       New York, NY                    Portland, OR                    Ivy Goodman (81)
Award. Her poems have been                                                                      Palo Alto, CA
                                Ted Genoways (03)               Elton Glaser (84, 90)
included in numerous journals   Minneapolis, MN                 Akron, OH                       Joanna Goodman (03)
and anthologies. Harjo served                                                                   New York, NY
                                Diana George (06)               Joanna M. Glass (80)
on the NEA’s National Council
                                Seattle, WA                     Guilford, CT                    Stephen Goodwin (72, 83)
on the Arts from 1998 to                                                                        Washington, DC
2003.                           Sonia Gernes (99)               Julia Glass (04)
                                South Bend, IN                  New York, NY                    Caroline Gordon (67)
                                John Gery (92)                  Michele Glazer (97)             No city listed, NJ
                                New Orleans, LA                 Portland, OR                    Jaimy Gordon (78, 83, 91)
When I received my first         Lucia Getsi (92)                Myra Glazer (66)                Kalamazoo, MI
NEA fellowship for poetry,      Bloomington, IL                 Cambridge, MA                   Charles Gordone (80)
I was a single parent with      Hollis Giammatteo (93)          Gregory Glazner (05)            North Bergen, NJ
two children who were four      Lopez, WA                       Santa Fe, NM                    Angeline Goreau (81)
and nine years old. With        Denise Giardina (88, 96)        Judith Gleason (83)             Princeton, NJ
the time the grant bought,      Charleston, WV                  New York, NY                    Gary Goss (76)
I was able to buy child-        Robert Alan Gibb (99)           Carole L. Glickfeld (91)        Centerport, NY
care, pay rent and utilities,   Homestead, PA                   Seattle, WA                     Vincent Gotera (93)
and make my car payment         Kaye Gibbons (89)               Gary Glickman (91)              Arcata, CA
while I wrote what would be     Raleigh, NC                     Boston, MA                      Janice Gould (89)
                                Reginald Gibbons (84)           Joseph Glover (78)              Albuquerque, NM
most of my second book of
poetry, She Had Some Horses,    Evanston, IL                    Washington, DC                  Delice Gourdine (78)
                                Margaret Gibson (85)            Louise Glück (70, 79, 88)       St. Joseph, MI
the collection that actu-
                                Preston, CT                     Plainfield, VT                   Paula Gover (96)
ally started my career. The                                                                     Mt. Pleasant, MI
grant began the momen-          Patricia Gibson (78)            Tereze Glück (93)
                                New York, NY                    New York, NY                    Douglas Gower (77)
tum that has carried me                                                                         San Francisco, CA
through these years. I can      Barry Gifford (81)              Thomas Glynn (94)
                                Berkeley, CA                    Brooklyn, NY                    Jorie Graham (84)
now call myself a poet.                                                                         Iowa City, IA
                                Dagoberto Gilb (92)             Gail Godwin (74)
                                El Paso, TX                     Stone Ridge, NY                 Philip Graham (92)
                                Christopher Gilbert (86, 94)    Rebecca Godwin (94)             Urbana, IL
                                Providence, RI                  Poestenkill, NY                 Judith Grahn (79)
                                Jack Gilbert (74)               Patricia Goedicke (76)          Oakland, CA
                                San Francisco, CA               Guanajuato, Mexico              Stephanie Grant (98)
                                Virginia Gilbert (76)           Ivan Gold (67)                  Brooklyn, NY
                                Salt Lake City, UT              No city listed, NY              Marcus Grapes (84)
                                Gary Gildner (71, 76)           Lloyd Gold (76)                 Los Angeles, CA
                                Des Moines, IA                  Upper Montclair, NJ             David Gravender (03)
                                                                                                Seattle, WA

                                                           22         National Endowment for the Arts
Elizabeth Graver (92)         Allen Richard Grossman (85)   Judith Hall (97)
Williamstown, MA              Lexington, MA                 Oxnard, CA
Ernest A. Gray (80)           James Grove (78)              Oakley Hall (77)
Milwaukee, WI                 Cambridge, MA                 New York, NY
Gayle Gray (68)               Lee Grue (85)                 Richard Hall (75)
Los Angeles, CA               New Orleans, LA               Provincetown, MA
Spalding Gray (80)            Albert Guerard (66)           Walter Hall (70)
New York, NY                  Stanford, CA                  Tigard, OR
Stephen Grecco (78)           Bruce Guernsey (84)           Kathleen Halme (97)
Minneapolis, MN               Charleston, IL                Wilmington, NC
Hannah Green (78)             Barbara Guest (79)            Daniel Halpern (73, 74, 87)
New York, NY                  New York, NY                  New York, NY
Alvin Greenberg (72, 92)      Keith Gunderson (75)          Barbara Hamby (96)            Born in 1951 of Cuban parent-
St. Paul, MN                  Minneapolis, MN               Tallahassee, FL               age in New York City, Oscar
Paul Greenberg (06)           Stephanie Gunn (83)           Sam Hamill (81)               Hijuelos (85) is the author of
New York, NY                  North Palm Beach, FL          Port Townsend, WA             six novels. In 1990, he became
                                                                                          the first Hispanic-American
Jeffrey Greene (96)           Allan Gurganus (76, 85)       Jane Hamilton (93)
No city listed, France        New York, NY                  Rochester, WI                 writer to win the Pulitzer Prize
                                                                                          in fiction.
Jonathan Edward Greene (78)   Jeffrey Gustavson (97)        Charles Hammer (87)
Frankfort, KY                 Brooklyn, NY                  Shawnee, KS
Robert Greenfield (95)         Pedro Juan Gutiérrez (90)     Patricia Hampl (76, 90)
Goleta, CA                    Bellaire, TX                  St. Paul, MN                  Needless to say, the grant
Theodore Greenwald (79)       Lee Gutkind (78)              James Hannah (88)             made an immeasurable
New York, NY                  Pittsburgh, PA                Navasota, TX                  difference to my creative
T. Greenwood (04)                                           Allen Hannay (83)             life: because of it, over the

San Diego, CA                                               Austin, TX                    next several years, I was able
Andrew Sean Greer (06)                                      Julian Hansbarger (94)        to complete my Pulitzer
San Francisco, CA                                           Purcellville, VA              Prize-winning novel, The
                              Barbara Haas (87)
Debora Greger (85, 91)        Ames, IA                      Joseph Hansen (74)            Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love.
Gainesville, FL                                             Los Angeles, CA               From a fiscal point of view,
                              Marilyn Hacker (74, 85, 94)
Linda Gregerson (85, 92)      Gambier, OH                   Ron Hansen (80, 87)           I am proud to say that since
Ann Arbor, MI                                               Ithaca, NY
                              Pamela Hadas (84)                                           that book’s critical and
Linda Gregg (93)              St. Louis, MO                 Julie Jordan Hanson (99)      financial success, I was able
Forest Knolls, CA                                           Cedar Rapids, IA
                              Fred Haefele (91)                                           to repay the government’s
Debora Gregor (77)            Stanford, CA                  Kenneth O. Hanson             largesse back many times
Richland, WA                                                  (76, 81)
                              Jessica Hagedorn (95)         Portland, OR                  over, by way of taxes.
Charles Gregory (76)          New York, NY
New York, NY                                                Pauline Hanson (72)
                              Alyson Hagy (00)              Saratoga Springs, NY          But beyond that, I have
Robert Gregory (92)           Laramie, WY
Miami Beach, FL                                             C. G. Hanzlicek (76)          always felt that the NEA is
                              Kimiko Hahn (86, 92)          Fresno, CA                    an invaluable asset to this
Robert Grenier (79, 85)       New York, NY
Berkeley, CA                                                Robert Harbison (77)          country. For in express-
                              Robert Hahn (75)              London, England               ing its faith in art, in all its
Eamon Grennan (91)            Great Barrington, MA
Poughkeepsie, NY                                            Elizabeth Hardwick (81)       diversity, the NEA provides
                              John Haines (68)              New York, NY                  the most vital service, which
Susan Griffin (76)             Fairbanks, AK
Berkeley, CA                                                Donald Harington (80)         is the nurturing of this
                              Janet Campbell Hale (95)      Putney, VT                    nation’s artistic legacy.
Michael Griffith (04)          Moscow, ID
Cincinnati, OH                                              Joy Harjo (77, 92)
                              Corrinne Hales (87, 93)       Albuquerque, NM
Patricia Griffith (78)         Fresno, CA
Washington, DC                                              Joshua Harmon (04)
                              Daniel Hall (95)              Portsmouth, RI
Lawrence Grobel (81)          Amherst, MA
Los Angeles, CA                                             James Harms (05)
                              James B. Hall (80)            Morgantown, WV
Richard Grossinger (76)       Lexington, KY
Plainfield, VT

                              NEA Literature Fellowships       23
                                  Michael S. Harper (77)           Brooks Haxton (87)              DeWitt Henry (80)
                                  Taunton, MA                      Mount Vernon, NY                Watertown, MA
                                  Stephen Harrigan (80)            Josephine Haxton (76, 85)       Michelle Herman (86)
                                  Austin, TX                       Charlottesville, VA             Iowa, City, IA
                                  Grace Harriman (66)              John William Hay (66)           Luz Hernandez (79)
                                  Cambridge, MA                    Sewanee, TN                     Oakland, CA
                                  James Harris (76)                Julie Hayden (78)               Juan Felipe Herrera (79, 85)
                                  New York, NY                     New York, NY                    San Francisco, CA
                                  James W. Harris (97)             Terrance Hayes (05)             William Herrin (85)
                                  Alameda, CA                      Pittsburgh, PA                  Ithaca, NY
                                  Marie Harris (76)                Robert Hazel (69)               Robert Hershon (79, 90)
                                  Center Barnstead, NH             Laurel Spring, NC               Brooklyn, NY
Jane Hirshfield’s (05) fifth        Marina L. Harris (96)            Dainis Hazners (99)             Alan Hewat (88)
collection of poetry, After, is   Salt Lake City, UT               Story, WY                       Brandon, VT
forthcoming in February 2006.     Mark Harris (66)                 Gwen Head (95)                  William Heyen (74, 84)
Hirshfield has also published      San Francisco, CA                Berkeley, CA                    Brockport, NY
a collection of essays and has
                                  Phyllis Masek Harris (69)        Shelby Hearon (83)              Arlene Heyman (70)
edited and co-translated three    Berkeley, CA                     North White Plains, NY          Syracuse, NY
anthologies of work by women
                                  Barbara Grizzuti Harrison        Ernest Hebert (80)              James Heynen (75, 85)
poets from the past.               (81)                            Keene, NH                       Port Townsend, WA
                                  Brooklyn, NY                     Anthony Hecht (89)              Ben L. Hiatt (70)
                                  James Harrison (68)              Washington, DC                  Sacramento, CA
A fellowship from the NEA         Stony Brook, NY                  Robert Hedin (76, 85, 94)       Leland Hickman (69)
is an act of optimism, of         Jeffrey Harrison (92)            Frontenac, MN                   New York, NY
generosity proffered—not          Washington, DC                   Michael Heffernan               Bob Hicok (99)
a reward for past work, but       Jim Harrison (69)                  (78, 87, 93)                  Ann Arbor, MI
an invitation to the new.         Stony Brook, NY                  Fayetteville, AR                Joanna Higgins (89)
Mid-year now in the fel-          William Harrison (78)            Ursula Hegi (90)                Little Meadows, PA
lowship, I can say that the       Fayetteville, AR                 Spokane, WA                     John High (96)
support the NEA offers            Richard Harteis (76)             Marcy Heidish (80)              San Francisco, CA
has brought me time for           Washington, DC                   Arlington, VA                   Robert Hightower (80)
the solitude and silence in       Charles Hartman (84)             Jack Heifner (77)               Philadelphia, PA
which I can ponder, write,        Cambridge, MA                    New York, NY                    Oscar Hijuelos (85)
revise, consider, range,          Anne Harvey (74)                 Larry Heinemann (81, 87)        New York, NY
                                  Maplewood, NJ                    Chicago, IL
experiment, feel, and satu-                                                                        Conrad Hilberry (75, 84)
rate myself in the neces-         Sharon Hashimoto (89)            Lloyd Held (05)                 Kalamazoo, MI
                                  Seattle, WA                      Newtonville, MA                 Robert Hiles (93)
sary freedoms out of which
poems arise. There are no         Lola Haskins (84, 03)            Robert Hellenga (89)            Baltimore, MD
                                  LaCrosse, FL                     Galtsburg, IL                   Ingrid Hill (91, 02)
guarantees that a given time
                                  Margaret Hasse (93)              Steve Heller (80)               Iowa City, IA
will produce good work,           St. Paul, MN                     Stillwater, OK
or any work at all. But it’s                                                                       Kathleen Hill (90)
                                  Linda Hasselstrom (84)           Robert Hemenway (78)            New York, NY
exceedingly rare that the         Hermosa, SD                      South Haven, MI                 Pati Hill (76)
outside world ever says to        James B. Hathaway (81)           Essex Hemphill (86)             Stonington, CT
a poet, ‘Please, would you        Cincinnati, OH                   Washington, DC                  Richard Hill (76)
write some new poems?’            Stephen Hathaway (81)            Paul Hendrickson (02)           St. Petersburg, FL
                                  Wichita, KS                      Takoma Park, MD                 Roberta Hill (77)
                                  James Haug (90)                  Don Hendrie (78)                Oneida, WI
                                  Shutesbury, MA                   South Hadley, MA                Brenda Hillman (84)
                                  William Hauptman (77)            Charles Henley (83)             Kensington, CA
                                  New York, NY                     Hattiesburg, MS                 Dennis Hinrichsen (84)
                                  Marianne Hauser (78)             Carol Henrie (89, 96)           Brookline, MA
                                  New York, NY                     Hayward, CA                     Edward Hirsch (81)
                                  Gary Hawkes (00)                                                 Detroit, MI
                                  Williamsport, PA

                                                              24         National Endowment for the Arts
Jane Hirshfield (05)        Israel Horovitz (74)          Jade Ngoc Quang Huynh
Mill Valley, CA            New York, NY                   (98)
Harvey Hix (95)            Diane Horton (95)             Boone, NC
Kansas City, MO            Manitou Springs, CO           Nhuong Huynh (90)
William Hjortsberg (76)    James D. Houston (76)         Columbus, MO
Livingston, MT             Santa Cruz, CA                Lewis Hyde (76, 81, 87)
Edward Hoagland (83)       Benjamin Howard (93)          Watertown, MA
New York, NY               Alfred, NY
Tony Hoagland (87, 94)
Waterville, ME
Geary Hobson (81)
                           Maureen Howard (88)
                           New York, NY
                           Richard Howard (87)
                                                         Karl Iagnemma (04)
Alexander, AR              New York, NY                  Cambridge, MA
Lonnie Hodge (94)          Fanny Howe (70, 91)                                         Mark Jarman (77, 84, 92) is
                                                         Momoko Iko (76)
No city listed, China      La Jolla, CA                                                the author of seven collec-
                                                         Chicago, IL
Christie Hodgen (02)       Marie Howe (92)                                             tions of poetry, the book-
                                                         Lawson Fusao Inada (72, 79)   length poem Iris (1992), and
Louisville, KY             Cambridge, MA                 Ashland, OR
                                                                                       two books of essays on po-
William Hoffman (76)       Christopher Howell (81, 01)   Colette Inez (75, 88)
New York, NY               Spokane, WA                                                 etry. He teaches at Vanderbilt
                                                         New York, NY
William Hoffman (76)       Edward Hower (76)             Lois-Ann Inferrera (94)
Charlotte, VA              Ithaca, NY                    Honolulu, HI
Linda Hogan (86)           Bette Howland (81)            Elizabeth Inness-Brown (83)   I have been the fortunate
Minneapolis, MN            Albuquerque, NM               Ogdensburg, NY                recipient of three grants
Michael Hogan (76)         C. J. Hribal (86)             Mikhail Iossel (93)           from the NEA. Each of
Florence, AZ               Minneapolis, MN               Minneapolis, MN               these grants has helped me
James Hoggard (80)         David Huddle (78, 87)         Thomas Ireland (95)
Wichita Falls, TX          Burlington, VT
                                                                                       find time to complete a
                                                         Santa Fe, NM                  book of poetry, but the first
Cynthia Hogue (90)         Andrew Hudgins (86, 92)       John Irving (74)
Tucson, AZ                 Cincinnati, OH                                              was the most important.
                                                         Iowa City, IA
Jonathan Holden (75, 85)
                                                                                       When I received the NEA
                           Marcus Hudson (84)            Mark Irwin (93)
Manhattan, KS              Nespelem, WA                                                Literature Fellowship for
                                                         Amherst, OH
Cary Holladay (06)         Mary Hughes (78)                                            poetry in 1977, I quit my
                                                         John Isles (05)               onerous teaching job and
Memphis, TN                Evanston, IL                  Alameda, CA
Noy Holland (04)           Lynda Hull (89)                                             went with my wife to live in
                                                         Richard Ives (86)
Heath, MA                  W. Caldwell, NJ               Seattle, WA
                                                                                       Italy for the better part of
Anselm Hollo (79)          Harry Humes (90)                                            a year. There I completed

Sweet Briar, VA            Breinigsville, PA                                           my second book of poetry.
William Holm (87)          Terry Hummer (87)                                           We were in our mid-twen-
Minneota, MN               Mount Vernon, OH                                            ties and able, at that time,
James Holmstrand (74)      John Humphreys (80)           Marvin, Jackmon (72)          to pick up and go. It was a
Albuquerque, NM            New York, NY                  San Francisco, CA             crucial decision and year
Gary Holthaus (90)         Del Hunt (75)                 Angela Jackson (80)           and would not have been
Anchorage, AK              San Antonio, TX               Chicago, IL                   possible without the NEA’s
Arthur Homer (98)          William Hunt (68)             Laura Riding Jackson (80)     assistance.
Omaha, NE                  Chicago, IL                   Wabasso, FL
A. M. Homes (95)           Cynthia Huntington            Richard P. Jackson (84)
New York, NY                 (84, 89)                    Chattanooga, TN
Cathy Hong (05)            Provincetown, MA              Sandra Jackson-Opoku (83)
Brooklyn, NY               Barbara Hurd (02)             Chicago, IL
Garrett Hongo (81, 88)     Frostburg, MD                 Gray Jacobik (93)
Gardena, CA                Anne Hussey (76)              Pomfret Center, CT
Edwin Honig (77)           Cambridge, MA                 Harvey Jacobs (78)
Providence, RI             Paula Huston (94)             New York, NY
Paul Hoover (79)           Arroyo Grande, CA             Peter M. Jacobs (99)
Chicago, IL                                              Madison, WI

                           NEA Literature Fellowships       25
                                 Lowell Jaeger (86)                Willis Johnson (88)            Paul Kahn (79)
                                 Bigfork, MT                       Gardiner, ME                   Arlington, MA
                                 Harold Jaffe (83, 88)             Bret Anthony Johnston (06)     George Kalamaras (93)
                                 San Diego, CA                     San Bernardino, CA             Warsaw, IN
                                 Joyce James (93)                  Alice Jones (94)               Roberta Kalechofsky (81)
                                 Houston, TX                       Oakland, CA                    Marblehead, MA
                                 Kelvin Christopher James          Catherine Jones (77)           Rodger Kamenetz (92)
                                  (96)                             Columbia, SC                   Baton Rouge, LA
                                 New York, NY                      Daryl Jones (85)               Jerry Kamstra (78)
                                 Stewart James (92)                Lubbock, TX                    Aptos, CA
                                 Houston, TX                       Edward P. Jones (86)           Lonny Kaneko (81)
                                 Eugenia Janis (93)                Arlington, VA                  Seattle, WA
Edward P. Jones (86) was         Santa Fe, NM                                                     David Kaplan (87)
                                                                   Gayl Jones (76)
born and raised in Washing-      Phyllis Janowitz (74, 88)         Providence, RI                 Iowa City, IA
ton, DC. He has written one      Ithaca, NY
                                                                   Louis Jones (98)               Johanna Kaplan (73)
book of short stories and        Tama Janowitz (81, 86)            Nevada City, CA                New York, NY
one novel, The Known World       New York, NY
                                                                   Nettie Jones (89)              Karen Karbo (92)
(2003), which subsequently       Jean Janzen (95)                  Houghton, MI                   Portland, OR
won the Pulitzer Prize and the   Fresno, CA
                                                                   Patricia Spears Jones (94)     Wayne Karlin (93, 04)
National Book Critics Circle     Mark Jarman (77, 84, 92)          Brooklyn, NY                   St. Mary’s City, MD
Award in fiction.                 Nashville, TN
                                                                   Paula L. Jones (85)            Kathy Karlson (98)
                                 David Jauss (93)                  Seattle, WA                    University Park, MD
                                 Little, Rock, AR
                                                                   Rodney Jones (84)              Pamela Karol (94)
I can’t say I really had a       Roderick Jellema (79)             Bristol, VA                    Hollywood, CA
career before receiving          Bethesda, MD
                                                                   Stephen Jones (02)             Vickie Karp (94)
the NEA Literature Fel-          Gish Jen (88)                     Lubbock, TX                    Northport, NY
lowship. I published a few       Cambridge, MA
                                                                   William Jones (80)             Mary Karr (84)
stories, but had a day job       Len Jenkin (80)                   Lawndale, CA                   Groves, TX
                                 New York, NY
summarizing newspaper                                              Erica Jong (73)                Laura Kasischke (94, 05)
and magazine articles on         Laura Jensen (79)                 New York, NY                   Chelsea, MI
                                 Tacoma, WA
taxes, working 10 hours a                                          Barbara Jordan (92)            James Kates (84)
                                 Tyehimba Jess (05)                Rochester, NY                  Fitzwilliam, NH
day four days a week. When
                                 Brooklyn, NY
I got the grant from the                                           June Jordan (81)               Judith Katz (91)
                                 Carlos Johnson (90)               Brooklyn, NY                   Minneapolis, MN
National Endowment for           Astoria, NY
the Arts, I stopped going                                          Teresa Jordan (94)             Steven Katz (76, 81)
                                 Charles Johnson (80)              Elko, NV                       Boulder, CO
in every day and worked at       Seattle, WA
home. This freed up my                                             Ernest A. Joselovitz (80)      Janet Kauffman (84)
                                 Curtis L. Johnson (73, 81)        Washington, DC                 Hudson, MI
time, and I could work the       Chicago, IL
                                                                   Lawrence Joseph (84, 95)       Andrew Kaufman (94)
way I wanted: get up in the      Denis Johnson (75, 81)            New York, NY                   New York, NY
morning and write stories,       Phoenix, AZ
                                                                   Allen Josephs (80)             Bob Kaufman (81)
and then do the summa-           Dennis Loy Johnson (93)           Pensacola, FL                  San Francisco, CA
ries in the afternoons. I        Saratoga Springs, NY
                                                                   Donald Junkins (69, 74, 79)    Shirley Kaufman (79)
began in earnest writing         Fenton Johnson (89, 95)           Deerfield, MA                   Jerusalem, Israel
the collection of stories        San Francisco, CA
                                                                   Donald Justice (66, 79, 89)    Rebecca Kavaler (80, 85)
that eventually came out in      Halvard Johnson (90)              Gainesville, FL                New York, NY
1992, Lost in the City.          Baltimore, MD
                                                                                                  Timothy Keane (00)

                                 Kimberly Johnson (05)                                            Mt. Vernon, NY
                                 West Jordan, UT
                                                                                                  Lawrence Kearney (81)
                                 Peter Johnson (99)                                               Stonybrook, NY
                                 Providence, RI                    Rachel Kadish (00)
                                                                   Cambridge, MA                  William Keckler (97)
                                 Ronald Johnson (70, 75)                                          Harrisburg, PA
                                 San Francisco, CA                 Cynthia Kadohata (91)
                                                                   Los Angeles, CA                Edmund Keeley (81)
                                 Thomas Johnson (76)                                              Princeton, NJ
                                 Ithaca, NY

                                                              26        National Endowment for the Arts
Deborah Keenan (87)            Anthony Kerrigan (88)        Gary Kissick (81)
St. Paul, MN                   South Bend, IN               Port Richey, FL
Anna Maria Keesey (98)         John Kessel (80)             Vera Kistler (80)
Portland, OR                   Overland Park, KS            Darlington, SC
Barbara Keiler (77)            Wendy Kesselman (80)         Judith Kitchen (91)
Chico, CA                      New York, NY                 Brockport, NY
Kirk Keller (88)               Brad Kessler (06)            Brian Kiteley (91)
Moran, WY                      Sandgate, VT                 Northampton, MA
Nora Okja Keller (00)          Jascha Kessler (75)          William Kittredge (74, 81)
Waipahn, HI                    Santa Monica, CA             Missoula, MT
Lewen Kellman (93)             Keorapetse Kgositsile (70)   Matthew Klam (02)
Augusta, GA                    New York, NY                 Washington, DC
Brigit Pegeen Kelly (85, 95)   Faizul Khan (80)             Peter Klappert (73, 79)      Suji Kwock Kim (01) has had
Urbana, IL                     Bronx, NY                    Alexandria, VA               work published in Poetry,
David M. Kelly (70, 76, 92)    Faye Kicknosway (85)         Edward Kleinschmidt (97)     Paris Review, The Nation, The
Geneseo, NY                    Bloomfield, MI                San Francisco, CA            New Republic, Threepenny Re-
                                                                                         view, and other journals. Her
Robert Kelly (76)              Tracy Kidder (74)            Irena Klepfisz (88)
Annandale-on-Hudson, NY        Iowa City, IA                Cherry Plain, NY             first book, Notes from the Di-
                                                                                         vided Country, was the winner
Tim Kelly (76)                 John O. Killens (80)         Marshall Klimasewiski (02)
Los Angeles, CA                Brooklyn, NY                 St. Louis, MO                of the 2002 Walt Whitman
                                                                                         Award from the Academy of
Charles Kemnitz (04)           Richard Kim (78)             Verlyn Klinkenborg (88)
                                                                                         American Poets.
Williamsport, PA               Shutesbury, MA               Bronx, NY
Dolores Kendrick (88)          Yong Ik Kim (76, 85)         Milton Klonsky (77)
Exeter, NH                     Pittsburgh, PA               New York, NY
Paul Kennebeck (75)            Suji Kwock Kim (01)          Stephen Knauth (84, 96)      I used the fellowship to do
Denver, CO                     Milton, NY                   Charlotte, NC                research in Asia, neces-
Adrienne Kennedy (72)          James Kimbrell (05)          Etheridge Knight (72, 81)    sary to the completion of
New Haven, CT                  Tallahassee, FL              Memphis, TN                  my first book, Notes from
Pamela Kennedy (93)            Jamaica Kincaid (86)         Hillery Knight (68)          the Divided Country. Among
Allston, MA                    New York, NY                 Chicago, IL                  other things, it explores my
Richard S. Kennedy (73)        Nanci Kincaid (92)           John I. Knoepfle (81)         family’s life in North and
Merion, PA                     Tuscaloosa, AL               Auburn, IL                   South Korea during the
Sarah Kennedy (05)             Chuck Kinder (80)            William Knott (69, 79, 85)   last century, particularly
Fairfield, VA                   Beckley, WV                  Iowa City, IA                the War (1950-1953) and
William Kennedy (81)           Molly King (88)              Caroline Knox (86)           the Japanese occupation
Averill Park, NY               Woodacre, CA                 Westerly, RI
                                                                                         (1910-1945)… I hope to
X. J. Kennedy (66)             Douglas King (95)            Noelle Kocot (01)            honor my family’s memory
Medford, MA                    Grass Valley, CA             Brooklyn, NY
                                                                                         the only way I know how: by
Tamara Kennelly (78, 83)       Maxine Hong Kingston (80)    Ronald Koertge (91)
Chicago, IL                                                 South Pasadena, CA
                                                                                         imagining and giving voice,
                               Honolulu, HI
                                                                                         however subjectively, to
Susan Kenney (83)              Galway Kinnell (77, 84)      Phyllis Koestenbaum (86)
China, ME                      New York, NY                 San Jose, CA                 what they lived through and
Natalie Kenvin (95)            David Kirby (85)             John Koethe (96)
Chicago, IL                    Tallahassee, FL              Milwaukee, WI
Jane Kenyon (81)               Karl Kirchwey (96)           James Koller (73)
Danbury, NH                    New York, NY                 Wayne, ME
Beth Kephart (00)              Irina Kirk (81)              Yusef Komunyakaa (81, 88)
Devon, PA                      Mansfield Center, CT          Bogalusa, LA
David Keplinger (03)           Smith Kirkpatrick (73)       Hans Koning (78, 85)
Harleysville, PA               Gainesville, FL              Fairfield, CT
Jesse Lee Kercheval (89)       Patricia Kirkpatrick (92)    Ted Kooser (76, 84)
Madison, WI                    St. Paul, MN                 Lincoln, NE
Baine Kerr (83)                                             Arthur Kopit (74)
Boulder, CO                                                 Peru, VT

                               NEA Literature Fellowships      27
                                  Henry Korn (77)
                                  Brooklyn Heights, NY
                                  Joyce Kornblatt (85)
                                                                   Norah Labiner (02)
                                                                                                  Peter Leach (83)
                                                                                                  St. Louis, MO
                                                                                                  David Leavitt (85)
                                  Bethesda, MD                     Minneapolis, MN                New York, NY
                                  Tadeusz Korzeniewski (92)        Edward Lahey (79)              David LeCount (66)
                                  New York, NY                     Butte, MT                      College, AK
                                  Norman Kotker (85)               Jhumpa Lahiri (06)             Don Lee (70, 81)
                                  Northampton, MA                  Brooklyn, NY                   Chicago, IL
                                  Zane Kotker (74)                 Wayne Banks Lainer (77)        Karen An-hwei Lee (05)
                                  New York, NY                     Oklahoma City, OK              Santa Ana, CA
                                  Robert Kotlowitz (83)            Michael Lally (74, 81)         Lance Lee (76)
                                  New York, NY                     New York, NY                   Pacific Palisades, CA
Ted Kooser (76, 84) is the        William Kotzwinkle (74)                                         Li-Young Lee (87, 95)
                                                                   Ivonne Lamazares (04)
author of ten collections of      Scranton, PA                                                    Chicago, IL
                                                                   Winter Park, FL
poetry, and was awarded           Steve Kowit (85)                                                William D. Lee (86)
the Pulitzer Prize in 2005 for                                     Wally Lamb (93)
                                  San Diego, CA                    Willimantic, CT                Paragonah, UT
his collection Delights and
                                  Elaine Kraf (81)                 Arthur Lange (79)              Barbara Lefcowitz (84)
Shadows. In 2004, he was ap-      Maspeth, NY                                                     Bethesda, MD
                                                                   Chicago, IL
pointed U.S. Poet Laureate. He
                                  Eric Kraft (86)                  Elinor Langer (76)             Diane Lefer (83)
is currently a visiting profes-   Newburyport, MA                                                 New York, NY
sor in the English department                                      Chicago, IL
                                  Richard Krawiec (92)             Joseph Langland (66)           David Lehman (87)
of the University of Nebraska
                                  Wareham, MA                      Amherst, MA                    Lansing, NY
at Lincoln.
                                  John Krich (80, 91)              William Lanouette (87)         Lynda Leidiger (90)
                                  San Francisco, CA                Washington, DC                 Iowa City, IA
                                  Gary Krist (89)                  Marina LaPalma (84)            Alex Lemon (05)
I received my first NEA            Brooklyn, NY                     La Jolla, CA                   St. Paul, MN
Fellowship in 1976 and was        Judith Kroll (75, 79)            Joan Larkin (87, 96)           Cecile Leneman (88)
thrilled to have the recog-       New Delhi, India                 Shelburne Falls, MA            San Francisco, CA
nition and, of course, the        Jim Krusoe (85)                  Jeremy Larner (67)             Cornel Lengyel (76)
money. I considered the           Santa Monica, CA                 No city listed, NY             Georgetown, CA
fellowship to be an encour-       Marilyn Krysl (00)               Michael Larson (95)            Rhoda Lerman (89)
agement, and I was encour-        Boulder, CO                      Owatonna, MN                   Cazenovia, NY
aged indeed. I remember           Jan Kubicki (89, 95)             Peter LaSalle (81)             Martin Lesley (86)
suddenly feeling like a real      Philadelphia, PA                 Austin, TX                     Portland, OR
writer, and it was both a         Kenneth Kuhlken (83)             John Latta (79, 01)            Naton Leslie (93)
                                  Chico, CA                                                       Loudonville, NY
heady and productive time.                                         Ann Arbor, MI
During the next few years         Ellen Kullman (80)               Lois Lautner (69)              Donald Levering (84)
                                  New Orleans, LA                  New York, NY                   Santa Fe, NM
I published lots of poems
in the journals and two           Maxine Kumin (67)                Dorianne Laux (90, 01)         Denise Levertov (69, 90)
                                  No city listed, MA               Eugene, OR                     Seattle, WA
collections of poems. Eight
                                  Stanley Kunitz (84)              Norman Lavers (81, 91)         Dana Levin (99)
years later I received my         New York, NY                                                    Ukiah, CA
second fellowship and that                                         Jonesboro, AR
                                  Alex Kuo (90)                    Douglas Lawder (68)            Robert Levin (81)
one helped me to finish the        Moscow, ID                                                      Berkeley, CA
                                                                   Richmond, IN
manuscript of a book pub-         Cleveland Kurtz (76)                                            Allen Levine (73)
lished in the following year.                                      Patrick Lawler (91)
                                  Providence, RI                   Liverpool, NY                  New York, NY
                                  Don Kurtz (92)                   Leslie Lawrence (90)           Mark Levine (97)
                                  Las Cruces, NM                   Cambridge, MA                  Brooklyn, NY
                                  Natalie Kusz (95)                Naomi Lazard (81)              Miriam Levine (98)
                                  Jamaica Plain, MA                Missoula, MT                   Arlington, MA
                                  Greg Kuzma (81)                  Jane Lazarre (91)              Philip Levine (76, 81, 87)
                                  Lincoln, NE                      New York, NY                   Fresno, CA
                                  Joanne Kyger (69)                Meridel Le Sueur (80)          Larry Levinger (78)
                                  San Francisco, CA                St. Paul, MN                   Missoula, MT

                                                              28        National Endowment for the Arts
Larry Levis (73, 84, 89)   Lucia Lockert (81)           Daniel Lyons (94)
Columbia, MO               East Lansing, MI             Ann Arbor, MI
Ann Levy (78)              Ronald Loewinsohn (78, 86)   Eugene Lyons (76)
Lexington, KY              Berkeley, CA                 Austin, TX
Robert Levy (88)           John Logan (79)              Jacqueline Lyons (03)
New York, NY               Buffalo, NY                  Salt Lake City, UT
Grover Lewis (76)          William Logan (84, 94)       Richard Lyons (82)
Kanarraville, UT           Cambridge, England           Eugene, OR
Ira Lewis (80)             Joan Logghe (91)             Andrew Lytle (66)
New York, NY                   n
                           Espa˜ ola, NM                Sewanee, TN
James Lewisohn (77)        Ralph Lombreglia (87)

Portland, ME               Morris Plains, NJ
John L’Heureux (80, 85)    Roy London (74)                                            Philip Levine (76, 81, 87)
Stanford, CA               New York, NY                                               was born in 1928 in Detroit,
                                                        Catherine MacCoun (95)        Michigan, where many of his
Morton Lichter (77)        Barbara Long (77)            Chicago, IL
New York, NY               New York, NY                                               poems are set. He has won
                                                        Cynthia MacDonald (73, 90)    numerous awards for his
Todd Lieber (87)           David Long (93)              Houston, TX
Indianola, IA              Kalispell, MT                                              writing, including the National
                                                        David MacDonald (83)          Book Award, the National
Laurence Lieberman (86)    Robert Hill Long (88, 05)    Palo Alto, CA
Urbana, IL                 Eugene, OR                                                 Book Critics Circle Award, and
                                                        Susan MacDonald (77)          the Pulitzer Prize. He is author
Renee Lieberman (78)       George Looney (92)           Menlo Park, CA                of sixteen collections of po-
Berkeley, CA               Bowling Green, OH
                                                        Jamie MacInnis (79)           ems and two books of essays.
Herbert Liebman (80)       Phillip Lopate (78, 85)      New York, NY
New York, NY               Houston, TX
                                                        Donna Mack (78)
Kathleen Lignell (84)      Ellenora Beth Lordan (93)    Anchorage, AK
Stockton Springs, ME       Carbondale, IL                                             The ’87 grant gave me re-
                                                        Norman MacLoed (74)
Harvey Lillywhite (89)     Audre Lorde (81, 90)         Membroke, NC                  sources to return to Detroit
Reisterstown, MD           St. Croix, VI                                              in order to research the
                                                        Jackson MacLow (79)
Lucy Lim (77)              David Wong Louie (89)        New York, NY                  poem, ‘A Walk with Tom
New York, NY               Santa Cruz, CA                                             Jefferson,’ the longest and
                                                        Ian MacMillan (92)
Vicki Lindner (86)         Adrian Louis (92)            Kailua, HI                    best poem I’ve ever written.
New York, NY               Pine Ridge, SD
                                                        Ben Maddow (69)
Frances Lindsay (89)       David Low (81)               Los Angeles, CA               Had such grants existed
Cambridge, MA              New York, NY
                                                        Philip Magdalany (80)         when I was in my 30s and
Kelly Link (06)            Beverly Lowry (80)           New York, NY                  early 40s and teaching
Northampton, MA            Houston, TX
                                                        James Magnuson (78)           too much and writing too
R. Zamora Linmark (01)     Susan Ludvigson (84)         New York, NY                  little, there’s no knowing
Honolulu, HI               Charlotte, NC
                                                        Rosemary Mahoney (06)         how much more I might
Romulus Linney (74)        Edward Lueders (83)          Providence, RI
New York, NY               Salt Lake City, UT
                                                                                      have written, but I thank
                                                        Joseph Maiolo (78, 83)        my good fortune that they
Peter Liotta (93)          Darrell Lum (90)             Duluth, MN
Burke, VA                  Honolulu, HI                                               arrived in time to help
                                                        Nancy Mairs (91)              me become, for better
Lewis Lipsitz (68)         Lynn Luria-Sukenick          Tucson, AZ
Chapel Hill, NC             (74, 79, 86)                                              or worse, the poet I have
                           New York, NY                 George Malko (68)             become.
Paul Lisicky (90)                                       New York, NY
Cherry Hill, NJ            Glenna Luschei (77)
                           San Luis Obispo, CA          Henry Malone (68)
Leo Litwak (69, 80)                                     Detroit, MI
San Francisco, CA          Gary Lutz (96)
                           Greensburg, PA               Jacquelyn Malone (88)
Stephen Liu (81)                                        Lowell, MA
Las Vegas, NV              William Luvaas (06)
                           Hemet, CA                    Michael Patrick Malone (83)
Margot Livesey (86)                                     Chicago, IL
Cambridge, MA              Thomas Lux (76, 81, 88)
                           West Newton, MA              Paul Malone (90)
Christina Llewellyn (88)                                Wimberley, TX
Washington, DC             Thomas Lynch (88)
                           Milford, MI

                           NEA Literature Fellowships      29
                                   F. S. Manalli (70)                Dionisio Martinez (97)         Bruce McAllister (91)
                                   Santa Rosa, CA                    Tampa, FL                      Redlands, CA
                                   Marvin Mandel (74)                Michael Martone (83, 88)       Mary McAnally (82)
                                   West Roxbury, MA                  Cambridge, MA                  Tulsa, OK
                                   Frederick Manfred (76, 83)        Mary Marvin (78)               Sara McAulay (85)
                                   Luverne, MN                       San Francisco, CA              Mountain Lakes, NJ
                                   Freya Manfred (77)                Donna Masini (91)              James McAuley (72)
                                   Sioux Falls, SD                   New York, NY                   Four Lakes, WA
                                   Renee Manfredi (92)               Carole Maso (88)               Mekeel McBride (78, 85)
                                   McMurray, PA                      New York, NY                   Princeton, NJ
                                   Frank Manley (95)                 Bobbie Ann Mason (83)          Regina McBride (93)
                                   Decatur, GA                       Mayfield, KY                    New York, NY
Bobbie Ann Mason (83) grew         Linda Mannheim (00)               Clifford Mason (80)            Jane McCafferty (94)
up in rural Kentucky, the set-     Miami, FL                         New York, NY                   Pittsburgh, PA
ting of much of her fiction.        Carl Marcum (03)                  Nicola Faith Mason (00)        Donald McCaig (80)
She has written a memoir,          Chicago, IL                       Baton Rouge, LA                Williamsville, VA
novels, and short-story
                                   Adrianne Marcus (68)              Tim Mason (76)                 Janet McCann (89)
collections, including Shiloh      San Rafael, CA                    Minneapolis, MN                College Station, TX
and Other Stories (1982).
                                   Ben Marcus (00)                   Harry Mathews (82)             Richard McCann (95)
                                   Providence, RI                    Paris, France                  Washington, DC
                                   Laura Marello (83)                Louis P. Mathews (92)          Linda McCarriston (84, 89)
I wanted to do something           Reseda, CA                        Los Angeles, CA                Chelsea, VT
that would be rich and last-       Paul Mariani (84)                 Anita Mathias (98)             James McCartin (76)
ing, but I never expected it to    Montague, MA                      Williamsburg, VA               Wayne, NJ
have such popular appeal and       Peter Marin (76)                  Cleopatra Mathis (85, 03)      J. D. McClatchy (87)
tangible social effect. Yet this   Santa Barbara, CA                 Hanover, NH                    New York, NY
novel [In Country] was a sur-      Stephen Daniel Marion (00)        Dennis Mathis (83)             Michael McClure (75)
prising commercial success,        Dandridge, TN                     Petersburg, IL                 San Francisco, CA
and it has affected the lives of   Wallace Markfield (67)             Ted Mathys (05)                Davis McCombs (03)
many people.                       No city listed, NY                New York, NY                   Fayetteville, AR
                                   Corey Marks (03)                  Holly Matter (98)              James McConkey (69)
The NEA grant helped me            Denton, TX                        Seattle, WA                    Trumansburg, NY
write the novel, which I did       David Markson (90)                David Matthew (66)             Frank D. McConnell (69)
for my own artistic reasons. I     New York, NY                      New York, NY                   Ithaca, NY
report these unexpected ben-       Julia Markus (80)                 William Matthews (75, 84)      Malcolm McConnell (75)
                                   Washington, DC                    Seattle, WA                    Albany, NY
efits that In Country brought
to the community—from the          Jack Marlando (76)                Jessica Maxwell (82)           Patricia McConnell (83, 88)
                                   Pasadena, CA                      Santa Barbara, CA              Moab, UT
classroom to the veterans’
group to the economy to the        Stefanie Marlis (94)              Bernadette Mayer (79)          Howard McCord (76, 83)
                                   San Anselmo, CA                   Lenox, MA                      Bowling Green, OH
morale of my own home-
town—because I think they          Charles Marowitz (80)             Frances Mayes (88)             James McCorkle (97)
                                   New York, NY                      San Francisco, CA              Geneva, NY
are significant in reminding
                                   Paule Marshall (68, 78)           Lee Maynard (95)               Mairi MacInnes McCormick
people that what may look          New York, NY                      Cochiti Lake, NM                 (84)
like self-indulgence in its                                                                         Princeton, NJ
                                   Charles Martin (96)               Wendell Mayo, Jr. (00)
beginnings can turn out to         Brooklyn, NY                      Haskins, OH                    Elizabeth McCracken (92)
have long-reaching, positive                                                                        Philadelphia, PA
                                   James Martin (76)                 Gail Mazur (77)
effects on the culture.            Cambridge, MA                     Cambridge, MA                  Peggy McCreary (90)
                                   Lee Martin (00)                   Cris Mazza (00)                Bellingham, WA
                                   Denton, TX                        Elmhurst, IL                   Kenneth McCullough (74)
                                   Richard Martin (82)               James McAfee (76)              Bozeman, MT
                                   Avon, NY                          Columbia, MO                   Emily McCully (80)
                                   Valerie Martin (90)               Thomas McAfee (69)             Brooklyn, NY
                                   Montague, MA                      Columbia, MO

                                                                30        National Endowment for the Arts
Jeffrey McDaniel (03)      Robert McNamara (87)         W. S. Merwin (69, 77)
Los Angeles, CA            Seattle, WA                  New York, NY
W. A. McDonald (94)        Duncan McNaughton (87)       Joanne Meschery (80, 85)
No city listed, Chile      Santa Cruz, CA               Truckee, CA
Walter McDonald (84, 89)   Tom McNeal (06)              Sarah Messer (99)
Lubbock, TX                Fallbrook, CA                North Marshfield, MA
Jill McDonough (05)        Martha McPhee (98)           Deena Metzger (78)
Jamaica Plain, MA          New York, NY                 Studio City, CA
Tom McDonough (85)         James McPherson (72)         Michael Mewshaw (74)
New York, NY               Berkeley, CA                 Austin, TX
Karen Salyer McElmurray    Sandra McPherson             Thomas Meyer (79)
 (93)                        (74, 79, 85)               Highlands, NC
Weaverville, NC            Portland, OR                                                Davis McCombs’s (03) first
                                                        Kent Meyers (92)
Colleen McElroy (77, 91)   Robert McQuilkin (84)        Spearfish, SD                   book, Ultima Thule, was
Seattle, WA                Simsbury, CT                                                chosen by W. S. Merwin as
                                                        Lucas Meyers (68)
David McElroy (66, 76)     Janet McReynolds (77)        Sewanee, TN                    the winner of the 1999 Yale
Missoula, MT               Boulder, CO                                                 Series of Younger Poets.
                                                        Robert Mezey (85)
Joseph McElroy (73, 86)    Kat Meads (03)               Claremont, CA                  Published in April 2000, the
New York, NY               Santa Cruz, CA                                              book focused on Kentucky’s
                                                        Peter Michelson (76)
Lynne McFall (90, 95)      Mary E. Mebane (83)          Boulder, CO                    Mammoth Cave where he
Syracuse, NY               Shorewood, WI                                               grew up. Sixteen of his recent
                                                        Christopher Middleton (79)
Dennis McFarland (91)                                                                  “tobacco poems” won The
                           Pablo Medina (91)            Austin, TX
Watertown, MA              Washington, DC                                              Missouri Review’s 2005 Larry
                                                        Barton Midwood (68)            Levis Editor’s Prize.
Michael McFee (87)         Ruben Medina (82)            Coral Gables, FL
Durham, NC                 Minneapolis, MN              Josephine Miles (66, 80)
Jean McGarry (87)          Murray Mednick (69)          Berkeley, CA
Columbia, MD               Brooklyn, NY                                                The poems of my first
                                                        Sara Miles (82)
Thomas McGrath             Jay Meek (73)                Brooklyn, NY                   book, Ultima Thule, like
 (74, 82, 87)              Manlius, NY                                                 the eyeless fish found in
Minneapolis, MN                                         Joseph Millar (03)
                           Emily Meier (98)             Eugene, OR                     Mammoth’s Echo River,
Heather McHugh (74, 82)    St. Paul, MN
Eastport, ME                                            Benjamin Miller (96)           evolved in the silence and
                           Peter Meinke (74, 89)        Brooklyn, NY                   darkness of the cave. The
Christopher McIlroy (87)   St. Petersburg, FL
Tucson, AZ                                              Brown Miller (69)              poems I am writing now
                           William Meissner (75)        Daly City, CA                  begin to venture out into
Kevin McIlvoy (83)         St. Cloud, MN
Las Cruces, NM                                          Heather Ross Miller (68, 73)   the world of light, into the
                           Michael Mejia (06)           Elizabethtown, NC              vanishing communities of
Ralph McInerny (83)        Rome, GA
South Bend, IN                                          Jane Miller (85, 95)           tobacco farms above the
                           David Meltzer (74)           Tucson, AZ                     cave. With the help of the
Vestal McIntyre (06)       Richmond, CA
New York, NY                                            Leslie Miller (89)             NEA, I can now devote my-
                           Charlotte Mendez (87)        Houston, TX
David McKain (82)          Wells Bridge, NY
                                                                                       self fully to writing them.
Norwich, CT                                             Susan Miller (76)              Only in that way do I have
                           Ifeanyi Menkiti (77)         Los Angeles, CA
Irene McKinney (86)        Cambridge, MA                                               any hope of writing half the
Clinton, NY                                             Steven Millhauser (86)         book I want.
                           Mary E. Merchant (83)        Mamaroneck, NY
Reginald McKnight (91)     Hamlin, NY
Pittsburgh, PA                                          Arthenia Millican (76)
                           Don Meredith (83, 89)        Norfolk, VA
Paula McLain (01)          Occidental, CA
Madison, WI                                             Pamela Millward (68)
                           William Meredith (72, 84)    San Francisco, CA
James McManus (79, 85)     Washington, DC
Winnetka, IL                                            David Milofsky (89)
                           Louise M. Meriwether (73)    Denver, CO
Terry McMillan (88)        Bronx, NY
Laramie, WY                                             John Milton (76)
                           Anne Hamilton Merkley (66)   Vermillion, SD
Wesley McNair (79, 89)     Pocatello, ID
Farmington, ME                                          Katherine Min (92)
                           James Mersmann (76)          Campton, NM
Thomas McNally (94)        Birmingham, AL
Rockford, IL

                           NEA Literature Fellowships      31
                                  John Minczeski (84)              Pat Mora (94)                  Jacqueline Pierce Mungai
                                  St. Paul, MN                     Cincinnati, OH                  (83)
                                  Stephen Minot (76, 82)           Alejandro Morales (82)         Philadelphia, PA
                                  Simsbury, CT                     Santa Ana, CA                                 ~
                                                                                                  Manuel Munoz (06)
                                  Gary Miranda (76)                Fred Morgan (78)               New York, NY
                                  Cambridge, MA                    Albemarle, NC                  David Mura (85, 93)
                                  Stephanie Miskowski (90)         Richard Morgan (82)            St. Paul, MN
                                  Seattle, WA                      Portland, OR                   Stephen Murabito (91)
                                  Judson Mitcham (88)              Robert Morgan                  Slickville, PA
                                  Macon, GA                          (68, 75, 82, 87)             Morna Murphy (76)
                                  Roger Mitchell (86, 01)          Freeville, NY                  Los Angeles, CA
                                  Bloomington, IN                  Robin Morgan (79)              Roberta Murphy (88)
Marilyn Nelson (82, 90) has       Susan Mitchell (82)              New York, NY                   Washington, DC
written six books of poetry,      Charlottesville, VA              Speer Morgan (90)              Yannick Murphy (88)
several of which have been        James Masao Mitsui (76)          Columbia, MO                   Staten Island, NY
finalists for the National Book    Seattle, WA                      Helga Morpurgo (75)            Joan Murray (89)
Award, and two collections of                                      New York, NY                   Rochester, NY
                                  Wendy Mnookin (99)
poetry for children. She is       Chestnut Hill, MA                Catherine B. Morris (93)       Matthew Murrey (95)
Professor Emeritus at the Uni-                                     Kansas City, MO                Urbana, IL
                                  Tony Moffeit (92)
versity of Connecticut, Storrs,   Pueblo, CO                       Mary Morris (78)               Carol Muske-Dukes (84)
and was named Connecticut                                          New York, NY                   Studio City, CA
                                  Judith Moffett (84)
Poet Laureate in 2001.
                                  Media, PA                        Wright Morris (86)             Bernard Myers (80)
                                  Carol Moldaw (94)                Mill Valley, CA                Washington, DC
                                  Santa Fe, NM                     Madison Morrison (79)          Jack Myers (82, 86)
In 1982 I had a teaching          Ursule Molinaro (82)             Norman, OK                     Dallas, TX
position in a department          Blacksburg, VA                   David Morse (92)               Walter Myers (82, 89)
in which I was junior,            Dorothy Monet (78)               Storrs, CT                     Jersey City, NJ
one of few women, and             New York, NY                     John Mort (92)

the only person of color.         Joseph Monninger (87, 94)        Kansas City, MO
My department weighed             Bridgewater, NH                  Howard Frank Mosher (87)
the value of poems toward         Nicholas Montemarano (02)        Irasburg, VT
                                                                                                  Peter Najarian (00)
tenure and merit pay              Warrensburg, MO                  Barbara Klein Moss (06)        Berkeley, CA
increases by their length:        Robert Montgomery (74)           Haverford, PA
                                                                                                  Rochelle Nameroff (92)
a 3-page free-verse poem          New York, NY                     Howard Moss (84)               Berkeley, CA
was worth more than a             Jose Montoya (82)                New York, NY
                                                                                                  Sena Jeter Naslund (78)
sonnet, and both were             Sacramento, CA                   Thylias Moss (89)              Louisville, KY
                                                                   Andover, MA
worth much less than an           Michael Moody (76)                                              Lawrence Naumoff (70)
essay about commas in             New York, NY                     Nikki Moustaki (01)            Carrboro, NC
                                  Susan Moon (93)                  Ft. Lauderdale, FL
the work of Beauregard                                                                            Gloria Naylor (85)
Wadsworth (1796 – 1861).          Berkeley, CA                     Julian Moynahan (66)           Hollis, NY
                                  Michael M. Mooney (82)           New Brunswick, NJ
With the fellowship I                                                                             Phyllis Naylor (87)
                                  Milwaukee, WI                    Daniel Mueller (96)
became not the African                                             Provincetown, MA
                                                                                                  Bethesda, MD
Americanist who hadn’t            Alison Moore (93)                                               Jessica Neely (90)
                                  Tucson, AZ                       Lisel Mueller (90)             Washington, DC
published, but the award-                                          Lake Forest, IL
                                  Dinty Moore (92)
winning poet. By freeing                                                                          Janet Neipris (80)
                                  Altoona, PA                      Bharati Mukharjee (86)         Winchester, MA
me from teaching respon-                                           Long Island City, NY
                                  Honor Moore (82)                                                Antonya Nelson (89)
sibilities it allowed me to       New York, NY                     Laura Mullen (88)
start the painful inner                                                                           Evanston, IL
                                  Lorrie Moore (89)                Palo Alto, CA
growth necessary for a                                                                            Kent Nelson (78, 91)
                                  Madison, WI                      Robert Mullen (76)             Exeter, NH
new project.                      Rod Moore (80)                   New Haven, CT
                                                                                                  Marilyn Nelson (82, 90)
                                  Cayey, PR                        Sheila Mulligan-Webb (02)      Mansfield Center, CT
                                  Michael Moos (75)                Gettysburg, PA
                                                                                                  Paul Nelson (77)
                                  Moorhead, MN                                                    Plainfield, VT

                                                              32        National Endowment for the Arts
Richard J. Nelson (80)      Alan D. Nurkse (84, 95)      Mary Oliver (72)
Brooklyn, NY                Brooklyn, NY                 Provincetown, MA
Richard K. Nelson (91)                                   Robert Olmstead (93)

Sitka, AK                                                Mt. Holly, PA
Jay Neugeboren (73, 89)                                  Lance Olsen (06)
Northampton, MA                                          New Meadows, ID
                            Joyce Carol Oates (69)
Michael Neville (77)        Windsor, Canada              Tillie Olsen (67)
Bronx, NY                                                No city listed, CA
                            Achy Obejas (86)
Susan Neville (78, 88)      Chicago, IL                  William Olsen (96)
Bowling Green, OH                                        Kalamazoo, MI
                            Dan O’Brien (76, 83)
Margaret Newlin (76)                                     Charles Olson (69)
                            Whitewood, SD
Secane, PA                                               Gloucester, MA
                            Dorene O’Brien (04)                                      Ishmael Reed (75) is the au-
Charles H. Newman (73)                                   Merle Olson (85)
                            West Bloomfield, MI
Evanston, IL                                             Philadelphia, PA            thor of nine novels, six plays,
                            John A. O’Brien (80)                                     one opera libretto, six books
Leslea Newman (97)                                       Kevin O’Morrison (80)
                            Roxbury, MA                                              of poetry, and six books of
Northhampton, MA                                         New York, NY
                            John C. O’Brien (83)                                     essays, and he is the editor
Fae Myenne Ng (90)                                       John Omwake (66)
                            Oswego, NY                                               of numerous anthologies and
Brooklyn, NY                                             Chambersburg, PA
                            William O’Brien (76, 88)                                 magazines. His honors include
Maris Nichols (85)                                       Robert Onopa (85)
                            Boxford, MA                                              the Chancellor’s Award for
Pittsfield, MA                                            Kailua, HI
                            Edwin Ochester (84)                                      Community Service from the
Joseph Nicholson (80)                                    George Oppen (80)
                            Shelocta, PA                                             University of California, Berke-
Loch Haven, PA                                           San Francisco, CA
                            Vanessa Ochs (91)                                        ley, where he taught creative
Ann Nietzke (87)                                         Joel Oppenheimer (79)
Los Angeles, CA
                            Morristown, NJ                                           writing for 35 years, retiring
                                                         New York, NY
                            Regina Ochsner (06)                                      emeritus as of January 2005.
N. Michael Niflis (74)                                    Sally Ordway (77)
                            Keizer, OR                                               He is also founder of the
Tillamook, OR                                            New York, NY
                            Shaun O’Connell (76)                                     Before Columbus Foundation,
Nona Nimnicht (84)                                       Steven Orlen (75, 79, 85)   which annually presents the
Oakland, CA                 Sudbury, MA
                                                         Tucson, AZ                  American Book Awards, and
John Frederick Nims (66)    Wendy O’Connor (87)
                            Washington, DC               John M. Orlock (80)         the Oakland chapter of PEN.
Chicago, IL                                              St. Paul, MN
Hugh Nissenson (78)         Mary O’Donnell (75)
                            Madison, WI                  Peter Orlovsky (79)
New York, NY                                             New York, NY
                            Chris Offutt (93)                                        I received a National
Cornelia Nixon (92)                                      William O’Rourke (82, 90)
Bloomington, IN             Iowa City, IA                                            Endowment Fellowship in
                                                         South Bend, IN
                            Hugh Ogden (93)                                          1975. This assistance and
Sheryl Noethe (90)                                       Daniel Orozco (06)
Salmon, ND                  Glastonbury, CT                                          a small advance from a
                                                         Moscow, ID
                            Timothy O’Grady (92)                                     publisher gave me the time
James Nolan (78)                                         Gregory Orr (78, 89)
New Orleans, LA             London, England                                          to conduct research and
                                                         Charlottesville, VA
Bink Noll (74)              Diana O’Hehir (86)                                       to write my fourth novel,
                            Oakland, CA                  Julie Orringer (04)
Beloit, WI                                               San Francisco, CA
                                                                                     Flight To Canada, which was
John Ford Noonan (72, 80)   Louis Ohle (78)                                          a parody of 19th-century
                            Austin, TX                   Simon J. Ortiz (70, 82)
New York, NY                                             Pueblo of Acoma, NM         fugitive slave novels. This
Howard Norman (91)          Pamolu Oldham (87)
                                                         Mark Osaki (82)
                                                                                     novel is still in print!
College Park, MD            Cameron, NC
                                                         Berkeley, CA
Harold Norse (75)           Sharon Olds (82)
                            New York, NY                 Brenda Osbey (90)
San Francisco, CA                                        Los Angeles, CA
Charles North (79, 01)      Carole Oles (76)
                            Newton, MA                   Jacqueline Osherow (99)
New York, NY                                             Salt Lake, City, UT
Alice Notley (79, 95)       Carole Oligario (81)
                            Los Angeles, CA              Jena Osman (91)
No city listed, France                                   New York, NY
Craig Nova (71, 74, 85)     Eve Olitsky (77)
                            New York, NY                 Alicia Ostriker (76)
West Dover, VT                                           Princeton, NJ
Josip Novakovich (91, 02)   Juan Oliver (86)
                            La Jolla, CA                 John L. O’Toole (81)
Blue Creek, OH                                           Washington, DC
Beth Nugent (95)
Boulder, CO
                            NEA Literature Fellowships      33
                                    Ron Overton (76)               Michael Paterniti (02)          John F. Pfeil (82)
                                    Lake Grove, NY                 Portland, ME                    Corvallis, OR
                                    Maureen Owen (79)              William Patrick (79)            Roger Pfingston (77)
                                    Guilford, CT                   Arlington, VA                   Bloomington, IN
                                    Louis Owens (89)               Lindsay Patterson (68)          Arthur Pfister (70)
                                    Sandia Park, NM                New York, NY                    New Orleans, LA
                                    Rochelle Owens (74)            Raymond R. Patterson (70)       Robert D. Pharr (82)
                                    New York, NY                   Merrick, NY                     Richmond, VA
                                    Cynthia Ozick (68)             John Pauker (79)                Mari E. Phemster (82)
                                    New Rochelle, NY               Washington, DC                  Indianapolis, IN
                                                                   Molly Peacock (91)              Leila Philip (94)

                                                                   New York, NY                    Brooklyn, NY
Norman Rush (86) was raised                                        Harry Pearson (67)              Jayne Anne Phillips (78, 85)
in Oakland, California, and                                        No city listed, NC              Jamaica Plain, MA
graduated from Swarthmore           Robert Pack (69)
                                    Middlebury, VT                 Janet Peery (92)                Matthew Phillips (91)
College in 1956. He has been                                       Wichita, KS                     Iowa City, IA
an antiquarian book dealer, a       Ann Packer (93)
                                    Eugene, OR                     Kathleen Peirce (05)            Constance Pierce (83, 90)
college instructor, and, with his                                  Wimberley, TX                   Brookville, IN
wife Elsa, he lived and worked      Nancy Packer (83)
                                    Stanford, CA                   Ted Pejovich (90)               James F. Pierce (73)
in Africa from 1978 to 1983.                                       New York, NY                    Bryan, TX
They now reside in Rockland         Charlotte Painter (72)
                                    Berkeley, CA                   William Pelfrey (73)            Marge Piercy (78)
County, New York. He received
                                                                   Roseville, MI                   Wellfleet, MA
the National Book Award for         Pamela Painter (88)
his novel Mating and has pub-       Boston, MA                     Theodore Pelton (94)            Drury Pifer (80)
                                                                   Sheboygan, WI                   Wilmington, DE
lished a book of short stories      Grace Paley (67, 87)
and a second novel.                 New York, NY                   Jonathan Penner (76, 83)        John Pijewski (84)
                                                                   Tucson, AZ                      Brookline, MA
                                    Karen Palmer (00)
                                    Boulder, CO                    Mindy Pennybacker (80)          Bonnie L. Pike (96)
                                                                   Davis, CA                       Tempe, AZ
The NEA grant, coming               Michael Palmer (75, 85)
                                    San Francisco, CA              Victor Perera (80)              Joyce Pinchbeck (92)
closely after one from the                                         Capitola, CA                    New York, NY
New York State Council on           Ann Pancake (96)
                                    Seattle, WA                    David H. Perkins (73, 83)       Wang Ping (95)
the Arts, gave me confi-                                            Kansas City, MO                 New York, NY
dence that I might truly be         Eric Pankey (88, 05)
                                    Fairfax, VA                    Richard Perry (89)              Robert Pinsky (84)
able to devise a viable liter-                                     Tenafly, NJ                      Berkeley, CA
ary life. We lived modestly,        Suzanne Paola (02)
                                    Bellingham, WA                 Joyce Peseroff (84)             Nancy K. Piore (82)
and the material contribu-                                         Lexington, MA                   Brookline, MA
tion the grant made was             Greg Pape (77, 84)
                                    Tuscaloosa, AL                 Bette Pesetsky (80)             Lawrence Pitkethly (81)
significant. It also encour-                                        Dobbs Ferry, NY                 New York, NY
                                    Ronnie Paris (76)
aged me to apply for other          New York, NY                   Robert Peters (75)              Allen Planz (77, 92)
grants while I worked on                                           Irvine, CA                      East Hampton, NY
                                    Michael Parker (04)
my first novel, Mating, whose        Greensboro, NC                 Allan Peterson (92)             Donald Platt (96)
positive reception changed          John Parras (04)
                                                                   Gulf Breeze, FL                 Carrollton, GA
everything for me.                  New Milford, NJ                Quintin Peterson (77)           Richard Plattz (76)
                                                                   Green Bay, WI                   East Haven, CT
                                    Alexander Parsons (04)
                                    Portsmouth, NH                 Robert Peterson (67)            Stanley Plumly (77, 84)
                                                                   No city listed, CA              Houston, TX
                                    Roy Parvin (04)
                                    Fortuna, CA                    Catherine Petroski (78, 83)     Carlene Hatcher Polite (68)
                                                                   Durham, NC                      Detroit, MI
                                    Linda Pasten (72)
                                    Rockville, MD                  Anthony Petrosky (85)           Eileen Pollack (93)
                                                                   Pittsburgh, PA                  Belmont, MA
                                    Kenneth Patchen (67)
                                    No city listed, CA             Ann Petry (78)                  Katha Pollitt (84)
                                                                   Old Saybrook, CT                New York, NY
                                    Jeff Pate (77)
                                    Vermillion, SD                 Michael Pettit (85)             Marie Ponsot (79)
                                                                   Austin, TX                      Jamaica, NY

                                                              34         National Endowment for the Arts
Robert Pope, Jr. (89)                                    John Rechy (76)
Akron, OH                                                Los Angeles, CA
Melinda Popham (66)                                      Ronald Rector (79)
Shawnee Mission, KS         George Quasha (75)           Washington, DC
Bernard H. Porter (80)      New York, NY                 Victoria Redel (88)
Belfast, ME                 Sister M. Bernadetta Quinn   New York, NY
Joe Ashby Porter (80, 85)    (67)                        Eugene Redmond (78)
Durham, NC                  No city listed, MN           Madison, WI
Andrew Potok (83)           Leroy Quintana (78)          Spencer Reece (05)
Plainfield, VT               El Paso, TX                  Lantana, FL

Nancy Potter (78)                                        Ishmael Reed (75)
West Kingston, RI                                        Berkeley, CA
Alfred Poulin, Jr. (75)                                  Arthur Reel (80)            Kay Ryan (01), a lifetime
Brockport, NY                                            New York, NY                Californian, was born in 1945
                            Lawrence Raab (72, 84)
Charles E. Poverman                                                                  and grew up in small towns
                            Williamstown, MA             Marshall Reese (79)
  (80, 88)                                               Baltimore, MD               of the San Joaquin Valley and
Tucson, AZ                  Thomas Rabbitt (97)                                      the Mojave Desert. Known
                            Tuscaloosa, AL               Patricia Reeves (88)
D. A. Powell (03)                                                                    for her compressed poems
                            Arnold M. Rabin (80)         St. Joseph, MO
Somerville, MA                                                                       and use of rhyme, Ryan has
                            Maplewood, NJ                Tova Reich (85)             published five books. She has
Dannye G. Powell (93)                                    Chevy Chase, MD
Charlotte, NC               Anna Rabinowitz (01)                                     received an Ingram Merrill
                            New York, NY                 Jan Reid (83)               Foundation award, and her
J. Mark Powell (04)                                      Austin, TX
Mountain Rest, SC           Emily Raboteau (06)                                      poems have been published in
                            New York, NY                 Louis Reile (78)            The New Yorker, Paris Review,
Minnie Bruce Pratt (90)                                  San Antonio, TX
                            Nahid Rachlin (80)                                       and numerous anthologies. In
Washington, DC
                            New York, NY                 Nancy Reisman (98)          2004, she received the Ruth
John Price (04)                                          Providence, RI
                            Louise Rafkin (95)                                       Lilly Poetry Prize from the
Fort Dodge, IA
                            San Clemente, CA             James Alan Reiss (74)       Poetry Foundation.
Reynolds Price (66)                                      Oxford, OH
Durham, NC                  Carl Rakosi (72, 79)
                            San Francisco, CA            Thomas Reiter (03)
Richard Price (82)                                       Neptune, NJ
New York, NY                Jerold Ramsey (76)                                       My fellowship made me
                            Rochester, NY                Paisley Rekdal (03)
Robert Earl Price (91)                                                               less intolerant. No lon-
                            Belle Randall (05)           Laramie, WY
Atlanta, GA                                                                          ger could I automatically
                            Seattle, WA                  Ettore Rella (68)
William Price (74)
                                                         New York, NY
                                                                                     disregard anyone who had
Brooklyn, NY                Dudley Randall (82, 86)                                  enjoyed a smidgeon of suc-
                            Detroit, MI                  John Repp (87)
Robin J. Prising (80)
                                                         Pittsburgh, PA
                                                                                     cess. Here I was, with my
New York, NY                Julia V.N. Randall (82)                                  own smidgeon. As time has
                            Glen Arm, MD                 Lisa Ress (84)
Melissa Pritchard (83)                                                               passed since my award, I
                            John Crowe Ransom (68)       Ithaca, NY
Evanston, IL                                                                         have found myself becom-
                            Gambier, OH                  Donald Revell (88, 95)
Samuel Pritchard (91)                                                                ing disturbingly open-
                            William Ransom (76)          Salt Lake City, UT
Ames, IA
                            Port Townsend, WA            Kenneth Rexroth (77)
                                                                                     minded about the possible
Frederic Prokosch (78)                                                               relationship between talent
Cambridge, MA               Katherine Rao (80)           Santa Barbara, CA
                            New York, NY                 David S. Reynolds (96)      and recognition.
Francine Prose (80, 86)
Krumville, NY               Ron Rash (94, 06)            Washington, DC

Susan Prospere (97)         Cullowhee, NC                Richard Reynolds (94)
Houston, TX                 Barbara Raskin (82)          Denton, TX
Annie Proulx (91)           Washington, DC               John Rezmerski (73)
Vershire, VT                Michael Rattee (84)          St. Peter, MN
Eric Puchner (06)           Tucson, AZ                   Jewell Parker Rhodes (82)
San Francisco, CA           David E. Ray (83)            College Park, MD
Lia Purpura (04)            Kansas City, MO              Richard Rhodes (78)
Baltimore, MD               Shreela Ray (76)             Kansas City, MO
                            Rochester, NY                Joseph P. Ribar (73)
                                                         Claverack, NY

                            NEA Literature Fellowships      35
                                  Ronald Ribman (73)               Doris Rochlin (90)             Jill Allyn Rosser (99)
                                  New York, NY                     Chevy Chase, MD                Athens, OH
                                  Stanley Rice (66, 72)            Peter Rock (00)                Charles Rossiter (97)
                                  San Francisco, CA                Philadelphia, PA               Oak Park, IL
                                  Mark Richard (90)                Carolyn M. Rodgers (70)        Michael Rossman (76)
                                  New York, NY                     Chicago, IL                    Berkeley, CA
                                  Caroline A. Richards (80)        Aleida Rodríguez (82)          Jerome Rothenberg (76)
                                  Richmond, IN                     Los Angeles, CA                Salamanca, NY
                                  Susan Richards (83)              William A. Roecker (73)        Michael Rothschild (74)
                                  Sadieville, KY                   Missoula, MT                   Strong, ME
                                  Robert Riche (74)                Pattiann Rogers (82, 88)       David Rounds (78)
                                  Wilton, CT                       Stafford, TX                   Angwin, CA
Charles Simic (75, 79) was        Elliot Richman (93)              Thomas N.R. Rogers             Jess Row (04)
born in Belgrade, Yugosla-        Plattsburgh, NY                    (82, 92)                     Bronx, NY
via, and came to the United                                        Iowa City, IA
                                  Janine Richman (95)                                             Ann Rower (82)
States as a teenager. Simic has   San Francisco, CA                Edwin Romand (94)              New York, NY
published more than 60 books                                       Pen Argyl, PA
                                  Boyer Rickel (01)                                               Gibbons Ruark (79, 86, 93)
of poetry, prose, memoirs, and
                                  Tucson, AZ                       Leo Romero (82)                Newark, DE
essays, and has twice won the                                      Las Cruces, NM
PEN International Translation     Noel Rico (77)                                                  Mark Rubin (95)
                                  New York, NY                     Orlando Romero (80)            Burlington, VT
Award for his translations. He
                                  David Rigsbee (84)               Santa Fe, NM                   Michael Rubin (78)
received the Pulitzer Prize in
poetry in 1990 for The World      Baton Rouge, LA                  David Romtvedt (87)            San Francisco, CA
                                  James A. Riley (91)              Buffalo, NY                    Rick Rubin (70)
Doesn’t End (1989). Since
1973, he has taught at the        Pikeville, KY                    John J. Ronan (99)             Portland, OR
University of New Hampshire.      Sherry Rind (86)                 Gloucester, MA                 Mark Rudman (95)
                                  Redmond, WA                      Leon Rooke (78)                New York, NY
                                  Steven Rinehart (95)             London, England                Mary Ruefle (84)
Did my fellowship make            Fayetteville, GA                 Bill Roorbach (02)             North Bennington, VT
                                  Alberto Ríos (79)                Farmington, ME                 Matthew Ruff (06)
a difference? You bet! It
allowed me to take time           Tucson, AZ                       William Pitt Root (73)         Seattle, WA
                                  David Rivard (86, 91)            Mendocino, CA                  Eugene Ruggles (70)
off my work and write and
                                  Somerville, MA                   Robert Roper (86)              Bodega Bay, CA
gave me confidence that
                                  Edward Rivera (72)               Berkeley, CA                   Muriel Rukeyser (66)
my peers value what I’m
                                  New York, NY                     Ned Rorem (77)                 New York, NY
doing. I was a poor man,                                           New York, NY
overworked, with a family         Andrés Rivero (80)                                              Jim Ruland (04)
                                  Miami, FL                        Daniel Asa Rose (06)           Playa del Rey, CA
and children to support.                                           Rehoboth, MA
Where else would I find            Anthony Robbins (92)                                            Norman Rush (86)
                                  Monroe, LA                       Jennifer Rose (93)             New City, NY
money? I don’t know about                                          Waltham, MA
                                  Richard Robbins (92)                                            Joshua Thomas Russell (06)
the others, but we poets are                                                                      Newnan, GA
                                  Mankato, MN                      Joel Rose (86)
grateful for the miracle of                                        New York, NY
                                  John Roberts (87)                                               Paul Russell (93)
the Endowment.                    Boulder, CO                      Louise B. Rose (80)            Rosendale, NY
                                  Leonard Roberts (84, 89)         New York, NY                   Thomas Russell (86)
                                  Bethlehem, PA                    Wendy Rose (82)                Memphis, TN
                                  Jill Robinson (75)               Richmond, VA                   Vern Rutsala (75, 79)
                                  New York, NY                     Michael Rosen (84)             Portland, OR
                                  John Robinson (77)               Columbus, OH                   Kay Ryan (01)
                                  San Francisco, CA                Jessie Rosenberg (68)          Fairfax, CA
                                  Kit Robinson (79)                New Orleans, LA                Michael Ryan (76, 85)
                                  San Francisco, CA                Joseph Ross (97)               North Garden, VA
                                  Ronald Robinson (93)             Washington, DC                 Patrick Ryan (06)
                                  Tahlequah, OK                    Robert Ross (88)               New York, NY
                                  Roxana Robinson (87)             Long Pine, NE
                                  Katonah, NY

                                                              36        National Endowment for the Arts
                            Cheryl Savageau (93)          Sandra Scofield (89)
                            Worcester, MA                 Ashland, OR
                            Teo Savory (78)               Carolynne Scott (78)
Ira Sadoff (82)             Greensboro, NC                Springville, AL
Waterville, ME              Julia Randall Sawyer (66)     Herbert Scott (84)
Nubia Kai Salaam (86, 92)   Hollins College, VA           Kalamazoo, MI
Washington, DC              Valerie Sayers (92)           James Scully (76, 90)
J. R. Salamanca (78)        Brooklyn, NY                  Willimantic, CT
Potomac, MD                 Nora Sayre (77)               Brenda Seabrooke (94)
Floyd Salas (78)            New York, NY                  Hedgesville, WV
Berkeley, CA                Leslie Scalapino (76, 86)     Allan Seager (67)
I. L. Salomon (67)          Oakland, CA                   No city listed, MI
No city listed, NY          Harris Schiff (79)            Jan L. Seale (82)            Jeffrey Skinner (87) has
Mary Jo Salter (84)         New York, NY                  McAllen, TX                  published five collections
Kyoto, Japan                Richard Schmitt (02)                                       of verse and with his wife
                                                          David Searcy (02)
Benjamin Saltman (69, 87)   Sparr, FL                     Dallas, TX                   Sarah Gorham, he edited an
Northridge, CA                                                                         anthology, Last Call: Poems
                            Dennis Schmitz (76, 85, 92)   Maureen Seaton (94)
Nicholas Samaras (97)       Sacramento, CA                                             on Alcoholism, Addiction, &
                                                          Chicago, IL
New Port Richey, FL                                                                    Deliverance. His poems have
                            Gjertrud Schnackenberg (86)   Peter Seaton (79)            appeared in The New Yorker,
Rosaura Sánchez (82)        Tacoma, WA                    Portland, ME
Leucadia, CA                                                                           The Nation, and other publica-
                            Philip Schneider (86)         Roberta E. Sebenthall (70)   tions. He is a professor in the
Saul O. Sanchez (80)        Wichita, KS                   Mount Horeb, WI              creative writing program at
Laredo, TX                  Nancy Schoenberger (84)       Carolyn See (74)             the University of Louisville,
Sonia Sanchez (77)          New York, NY                  Topango, CA                  and is co-founder of Sara-
Philadelphia, PA            Michael Scholnick (79)        Lore Segal (68, 82, 87)      bande Books.
Thomas Sanchez (78)         New York, NY                  New York, NY
Santa Barbara, CA           Peter Schrag (76)             Timothy Seibles (90)
Ed Sanders (87)             Oakland, CA                   Dallas, TX
Woodstock, NY                                                                          When I received a Fel-
                            Ronald Schreiber (93)         Michael Seide (67)           lowship from the NEA, I
Scott Sanders (83, 04)      Cambridge, MA                 No city listed, NY
Bloomington, IN                                                                        had a wife and two small
                            Philip Schultz (82)           Fredrick Seidel (69)
Lisa Sandlin (94)           New York, NY
                                                                                       children. I had made the
                                                          New York, NY
Santa Fe, NM                                                                           decision to quit my long-
                            Robert Schultz (98)           Hugh Seidman (70, 72, 85)
Stephen Sandy (88)          Decorah, IA                                                term job in business, and
                                                          New York, NY
North Bennington, VT                                                                   to use our limited savings
                            Michael P. Schulze (82)       Barbara Selfridge (91)
Reginald Saner (76)         Kalamazoo, MI                                              to finance two years of
                                                          Oakland, CA
Boulder, CO                 James Schuyler (72)                                        searching for a teaching
                                                          Heather Sellers (00)         position. In our second
Annette Sanford (74, 87)    Southampton, NY               Holland, MI
Ganado, TX                  Jane Schwartz (89)                                         year, as our money ran out,
                                                          Richard Selzer (88)
Christy S. Sanford (92)     Brooklyn, NY                  New Haven, CT
                                                                                       we were given the blessing
Gainesville, FL             Leonard Schwartz (97)                                      of the NEA, which kept my
                                                          Ramon Sender (83)
Bienvenido Santos (82)      New York, NY                  San Francisco, CA            family afloat for another
Wichita, KS                                                                            year, until I secured a
                            Lloyd Schwartz (90)           Vijay Seshadri (99)
Sherod Santos (87)          Somerville, MA                                             university job. I know this
                                                          Brooklyn, NY
Columbia, MO                                                                           sounds dramatic, but what
                            Lynne Sharon Schwartz (85)
                                                          Robbie Clipper Sethi (95)
Yvonne Sapia (86)           New York, NY                                               can I do—it’s the truth.
                                                          Skillman, NJ
Lake City, FL
                            Ruth L. Schwartz (93)
                                                          Fred Setterburg (83)
                                                                                       The NEA, for me, was life
Aram Saroyan (69)           Gladwyne, PA                                               altering, if not life saving.
                                                          Oakland, CA
New York, NY
                            Sheila M. Schwartz (93)
May Sarton (67)                                           Lisa Sewell (99)
                            Cleveland Heights, OH
No city listed, NH                                        Fort Worth, TX
                            Steven Schwartz (93)
Catherine Sasanov (97)                                    Bob Shacochis (82)
                            Fort Collins, CO
Cambridge, MA                                             Lone Tree, IA
                            Armand Schwerner
Roger Sauls (70)                                          Anders Shafer (66)
                              (73, 79, 87)
Chapel Hill, NC                                           St. Paul, MN
                            Staten Island, NY

                            NEA Literature Fellowships       37
                                  Rosa Shand (00)                 Aleda Shirley (88)              Mina Lewiton Simon (68)
                                  Spartanburg, SC                 Louisville, KY                  Stanfordville, NY
                                  Ntozake Shange (82)             Louise Shivers (86)             Louis Simpson (66)
                                  New York, NY                    Augusta, GA                     Berkeley, CA
                                  Robert Shapard (87)             Lynn Shoemaker (90)             Mona Simpson (86)
                                  Salt Lake City, UT              Whitewater, WI                  New York, NY
                                  Alan Shapiro (84, 92)           Elizabeth Sholl (94)            Patsy Sims (80)
                                  Chapel Hill, NC                 Portland, ME                    Washington, DC
                                  David Shapiro (79)              Enid Shomer (89, 96)            Isaac Bashevis Singer (67)
                                  New York, NY                    Brooklyn, NY                    New York, NY
                                  Gerald Shapiro (95)             Jane Shore (77, 87)             Margot Singer (06)
                                  Lincoln, NE                     Cambridge, MA                   Granville, OH
Jane Smiley (78, 87) has          Loretta M. Sharp (93)           Susan Shreve (83)               Sean Singer (05)
published 11 books of fic-         Boulder, MT                     Washington, DC                  New York, NY
tion, including A Thousand                                                                        Donald Singleton (81)
                                  Paula Sharp (95)                Alix Kates Shulman (83)
Acres (1991), which won the       Mount Kisco, NY                 New York, NY                    Benton, AR
Pulitzer Prize and the National
                                  Angela Shaw (03)                Peggy Shumaker (89)             Appachana Anjana Sinha
Book Critics Circle Award. The                                                                     (95)
                                  Arlington, MA                   Fairbanks, AK
settings of her stories follow                                                                    Phoenix, AZ
her own migration from the        Richard Shaw (78)               Aaron Shurin (95)
                                  Minneapolis, MN                 San Francisco, CA               Hal Sirowitz (94)
rural Midwest to California.                                                                      Flushing, NY
She writes regularly for          Robert Shaw (87)                Bapsy Sidhwa (87)
                                  South Hadley, MA                Houston, TX                     Joseph Skibell (02)
magazines, including The New
                                                                                                  Atlanta, GA
Yorker, The Nation, and Vogue.    Cynthia Shearer (00)            Robert Siegel (79)
                                  Oxford, MS                      Whitefish, WI                    Robert Skillings (78)
                                                                                                  Provincetown, MA
                                  Laurie Sheck (82, 96)           Eleni Sikelianos (95)
                                  Princeton, NJ                   San Francisco, CA               Jeffrey Skinner (87)
I received my first NEA                                                                            Easton, CT
                                  Marc Sheehan (84)               Richard Siken (05)
fellowship in 1978. I got                                                                         Knute Skinner (75)
                                  Grand Rapids, MI                Tucson, AZ
$7,500, which was a tre-                                                                          Bellingham, WA
                                  Evelyn Shefner (80)             Joan Silber (86)
mendous amount at the             New York, NY                    New York, NY                    Myra Sklarew (82)
time and enabled me to                                                                            Bethesda, MD
                                  Marsha Sheiness (80)            Edgar Gabriel Silex (95)
write my first novel, Barn         Waterford, CT                   College Park, MD                John Skoyles (76, 87)
Blind. The pat on the back                                                                        Black Mountain, NC
                                  Richard Shelton (76, 91)        Leslie Marmon Silko (74)
was worth as much as the          Tucson, AZ                      Ketchikan, AK                   Dashka Slater (04)
money. For the first time                                                                          Oakland, CA
                                  Reginald Shepherd (95)          Ron Silliman (79, 03)
I felt rewarded rather than       Chicago, IL                     Paoli, PA                       Lauren Slater (04)
just allowed to proceed.                                                                          Somerville, MA
                                  Michael Sheridan (84)           Roberta Silman (83)
                                  Geneseo, IL                     Ardsley, NY                     Robert A. Slater (73)
I received my second fel-                                                                         Kansas City, MO
                                  Martin Sherman (80)             Jeff Silva (87)
lowship in 1987, after I          New York, NY                    La Honda, CA                    Tom Sleigh (87, 94)
had established myself as                                                                         Cambridge, MA
                                  Steven Sherrill (02)            Randall Silvis (83, 88)
a promising young writer.         Altoona, PA                     Rimersburg, PA                  Mark Slouka (00)
                                                                                                  New York, NY
In both instances, money          Judith Johnson Sherwin (82)     Lazarre Seymour Simckes
from the NEA smoothed             New York, NY                     (66, 80)                       Kate Small (02)
                                                                  New Haven, CT                   Kirkland, WA
my passage through dif-           Frances Sherwood (90)
                                                                                                  Jane Smiley (78, 87)
ficult transitional moments        South Bend, IN                  Charles Simic (75, 79)
                                                                  Strafford, NH                   Ames, IA
in my career, and helped          Susan Shetterly (93)
                                                                                                  Arthur E. Smith (84)
me move forward.                  Surry, ME                       James Simmerman (84)
                                                                                                  Houston, TX
                                  David Shevin (94)               Flagstaff, AZ
                                                                                                  Bruce Smith (84, 89)
                                  Tiffin, OH                       Lydia Simmons (80)
                                                                                                  Andover, MA
                                  David Shields (82, 91)          New York, NY
                                                                                                  C. W. Smith (76, 90)
                                  Seattle, WA                     Maurya Simon (99)
                                                                                                  Dallas, TX
                                  Peter Shippy (03)               Mt. Baldy, CA
                                                                                                  Charlie Smith (01)
                                  Jamaica Plain, MA
                                                                                                  New York, NY

                                                             38         National Endowment for the Arts
Christina Smith (90)          Helen Sorrells (73)            Sue Standing (84)
Bainbridge Island, WA         Pacific Palisades, CA           Allston, MA
David Smith (76)              Robert Sorrells (78)           Ann Stanford (75, 82)
Nevada, MO                    Clemson, SC                    Northridge, CA
David J. Smith (82, 99)       Gilbert Sorrentino (74, 83)    George Stanley (69)
Fresno, CA                    New York, NY                   San Francisco, CA
Dinitia Smith (83)            Gary Soto (82, 91)             Maura Stanton (82)
New York, NY                  Albany, CA                     Tucson, AZ
Ebbe Smith (77)               David Southern (68)            Maureen Stanton (06)
San Francisco, CA             Chapel Hill, NC                Georgetown, ME
Gregory Smith (88)            Marcia Southwick (84)          Claude Stanush (78)
Northfield, MN                 Iowa City, IA                  San Antonio, TX
Jordan Smith (84)             Debra Spark (90)               Donald Stap (86)          Cathy Song (97) was born
Schenectady, NY               Cambridge, MA                  Casselberry, FL           in Honolulu, Hawaii, and
                                                                                       maintains a permanent home
Mark Smith (78)               Ronald Spatz (82)              Laurence Stapleton (72)
Durham, NH                    Anchorage, AK                  Bryn Mawr, PA             there. She is the author of
                                                                                       four books of poetry and
Mason Smith (74)              Roberta Spear (82, 93)         Bradford Stark (77)
                                                                                       her work has been widely
Nicholville, NY               Fresno, CA                     Binghamton, NY
                                                                                       anthologized in many publica-
Rodney Smith (91)             Michael Spence (90)            Sharon Stark (86)         tions, including The Norton
Opelika, AL                   Seattle, WA                    Lenhartsville, PA
                                                                                       Anthology of Modern Poetry
Tima Smith (89)               Elizabeth Spencer (83, 88)     Stephen Stark (93)        and The Best American Poetry
Pomfret Center, CT            Chapel Hill, NC                Houston, TX               2000.
William Jay Smith (72)        Peter Spielberg (80)           Pat Staten (76)
Washington, DC                New York, NY                   New York, NY
Young Smith (05)              Maureen Spike (83)             Mark Steadman (80)
Richmond, KY                  El Paso, TX                    Central, SC               A Literature Fellowship
                                                                                       from the National Endow-
Mark Smith-Soto (05)          Paul Spike (74)                Arjyra J. Stedman (82)
Greensboro, NC                Cambridge, MA                  Shreveport, LA            ment for the Arts means a
Priscilla Sneff (93)          Richard Spilman (87)
                                                                                       great deal to me. It means
                                                             Jack Steele (78)
State College, PA             Provincetown, MA               Englewood, CO             I live in a country that
Susan Snively (84)            Elizabeth Spires (82, 92)      Lynn Stegner (00)
                                                                                       refuses to be shut down,
Shutesbury, MA                Baltimore, MD                  Santa Cruz, CA            numbed, silenced, and
W. D. Snodgrass (66)          Kathleen Spivack (78)          Page Stegner (80)         party-lined by the rant-
Detroit, MI                   Watertown, MA                  Santa Cruz, CA            ing and raving of the truly
Carol Snow (97)               Madelon Sprengnether (87)      Wallace Stegner (90)      timid—those who in their
San Francisco, CA             Oakland, CA                    Los Altos Hills, CA       fear of life and living seek
Peter Snow (76)               Philip St. Clair (94)          Charles Stein (79)        to make it their mission to
Berkeley, CA                  Ashland, KY                    New Paltz, NY             obstruct the voices of its
Anthony Sobin (74)            Sheryl St. Germain (91, 96)    Kevin Stein (91)          artists. It means I live in
Salt Lake City, UT            Galesburg, IL                  Dunlap, IL                a country that chooses to
Roland Sodowsky (89)          David St. John (76, 84, 94)    Meredith Steinbach (78)   hear the vital singing—the
Alpine, TX                    Los Angeles, CA                New York, NY              pulsations, the life blood,
Rebecca Solnit (93)           Primus St. John (70, 75, 82)   Hugh Steinberg (01)       the pathways that con-
San Francisco, CA             West Linn, OR                  San Francisco, CA         nect us profoundly to each
Barbara Probst Solomon (74)   Mark St. Pierre (90)           Robert Steiner (78, 83)   other, profoundly to the
New York, NY                  Steamboat Springs, CO          Boulder, CO               intelligent compassionate
Ted Solotaroff (80)           David Stacton (68)             David Steingass (72)      cosmos.
New York, NY                  Walnut Creek, CA               Haverhill, NH
Scott R. Sommer (80)          Kim Stafford (76, 84)          Lisa Steinman (84)
South Orange, NJ              Portland, OR                   Portland, OR
Cathy Song (97)               William Stafford (91)          Stephen Stepanchov (69)
Honolulu, HI                  Lake Oswego, OR                Flushing, NY
Frank Soos, Jr. (89)          Les Standiford (89)            Phillip Sterling (90)
Fairbanks, AK                 Miami, FL                      Big Rapids, MI

                              NEA Literature Fellowships        39
                                   Gerald Stern (76, 82, 87)         Ronald Sukenick (80, 89)       James Tate (69, 79)
                                   Iowa City, IA                     Boulder, CO                    Amherst, MA
                                   Richard Stern (66)                Nancy Sullivan (76)            Ronald Tavel (75)
                                   Chicago, IL                       West Kingston, RI              Brooklyn, NY
                                   Alex Stevens (82)                 Robert Sullivan (02)           Harry Taylor (76)
                                   Queen Anne, MD                    Brooklyn, NY                   Muncie, IN
                                   Amy Stewart (06)                  Hollis Summers (75)            Henry Taylor (77, 86)
                                   Eureka, CA                        Athens, OH                     Lincoln, NE
                                   John Stewart (78)                 Linda Svendsen (85, 91)        Keith Taylor (91)
                                   Urbana, IL                        Vancouver, Canada              Ann Arbor, MI
                                   Susan Stewart (82, 89)            Harvey Swados (66)             Michael Taylor (66)
                                   Philadelphia, PA                  New York, NY                   Hanover, NH
Virgil Suárez (01) was born        Gloria Still (84)                 Laurell Swails (80)            Patricia Taylor (78)
in 1962 in Havana, Cuba, and       Ft. Wayne, IN                     Lake Oswego, OR                Salt Lake City, UT
emigrated to the U.S. in 1974.                                                                      Peter Taylor (84)
                                   Milan Stitt (77)                  Mary Swander (87)
Suárez is the author of seven      New York, NY                      Ames, IA                       Charlottesville, VA
poetry collections, four novels,
                                   Michael Leon Stokesbury (99)      David Swanger (89)             Richard Taylor (76, 86)
a collection of short stories,                                                                      Frankfort, KY
                                   Doraville, GA                     Santa Cruz, CA
and two memoirs. He teaches
                                   Robert Stone (68, 83)             Brian Swann (78)               Mary Ann Taylor-Hall
at Florida State University.
                                   Westport, CT                      New York, NY                    (79, 06)
                                                                                                    Sadieville, KY
                                   Mark Strand (68, 78, 86)          Eleanor Swanson (96)
                                   Salt Lake City, UT                Lakewood, CO                   Brian Teare (03)
The NEA grant reaffirmed                                                                             East Palo Alto, CA
the value of my work in my         George Strange (88)               Jeffrey Sweet (80)
                                   Douglas, GA                       New York, NY                   Michael Teig (05)
own life and mind. The                                                                              Northampton, MA
                                   Mary Peterson Strater (82)        May Swenson (74)
money of course always             York, ME                          Long Island, NY                Marina Temkina (94)
helps, and it too came at                                                                           New York, NY
                                   Stephanie Strickland (88)         Marly Swick (88)
an important time in my            Scarsdale, NY                     Iowa City, IA                  Fiona Templeton (95)
life. It allowed me to take a                                                                       New York, NY
                                   Dao Strom (04)                    Joan Swift (82, 90, 95)
little time off and continue       Austin, TX                        Edmonds, WA                    Lysley Tenorio (06)
to work on my poetry. The                                                                           San Francisco, CA
                                   Jonathan Strong (86)              Thomas Swiss (84)
important thing is also            Somerville, MA                    Des Moines, IA                 Elaine Terranova (97)
that my work was being                                                                              Philadelphia, PA
                                   Lynn Strongin (72)                Arthur Sze (82, 93)
judged by a committee of           Albuquerque, NM                   Santa Fe, NM                   Richard Terrill (89)
my peers, other profes-                                                                             Green Bay, WI
                                   Dorothy Stroup (89)               Barbara Szerlip (76, 82)
sional writers and poets.          Berkeley, CA                      North Miami Beach, FL          Megan Terry (72)
The NEA grant not only                                                                              Omaha, NE
                                   Jean Strouse (77)                 Larissa Szporluk (03)
saved me literally from the        New York, NY                      Bowling Green, OH              Nadja Tesich (90)
                                                                                                    New York, NY
gutter, but from anonym-           Dan Stryk (82)

ity as well. I will forever be     Salt Lake City, UT                                               Steve Tesich (80)
                                                                                                    Conifer, CO
grateful.                          Lucien Stryk (75)
                                   DeKalb, IL                                                       William Tester (91)
                                                                     John Taggart (76, 86)          New York, NY
                                   Dabney Stuart (75, 82)            Shippensburg, PA
                                   Charlottesville, VA                                              George Teter (66)
                                                                     Marilynn Talal (91)            Milwaukee, WI
                                   Floyd Stuart (76)                 San Antonio, TX
                                   Northfield, VT                                                    Catherine Texier (88)
                                                                     Elizabeth Tallent (83, 88)     New York, NY
                                   Harold Stuart (76)                Eaton, CO
                                   Dorchester, MA                                                   Julia Thacker (83)
                                                                     Stephen Tapscott (77)          Cambridge, MA
                                   Virgil Suárez (01)                New Haven, CT                  Michael Thelwell (82)
                                   Tallahassee, FL
                                                                     Barry Targan (76, 83)          Pelham, MA
                                   Cheryl Pearl Sucher (95)          Schuylerville, NY              Alexander Theroux (68, 73)
                                   New York, NY
                                                                     Natasha Tarpley (94)           Farmville, VA
                                                                     Washington, DC                 James Thomas (78, 83)
                                                                                                    Salt Lake City, UT

                                                                40        National Endowment for the Arts
Lorenzo Thomas (83)          Bernard Treister (83)        Charles Van Wey (90)
Houston, TX                  New York, NY                 Seattle, WA
Robert Thomas (03)           William Tremblay (85)        Nance Van Winckel (88, 01)
San Francisco, CA            Ft. Collins, CO              Cheney, WA
Tom Thomas (78)              Natasha Trethewey (99)       Robert VanderMolen (95)
Pittsburgh, PA               Auburn, AL                   Grand Rapids, MI
Charles W. Thompson (82)     Dawn Turner Trice (06)       Paul Vangelisti (88)
Cabin John, MD               Monee, IL                    Los Angeles, CA
Gary Thompson (78)           Eve Triem (68)               Anthony Varallo (02)
Chico, CA                    Seattle, WA                  Yorklyn, DE
Jean Louise Thompson (78)    Dennis Trudell (69, 76)      Pedro O. Vasquez (82)
Urbana, IL                   Oregon, WI                   Escondido, CA
Marilyn Thompson (75)        Stephen Tudor (87)           Marc Vassallo (98)              Larissa Szporluk (03) is an
Boulder, CO                  Detroit, MI                  New Haven, CT                   Associate Professor of Creative
                                                                                          Writing and English Literature
Nancy Thompson (78)          Peter Turchi (90)            Edward Vasta (80)
Cedar Falls, IA              Warrenville, IL              South Bend, IN                  at Bowling Green State Uni-
                                                                                          versity in northwest Ohio. She
Robert Thompson (78)         Frederick Turner (77)        Stephanie Vaughn (80, 86)
                                                                                          is the author of three award-
Columbia, MO                 Shutesbury, MA               Ithaca, NY
                                                                                          winning volumes of poetry,
Jeffrey James Thomson (05)   Chase Twichell (87, 93)      Katherine Vaz (93)              and her fourth book will be
Pittsburgh, PA               Princeton, NJ                Castro Valley, CA
                                                                                          published in 2006.
Melanie Rae Thon (92)        Kathleen Tyau (98)           Edgardo Vega (89)
Cambridge, MA                Gaston, OR                   New York, NY
Russell Thorburn (99)        Chris Tysh (03)              Jon Veinberg (84, 93)
Marquette, MI                Ferndale, MI                 Fresno, CA                      The National Endow-
Lawrence Thornton (89)       George Tysh (79)             Thomas M. Veitch (80)           ment for the Arts grant was
Claremont, CA                Denver, CO                   Grafton, VT                     crucial for the development
Daniel Thrapp (86)                                        John Vernon (90, 96)            of my fourth manuscript,

Tucson, AZ                                                Vestal, NY                      Embryos and Idiots. The col-
Susan Tichy (88)                                          Martha M. Vertreace (93)        lection was conceived as a
Westcliffe, CO                                            Chicago, IL                     novel-in-verse and relied
                             Brady Udall (00)                                             on close examination of an
Michael Tidwell (94)         Lancaster, PA                Evangelina Vigil (79)
Takoma Park, MD                                           San Antonio, TX                 “enchanted” mountain in
                             Laura Ulewicz (68)                                           Sabaudia, Italy. As the story
Molly Tinsley (88, 94)       San Francisco, CA            David Vigoda (81)
Silver Spring, MD                                         Middleburgh, NY                 developed, it also changed:
                             Robert Ullian (70)                                           the narrative impulse ex-
Sallie Tisdale (89)          Merrick, NY                  Mark Vinz (75)
Portland, OR                                              Moorhead, MN                    ploded into a series of lyric
                             Leslie Ullman (76, 89)                                       rants, many of which were
Daniel Tobin (96)            El Paso, TX                  Paul Violi (79, 86)
Racine, WI                                                Putham, NY                      informed by the extensive
                             Constance Urdang (76)                                        travel the grant enabled
Ruthven Todd (74)            St. Louis, MO                Helena Viramontes (89)
Buffalo, NY                                               Irvine, CA                      me to do. Had I not been
                             John Unterecker (79)                                         awarded the grant (and
Joan Tollifson (00)          Honolulu, HI                 Arturo Vivante (80)
Oakland, CA                                               Wellfleet, MA                    the dynamic experience

Tatyana Tolstaya (95)                                     Sara Vogan (78, 88)             abroad), it is most likely that
Princeton, NJ                                             San Francisco, CA               the poems would have stayed
Joan E. Torres (81)                                       Paula Vogel (80)                faithful to their stagnant
Santa Monica, CA             Nanos Valaoritis (82)        New York, NY                    narrative program. I owe
Anthony Towle (79)           Oakland, CA                  Sharon Vogel (76)               the NEA whatever vitality
New York, NY                 Jean Valentine (72)          Brooklyn, NY                    resides in those poems.
Ann Townsend (03)            New York, NY                 Arthur Vogelsang (76, 85, 95)
Granville, OH                Mona Van Duyn (67, 85)       Los Angeles, CA
Willard Trask (80)           St. Louis, MO                Ellen Bryant Voigt (76)
Savannah, GA                 Michael Van Walleghen        Marshfield, VT
Jessica Treadway (98)         (79, 87)                    Karen Volkman (93)
Arlington, MA                Urbana, IL                   Houston, TX

                             NEA Literature Fellowships      41
                                  Judith Vollmer (93)               Martin M. Wampler (78)        Theodore Weesner (74)
                                  Pittsburgh, PA                    Seattle, WA                   Durham, NH
                                  John Von Hartix (77)              Irene Wanner (82, 88)         Bruce Weigl (88)
                                  New York, NY                      Seattle, WA                   State College, PA
                                  Lane von Herzen (94)              Jeffrey M. Wanshel (81)       Thomas Weil (88)
                                  Redondo Beach, CA                 Larchmont, NY                 Clayton, MO
                                  Diane Vreuls (78)                 Diane Ward (79)               Hannah Weiner (86)
                                  Claremont, CA                     Washington, DC                Providence, RI
                                                                    Robert Ward (72)              Roger Weingarten (73)

                                                                    Geneva, NY                    Kalona, IA
                                                                    Belle Waring (92)             Debra Weinstein (94)
                                                                    Washington, DC                New York, NY
                                  June G. Wagner (92)
                                  New York, NY                      Ashley Warlick (06)           John Weir (91)
Nancy Willard (76, 87) is                                           Greenville, SC                New York, NY
                                  Dan Wakenfield (69)
the author of 12 books of         Venice, CA                        Irving Warner (89)            David Weiss (85)
poetry, two novels, numerous                                        Kodiak, AK                    Penn Yan, NY
                                  Diane Wakoski (69, 73)
children’s books, and a collec-   New York, NY                      Michael Warr (94)             Theodore Weiss (66)
tion of essays on writing. Her                                      Chicago, IL                   Annandale-on-Hudson, NY
                                  Kate Walbert (98)
collection, A Visit to William                                      Larkin Warren (84)            Sarah Brown Weitzman
                                  Stony Creek, CT
Blake’s Inn: Poems for Inno-                                        Barrington, NH                 (84)
                                  D. J. Waldie (94)                                               New York, NY
cent and Experienced Travel-                                        Robert Penn Warren (69)
                                  Lakewood, CA
ers, was the first poetry book                                       Fairfield, CT                  James Welch (70)
to win the Newbery Medal.         Anne Waldman (79)                                               Missoula, MT
                                  Nederland, CO                     Lewis Warsh (79)
She teaches in the English                                          Lenox, MA                     Bernard Welt (79)
Department at Vassar College.     Rosmarie Waldrop (79)                                           Washington, DC
                                  Providence, RI                    Sylvia Watanabe (89)
                                                                    Heyward, CA                   Elinor Welt (83)
                                  Alice Walker (70, 73, 78)                                       Fort Thomas, KY
                                  Brooklyn, NY                      Jonathan Waterman (04)
What the NEA fellowship                                             Carbondale, CO                Eudora Welty (89)
gave me, twice, was what          Evan Walker (75)                                                Jackson, MS
                                  New York, NY                      Frank Waters (82)
every writer longs for: a                                           Tucson, AZ                    William Wenthe (95)
                                  Granville Walker, Jr. (78)                                      Lubbock, TX
period of uninterrupted           Detroit, MI                       Mary Yukari Waters (02)
time, which allowed me                                              Long Beach, CA                Marlys West (03)
                                  Jeanne Murr Walker (94)                                         Austin, TX
to work on a novel, Sister        Philadelphia, PA                  Michael Waters (84)
Water, and a collection of                                          Salisbury, MD                 Paul West (80, 85)
                                  Lou Ann Walker (88)                                             Tucson, AZ
poems, Household Tales of         Sag Harbor, NY                    Brad Watson (04)
Moon and Water. Those of us                                         Foley, AL                     Nancy Westerfield (75)
                                  Martha Wall (91)                                                Kearny, NE
who both teach and write          New Orleans, LA                   Larry Watson (87, 04)
know the art of carrying                                            Milwaukee, WI                 W. D. Wetherell (82, 87)
                                  David Foster Wallace (89)                                       Lyme, NH
ideas around in your head         Urbana, IL                        Robert Watson (74)
and hoping they’ll still be                                         Greensboro, NC                Elizabeth Wetmore (06)
                                  David Rains Wallace (80)                                        Chicago, IL
there when you’re ready           Oakland, CA                       Barrett Watten (79)
to write them down. The                                             San Francisco, CA             Doug N. Wheeler (81)
                                  Gerald Wallace (77)                                             Los Angeles, CA
fellowship allowed me to          Milwaukee, WI                     Gordon Weaver (74, 89)
take time off from teaching                                         Stillwater, OK                Katherine Wheeler (94)
                                  Naomi French Wallace                                            Somerville, MA
(which I love) and dwell in         (97)                            Judith Weaver (89, 96)
                                  Prospect, KY                      Berkeley, CA                  Curtis White (00)
the work itself, and to focus
                                                                    Michael Weaver (85)           Normal, IL
on shaping it and revising        Robert Wallace (84)
                                  Cleveland, OH                     Baltimore, MD                 Edgar White (76)
it without the usual intru-                                                                       New York, NY
sions and interruptions.          Margaret B. Walsh (73)            Igor Webb (77)
                                  Minot, ND                         Cambridge, MA                 John E. White (80)
                                                                    Ramona Weeks (69, 74)         Charles City, VT
                                  Thomas N. Walters (73)
                                  Raleigh, NC                       Phoenix, AZ                   Lezli White (90)
                                                                                                  Corning, NY
                                  David A. Walton (90)
                                  Pittsburgh, PA

                                                               42        National Endowment for the Arts
Mary White (79)            Eliot Wilson (03)            William Woods (74)
Charlotte, NC              Tuscaloosa, AL               Washington, DC
Michael D. White (93)      Keith Wilson (75)            Jeff Worley (91)
Salt Lake City, UT         Las Cruces, NM               Lexington, KY
Sharon A. White (80)       Miles Wilson (91)            Martin Worman (66)
Brownville, VT             San Marcos, TX               Paterson, NJ
Ruth Whitman (75)          Robert Wilson (74)           Baron Wormser (87)
Brookline, MA              Chicago, IL                  Norridgewock, ME
J. D. Whitney (94)         Steven Wilson (89)           Theodore Worozbyt (93)
Wausau, WI                 Laguna Hills, CA             Atlanta, GA
Reed Whittemore (69)       Terence Winch (92)           C. D. Worsley (86)
College Park, MD           Silver Spring, MD            New York, NY
George A. Wickes (73)      Andrew Winer (04)            C. D. Wright (82, 89)
Eugene, OR                 Laguna Beach, CA             San Francisco, CA            Joy Williams (73, 88) is the
Liza Wieland (00)          Marion Winik (93)            Charles David Wright (76)    author of four novels, two
Fresno, CA                 Austin, TX                   Boise, ID                    collections of short stories, and
John Wieners (69, 86)      Joyce Winslow (78)           Charles P. Wright (75, 84)   a collection of essays, often
Boston, MA                 New York, NY                 Laguna Beach, CA             depicting life in Florida. Many
Allen Wier (74)            Peter Winslow (68)           Franz Wright (85, 92)        of Williams’ short stories and
Bowling Green, OH          San Francisco, CA            Everett, MA                  essays have appeared in the
Dara Wier (79)             Yvor Winters (68)            Jay Wright (68)              Best American collections and
Salt Lake City, UT         Palo Alto, CA                New York, NY                 anthologies, and a short story
                                                        Lawrence Wright (92)         published in Antaeus won a
Marianne Wiggins (89)      William Wiser (78, 85, 90)
London, England            Denver, CO                   Austin, TX                   National Magazine Award. She
                                                        Robert Wrigley (77, 84)      lives in Key West, Florida, and
Silvia J. Wilkinson (73)   William Witherup (76)
                                                        Lewistown, ID                Tucson, Arizona.
Chapel Hill, NC            Monterey, CA
Nancy Willard (76, 87)     John Witte (82, 88)          Mark Wunderlich (05)
Poughkeepsie, NY           Eugene, OR                   Provincetown, MA
                                                        Brennen Wysong (02)          It’s a remarkable thing to
C. K. Williams (85, 93)    Warren Woessner (75)
Fairfax, VA                Madison, WI                  Geneva, NY                   be rewarded by one’s own
                                                                                     government for being an

Edward Williams (78)       David Wojahn (82, 94)
New York, NY               Bloomington, IN
                                                                                     artist, for pursuing a unique
                                                                                     vision. The recognition and
John A. Williams (78)      Jack Wolf (78)
Teaneck, NJ                Rochester, NY                Susan Yankowitz (72, 80)     money were enormously
                                                        New York, NY                 helpful to me at the time,
Jonathan Williams (77)     Geoffrey Wolff (80, 87)
Highlands, NC              Jamestown, RI                John Yarbrough (95)          and since then I’ve been a
                                                        Fresno, CA                   judge for the NEA and know
Joy Williams (73, 88)      Tobias Wolff (78, 85)
Siesta Key, FL             Syracuse, NY                 Dwight Yates (93)            that the criterion is excel-
                                                        Redlands, CA                 lence, always only excellence
Alan Williamson (72)       Hilma Wolitzer (78, 87)
Charlottesville, VA        Syosset, NY                  Richard Yates (67, 83, 84)   and promise. It’s a great fel-
                                                        Boston, MA                   lowship to receive, a sustain-
Anne Williamson (87)       Meg Wolitzer (94)
Berkeley, CA               New York, NY                 John Yau (76)                ing and emboldening award.
                                                        New York, NY
Eric M. Williamson (96)    Roy Wolper (75)
New York, NY               Philadelphia, PA             Laurence Yep (90)
                                                        San Francisco, CA
Lex Williford (93)         Shawn Wong (82)
Carbondale, IL             Seattle, WA                  Jose Yglesias (74)
                                                        North Brookline, ME
Constance E. Willis (82)   Jane Roberts Wood (92)
Woodland Park, CO          Houston, TX                  Al Young (75)
                                                        Palo Alto, CA
Meredith Sue Willis (78)   Nancy Wood (87)
Brooklyn, NY               Taos, NM                     Brian Young (95)
                                                        Scottsdale, AZ
Eleanor Wilner (76)        Susan Wood (84)
Philadelphia, PA           Houston, TX                  David P. Young (82, 90)
                                                        Madison, WI
Edward Wilson (77)         John W. Woods (82)
Gainesville, FL            Portage, MI                  Dean Young (88, 96)
                                                        Bloomington, IN

                           NEA Literature Fellowships      43
                                    Gary Young (82, 03)        Nancy Zafris (93, 06)          Paul Zimmer (75, 82)
                                    Santa Cruz, CA             Columbus, OH                   Athens, GA
                                    Geoffrey M. Young          Marc A. Zagoren (80)           Lloyd Zimpel (80)
                                     (70, 78)                  Montclair, NJ                  San Francisco, CA
                                    Berkeley, CA               Cynthia Zarin (97)             Bonnie ZoBell (95)
                                    Kevin Young (05)           New York, NY                   Oceanside, CA
                                    Bloomington, IN            Bill Zavatsky (79)             Joel R. Zoss (82)
                                    Ray Young Bear (76)        New York, NY                   Chilmark, MA
                                    Tama, IA                   Christine Zawadiwsky (76)      Ahmos Zu-Bolton, II (78)
                                    John Yount (76)            Milwaukee, WI                  Houston, TX
                                    Durham, NC                 Eileen M. Zeitz (80)           Louis Zukofsky (69)
                                                               Duluth, MN                     New York, NY

Tobias Wolff (78, 85) is the                                   Rafael Zepeda (93)             Paul Zweig (80)
author of two memoirs, This                                    Long Beach, CA                 New York, NY
Boy’s Life (1989), about his
                                    Lee Zacharias (80)         John Zeugner (70)
childhood, and In Pharaoh’s                                    Tallahassee, FL
Army (1994), about his ser-         Greensboro, NC
                                    Saul Zachary (80)          Edra Ziesk (96)
vice during the Vietnam War,
                                    New York, NY               New York, NY
as well as three volumes of
short stories, a novella, and a     Wayne Zade (76)            Richard Zimler (94)
                                    Columbia, MO               Roslyn Heights, NY
novel. Wolff received the PEN/
Faulkner Award for his novella
The Barracks Thief.

During the period of my
first fellowship I completed
a collection of short stories,
In the Garden of the North Ameri-
can Martyrs, and during the
second I made a substantial
beginning on a memoir,
This Boy’s Life. The grant al-
lowed me to write without
one eye on the wallet and
the other on the clock, and
to experiment and develop
in ways that would otherwise
have been very difficult. I
will always be profoundly
grateful to the NEA for the
difference it has made in
my life and work.

                                                          44         National Endowment for the Arts
Translation Fellows
                                 The fiscal year(s) NEA Literature Fellows received the award is in parentheses following the name. Residence listed
                                 is that of the Fellow at the time of award (for multiple awards, residence of most recent award is used).
                                 In cases where the country of translation is not obvious, the country is listed in parentheses next to the language.

                                                                                 Susan Bernofsky (92)                            Anthony Chambers (92)
                                                                                 Princeton, NJ                                   La Ca~
                                                                                                                                      nada, CA
                                                                                 German                                          Japanese
                                 Aron Aji (06)                                   Gabriel Berns (81)                              Leland Chambers (91)
                                 Indianapolis, IN                                San Francisco, CA                               Denver, CO
                                 Turkish                                         Spanish                                         Spanish (Cuba/Mexico)
                                 Ammiel Alcalay (97)                             John Bierhorst (86)                             John Chioles (95)
                                 Brooklyn, NY                                    West Shokan, NY                                 New York, NY
                                 Serbo-Croatian (Bosnia)                         Aztec (Mexico)                                  Greek
                                 Beverly Allen (94)                              Phyllis Birnbaum (83)                           Ronald Christ (86)
                                 Syracuse, NY                                    Watertown, MA                                   New York, NY
                                 Italian                                         Japanese                                        Spanish (Chile)
Erdag Göknar (04) is As-
sistant Professor of Turkish     Esther Allen (95)                               Randolph Blasing (81)                           Joseph P. Clancy (82, 89)
                                 New York, NY                                    Providence, RI                                  New York, NY
Studies at Duke University.                                                      Turkish                                         Welsh
                                 Spanish (Mexico)
He is the award-winning
                                 Alison Anderson (04)                            George Blecher (82)                             Jonathan Cohen (81)
translator of Orhan Pamuk’s
                                 Mill Valley, CA                                 New York, NY                                    Setauket, NY
historical novel My Name is                                                      Swedish (Finland)                               Spanish (Nicaragua)
Red. Currently, he is complet-
                                 Sarah Arvio (92)                                Chana Bloch (99)                                Peter Cole (92)
ing the translation of Ahmet
                                 New York, NY                                    Berkeley, CA                                    San Francisco, CA
Hamdi Tanpinar’s modernist                                                       Hebrew (Germany)                                Hebrew (Spain)
                                 Spanish (Argentina)
classic, A Mind at Peace.
                                 Margaret Aung-Thwin (93)                        Wanda Boeke (00)                                Peter Constantine (04)
                                 New York, NY                                    Iowa City, IA                                   New York, NY
                                 Burmese                                         Dutch                                           Greek
                                                                                 Magda Bogin (81, 85)                            Jane E. Cottrell (83)

The NEA translation grant                                                        New York, NY                                    Columbus, OH
allowed me to overcome                                                           Catalan, Spanish                                Romanian
significant challenges to                                                         (Spain, Mexico)                                 Wayne Cox (05)
the Tanpinar project. It         John Balaban (85)                               Robert Bononno (02)                             Greenville, SC
was a factor in finalizing        State College, PA                               New York, NY                                    Catalan (Spain)
                                 Vietnamese                                      French (Switzerland)
copyright and a publishing                                                                                                       Aaron Crippen (05)
contract, in researching         John Balcom (05)                                Danuta Borchardt (04)                           Houston, TX
                                 Monterey, CA                                    Gloucester, MA                                  Chinese
aspects of the novel during      Chinese                                         Polish                                          James Cryer (89)
translation, and in giving
                                 Carol Barko (82)                                Rhonda Buchanan (06)                            Chapel Hill, NC
me the time and space to         New York, NY                                    Louisville, KY                                  Chinese
do the work. In addition to      French                                          Spanish (Mexico)

recognizing the importance       Willis Barnstone (83)

of literatures that are un-      Bloomington, IN
der-represented in English       Spanish
(such as that of Turkey),        Frances Horning                                                                                 Rae Dalven (83)
                                   Barraclough (81)                              Ivana Carlsen (93)                              New York, NY
the NEA grant enabled me
                                 Ithaca, NY                                      Berkeley, CA                                    Greek
to focus on the intrica-         Spanish (Peru)                                  Portuguese                                      Lydia Davis (81)
cies of literary translation                                                     John Carpenter (81, 88)                         Brooklyn, NY
                                 Patrick Barron (06)
away from the demands of         San Francisco, CA                               Ann Arbor, MI                                   French
university teaching.             Italian                                         Polish                                          Marjolijn de Jager (05)
                                 John Batki (02)                                 Anne M. Cattaneo (81)                           Stamford, CT
                                 Syracuse, NY                                    New York, NY                                    Dutch
                                 Hungarian                                       German                                          Diana P. Decker (96)
                                 Herbert Batt (02)                               Myrtha Chabran (83)                             Fairfax, VA
                                 Buffalo, NY                                     Brooklyn, NY                                    Spanish (Uruguay)
                                 Chinese                                         Spanish (Puerto Rico)                           Diana Der-Hovanessian (93)
                                 Steven Becker (84)                                                                              Cambridge, MA
                                 Tortola, VI                                                                                     Armenian
                                 French (Zaire)

                                                                        46              National Endowment for the Arts
Dominic Di Bernardi (91)      Kimon Friar (82)
Philadelphia, PA              Oak Brook, IL
French                        Greek (Cypress)
C. Christopher Drake (90)     Anne Frydman (86)             Kathryn Hansen (84)
Essex, MA                     Baltimore, MD                 Albany, CA
Japanese                      Russian                       Hindi (India)
Charles Dunlop (88, 94)       David Frye (02)               Paul Hansen (91)
New York, NY                  Ann Arbor, MI                 LaConner, WA
Japanese                      Spanish (Mexico)              Chinese
John DuVal (99)               Bruce Fulton (95)             Larry Hartsell (95)
Fayetteville, AR              Seattle, WA                   Seattle, WA
Old French                    Korean                        Nepali
                                                            Paula Haydar (96)

e                             g
                                                                                       David Hinton (91, 01) has
                                                            Fayetteville, AR
                                                                                       translated 18 books, which
                                                            Arabic (Lebanon)
                                                                                       have earned him numerous
                                                            Lyn Hejinian (89)          honors and awards, including
Clayton Eshleman (88)         Jamey Gambrell (94)           Berkeley, CA
Ypsilanti, MI                 New York, NY                  Russian                    the Landon Translation Award
French (Martinique)           Russian                                                  from the Academy of Ameri-
                                                            Kathryn Hellerstein (85)
                              Geoffrey Gardner (86)                                    can Poets. His translations of

                                                            Watertown, MA
                              Cambridge, MA                 Yiddish (Poland)           ancient Chinese poetry and
                              French (Uruguay/France)                                  philosophy have earned wide
                                                            John High (91)
                              Donald Gecewicz (01)                                     acclaim for creating compelling
Lee Fahnestock (93)                                         San Rafael, CA
                              Evanston, IL                  Russian                    contemporary English texts
New York, NY                  Italian                                                  that convey the actual texture
French                                                      David Hinton (91, 01)
                              Estelle Gilson (95)           East Calais, VT            and density of the originals.
Rebecca Fanany (06)           Bronx, NY                                                Hinton lives in East Calais,
Vermont South, Australia                                    Chinese
                              Italian                                                  Vermont.
Indonesian                                                  George Hochfield (06)
                              Erdag Göknar (04)             Berkeley, CA
Robert Fedorchek (92)         Durham, NC
Fairfield, CT                                                Italian
Spanish                                                     Thomas Hoeksema (85)       I am an independent scholar
                              Howard Goldblatt (92, 04)     Las Cruces, NM
Ruth Feldman (89)             South Bend, IN                                           devoting my time solely to
                                                            Spanish (Mexico)
Cambridge, MA                 Chinese                                                  translation and writing,
Italian                                                     Thomas Hoisington (95)     so NEA support has been
                              Sanford Goldstein (83)        River Forest, IL
John Felstiner (84, 02)       West Lafayette, IN            Russian
                                                                                       extremely important in
Stanford, CA                  Japanese                                                 making my work possible.
German, French (Romania)                                    J. Martin Holman (90)
                              Roger Greenwald (88, 03)      Orem, UT
                                                                                       Without it, the books simply
Thomas Fitzsimmons (82)       Toronto, Canada                                          would not have happened.
Union Lake, MN                                              Japanese
                              Swedish, Danish                                          My first NEA grant came
Japanese                                                    Marion P. Holt (81)
                              Jerzy Gregorek (03)           New York, NY               early in my career, allowing
Frederick Fornoff (85, 93)    Santa Monica, CA
Johnstown, PA                                               Spanish                    me to translate my second
Spanish (Spain, Costa Rica)                                 Edwin Honig (82)           book: The Selected Poems of T’ao
                              Regina Grol-Prokopczyk (93)   Middletown, RI             Ch’ien. My second grant came
Eleni Fourtouni (81)          Buffalo, NY
New Haven, CT                                               Portuguese                 much later, allowing me to
Greek                                                       William Hutchins (06)      translate a large anthology:
                              Agnes Moncy Gullon (86)       Todd, NC
Leonard Fox (05)              Merion, PA                                               Mountain Home: The Wilderness
Charleston, SC                                              Arabic (Libya)
                              Spanish                                                  Poetry of Ancient China.
Malagasy, French

(Madagascar)                  Prasenjit Gupta (04)
                              Iowa City, IA
Donald Frame (84)             Bengali (India)
New York, NY                                                Henry Israeli (03)
French                        David M. Guss (82)
                              Venice, CA                    New York, NY
                              Carib (Venezuela)             Albanian

                              NEA Literature Fellowships       47
                                 Lois Baker Janzer (99)
                                                                  Wayne P. Lammers (98)
                                                                                                 Carol Maier (89, 95)
                                                                                                 Atwater, OH
                                                                                                 Spanish (Spain, Cuba)
                                 Portland, OR                     Tigard, OR                     Michael H. March (90)
                                 Chinese                          Japanese                       London, England
                                                                                                 Serbo-Croatian (Yugoslavia)
                                 Katherine D. Jason (85)          Clifford E. Landers (04)
                                 New York, NY                     Naples, FL                     Maria M. Markof-Belaeff
                                 Italian                          Portuguese (Brazil)             (82)
                                                                                                 San Francisco, CA
                                 Kent Johnson (05)                Linda Lappin (88, 96)
                                 Freeport, IL                     Kingsport, TN
                                 Spanish (Bolivia)                Italian                        Henry A. Martin, Jr. (89)
                                                                                                 Bolzano, Italy
                                 Bill Johnston (99)               Jeanne Larsen (95)
Lynne Sharon Schwartz            St. Paul, MN                     Roanoke, VA
                                 Polish                           Chinese                        Khaled Mattawa (99)
(85,02) has written numerous
                                                                                                 Chapel Hill, NC
novels and short story, essay,   Margaret E. W. Jones (00)        Naomi Lazard (86)
                                                                                                 Arabic (Iraq)
and poetry collections in        Lexington, KY                    Geenwich, CT
                                 Spanish                          Urdu (Pakistan)                Margaret Mauldon (89)
addition to translations from                                                                    Amherst, MA
Italian by noted writers Nata-   Pierre Joris (99)                Janet Lembke (05)
                                                                                                 French (Vietnam)
lia Ginzburg and Liana Millu.    Albany, NY                       Staunton, VA
                                 German (Romania)                 Latin (Italy)                  Ralph McCarthy (94)
Her novel Leaving Brooklyn                                                                       Fallbrook, CA
(1989) was a finalist for the                                      Rika Lesser (01)

                                                                  Brooklyn, NY                   Japanese
PEN/Faulkner Award.
                                                                  Swedish                        Christi Ann Merrill (02)
                                                                  Curt Leviant (84)              Charlottesville, VA
                                                                  Edison, NJ                     Hindi, Rajasthani (India)
                                 James Kates (06)
It’s not unusual for fiction      Fitzwilliam, NH                  Yiddish (Russia)               Philip Metres, III (01)
writers to feel, in low mo-      Russian                          Suzanne Jill Levine            Bloomington, IN
                                                                   (81, 85, 93)                  Russian
ments, that their work is of     Shirley Kaufman (03)
                                 Jerusalem, Israel                Santa Barbara, CA              Mona Mikhail (81)
no tangible use. Despite all                                      Spanish (Spain, Argentina)     New York, NY
                                 Hebrew (Israel)
we tell ourselves about the                                                                      Arabic
                                 Edmund Keeley (88)               Alexis Levitin (93, 03)
necessity of art as a chron-     Princeton, NJ                    Morrisonville, NY              Breon Mitchell (89)
icle of private and public       Greek                            Portuguese                     Ellettsville, IN
life, or art as a means of       Tsipi Keller (97)                Cecilia Liang (83)             German
nourishing the living lan-       New York, NY                     Woodland Hills, CA             Stephen Mitchell (88)
guage, we do occasionally        Hebrew (Israel)                  Chinese                        Berkeley, CA
imagine our time might be                                         Frances M. Lopez-Morillas      German, Hebrew (Germany)
                                 Anthony Kerrigan (82)
better spent, say, building      Notre Dame, IN                    (85)                          Steven Murray (90)
                                 Spanish                          Austin, TX                     Seattle, WA
furniture or bridges, work                                        Spanish                        Danish (Sweden)
that fills a clear need. The      Stephen Kessler (01)
                                 Gualala, CA                      Leza Lowitz (97)

NEA fellowship assured me        Spanish                          Oakland, CA
what I did was indeed use-                                        Japanese
                                 Kerry Keys (05)
ful, enough so to warrant        Boiling Springs, PA              Josef Lustig (86)
its encouragement. I was         Lithuanian                       Washington, DC                 Joachim Neugroschel (94)
able to complete a collec-                                        Czech                          Belle Harbor, NY
                                 Nina Kossman (99)                                               German
tion of short stories, and       Long Island City, NY             Sverre Lyngstad (83)
                                 Russian                          New York, NY                   Mary Ann Newman (90)
some years later, a transla-                                      Norwegian                      New York, NY
tion that took seven years to    Chana Kronfeld (06)                                             Catalan (Spain)

find a publisher.                 Berkeley, CA
                                 Hebrew (Israel)                                                 Howard Norman (81, 85)
                                                                                                 Cambridge, MA
                                 William Kulik (94)                                              Cree, Swampy Cree (Canada)
                                 Philadelphia, PA
                                                                  Sandy MacDonald (89)           Tiina Nunnally (04)
                                 French                           Cambridge, MA                  Albuquerque, NM
                                                                  Italian                        Norwegian

                                                             48        National Endowment for the Arts
Ranjini Obeyesekere (82)
                             Moss Roberts (83)
                             New York, NY
                                                           Frankie Shackelford (91)
                                                           Verona, WI
Princeton, NJ                David Rosenthal (91)          Daniel Shapiro (03)
Sinhala (Sri Lanka)          New York, NY                  New York, NY
                             Catalan (Spain)               Spanish (Chile)
Mike O’Connor (03)
Port Townsend, WA            Carol Rubenstein (84)         Andrew Shields (05)
Chinese                      Taos, NM                      Basel, Switzerland
                             Malay                         French
William O’Daly (06)
Auburn, CA                   David Rubin (83, 90, 96)      Katherine Silver (90)
Spanish (Chile)              New York, NY                  Oakland, CA
                             Hindi (India)                 Spanish (Peru)
Brian Thomas Oles (98)
Seattle, WA                  Robert Rudder (04)            John Oliver Simon (01)
                                                                                      William Jay Smith (72, 95)
Russian                      Claremont, CA                 Berkeley, CA
                             Spanish                       Spanish (Chile)            was Consultant in Poetry to
                                                                                      the Library of Congress (Poet

                                                           David Slavitt (88)

                                                                                      Laureate) from 1968 to 1970,
                                                           Philadelphia, PA
                                                           Latin (Italy)              and in that capacity trav-
                                                                                      eled widely in Russia, Eastern
Ron Padgett (83)                                           William Jay Smith (95)
                             Ivan Sanders (84, 93)         Cummington, MA             Europe, and the Middle East.
New York, NY
French                       Stony Brook, NY               French                     His books include Army Brat, a
                             Hungarian                                                memoir, The World below the
Gregory Pardlo, Jr. (06)                                   Adam Sorkin (05)
                             Stephen Sartarelli (90, 96)   Haverstown, PA             Window: Poems 1937-1997,
Brooklyn, NY
Danish                       Hudson, NY                    Romanian                   and Laughing Time, a chil-
                             Italian                                                  dren’s classic. His translations
Margaret Sayers Peden                                      Laima Sruoginis (04)
                             Teo Savory (82)               Peaks Island, ME           have won awards from the
 (81, 89)
Columbia, MO                 Greensboro, NC                Lithuanian                 French Academy, the Swedish
Spanish (Chile, Argentina)   French                                                   Academy, and the Hungarian
                                                           Steven Stewart (05)
Richard Pevear (81)          Christopher                   Reno, NV                   government.
New York, NY                  Sawyer-Laucanno (92)         Spanish
Italian                      Somerville, MA

Richard Philcox (00)                                                                  As a young poet and trans-
New York, NY                 Mark Schafer (94, 06)
French (West Indies)         Cambridge, MA                                            lator, I followed Eliot and
                             Spanish (Mexico)              Alexander Taylor (82)      Pound in their admiration
Mark Polizzotti (95)
Newton, MA                   Paul Schmidt (86, 96)         Willimantic, CT            of the French poet Jules
French                       New York, NY                  Danish                     Laforgue, and after years
                             Russian                       Peter Theroux (91, 96)     of work produced the first
Ritva Poom (90)
New York, NY                 Karine Schomer (83)           Long Beach, CA             comprehensive English
Finnish                      Berkeley, CA                  Arabic (Jordan)            selection of his writing. The
                             Rajasthani (India)            Virlana Tkacz (05)
Bill (Red Pine) Porter                                                                NEA grant enabled me to
                             Lynne Sharon Schwartz (02)    New York, NY
  (86, 05)                                                                            undertake new versions of
Port Townsend, WA            New York, NY                  Ukrainian
                             Italian                                                  the fairytales of Madame
Chinese                                                    Anne Twitty (06)
                             Marion Schwartz (88)          Brooklyn, NY
                                                                                      d’Aulnoy, who had long
Alfred Poulin, Jr. (82)                                                               been an inspiration in my
Brockport, NY                New York, NY                  Spanish (Argentina)
French (Czech Republic)      Russian                       William J. Tyler (92)
                                                                                      work for children. With
                             Martha Ann Selby (05)         Philadelphia, PA           that grant I joined the host
Caterina F. Provost (84)
Pittsburgh, PA               Austin, TX                    Japanese                   of translators indebted to
Italian                      Tamil (India)                                            the NEA for allowing us to

                             Sagaree Sengupta (02)                                    seek treasures beyond our

                             Madison, WI                                              borders and to present them
                             Hindi (India)
                                                                                      with a new transparency to
                             Timothy Sergay (06)           Carol Ueland (03)
                                                           New York, NY               American readers.
Ralph R. Read (81)           Worthington, OH
                             Russian                       Russian
Austin, TX

                             NEA Literature Fellowships       49
                                    Russell Valentino (02)
                                                                    Katherine Washburn (88)
                                                                    Brooklyn, NY
                                                                    German (Romania)
                                                                                                   Donald A. Yates (00)
                                    Iowa City, IA                   Alyson Waters (04)             St. Helena, CA
                                    Serbo-Croatian (Bosnia)         Brooklyn, NY                   Spanish (Argentina)
                                    Victor Valle (81)                                              Shiao-ling Yu (94)
                                    Evanston, IL                    Ellen Watson (84)              Lawrence, KS
                                    Spanish (Brazil/Peru)           Conway, MA                     Chinese
                                                                    Portuguese (Brazil)
                                    Karen Van Dyck (96)

                                    New York, NY                    Daniel Weissbort (81)
                                    Greek                           Iowa City, IA
                                    Jan van Huerck (81)
                                    East Haven, CT                  Mary White (85)                Ilinca Zarifopol-Johnson
Donald A. Yates (00) has
                                    German                          Decorah, IA                      (94)
translated numerous works                                           Russian                        Bloomington, IN
from Spanish into English.          Paul Vangelisti (81)                                           Romanian
                                    Los Angeles, CA                 Steven White (88)
Outside of his translations of
                                    Italian                         Eugene, OR                     Richard Zenith (89)
Jorge Luis Borges, Adolfo Bioy                                      Spanish (Nicaragua)            Alexandria, VA
Casares, Marco Denevi, Manuel       Lawrence Venuti (82, 99)                                       Portuguese
                                    New York, NY                    Elizabeth Wing (93)
Peyrou, and many other short                                        Baton Rouge, LA
                                    Italian                                                        Linda Zisquit (96)
story writers and novelists,                                        French (Martinique)            Jerusalem, Israel
Yates is a creative writer in his   Mai Vo-Dinh (83)                                               Hebrew (Israel)
                                    Burkittsville, MD               Willard Wood (00)
own right as well as a noted                                        Norfolk, CT
critic and anthologist.             Vietnamese

                                                                    Carolyne Wright (96)
                                                                    Arlington, MA
                                                                    Bengali (Bangladesh)
I did my first translations
from Spanish nearly 50              Sergio Gabriel Waisman (00)     Elizabeth Oehlkers Wright
                                    San Francisco, CA                (03)
years ago. In 1962, with                                            Waltham, MA
                                    Spanish (Argentina)
James E. Irby, I co-edited                                          German
                                    Bernard Waldrop (91, 03)
and co-translated Labyrinths,       Providence, RI                  Harold Wright (85)
the first collection of the          French                          Yellow Springs, OH
writings of Jorge Luis Borges       Rosmarie Waldrop (94)
to appear in English. The           Providence, RI
NEA translation grant is            German
allowing me to bring into
English the complete writ-
ings of the Argentine author
Edgar Brau, who to date has
published two novels and
thirteen short stories. I see
Brau as a truly gifted writer,
who draws inspiration not
only from Borges, but also
from his compatriot, Marco
Denevi, whose literary and
ethical standards he clearly

                                                               50       National Endowment for the Arts
 National Awards and Honors
Won by NEA Literature Fellows
                                      Poets Laureate of the United States
Eight of the last 10 Poets Laureate have been        The Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library
NEA Literature Fellows.                              of Congress serves to raise the national consciousness
                                                     about the reading and writing of poetry. The Poet
                                                     Laureate is appointed annually by the Librarian of

                                                     The position has existed under two separate titles:
                                                     from 1937 to 1986 as “Consultant in Poetry to the
                                                     Library of Congress” and from 1986 forward as “Poet
                                                     The following NEA Literature Fellows were named U.S. Poet
                                                     Laureate (the fiscal year they received the fellowship is in
Mark Strand                                          parentheses).
                            Mona Van Duyn

                                                     Poets Laureate
                                                     2004–05 Ted Kooser (76, 84)
                                                     2003–04 Louise Glück (70, 79, 88)
                                                     2001–03 Billy Collins (88)
                                                     2000–01 Stanley Kunitz (84)
                                                     1997–00 Robert Pinsky (84)
                                                     1993–95 Rita Dove (77, 89)
Rita Dove
                                                     1992–93 Mona Van Duyn (67, 85)
                            Robert Pinsky
                                                     1990–91 Mark Strand (68, 78, 86)
                                                     1986–87 Robert Penn Warren (69)

                                                     Consultants in Poetry
                                                     1985–86 Gwendolyn Brooks (89)
                                                     1984–85 Reed Whittemore (69)
                                                     1982–84 Anthony Hecht (89)

Stanley Kunitz                                       1981–82 Maxine Kumin (67)

                            Billy Collins            1978–80 William Meredith (72, 84)
                                                     1974–76 Stanley Kunitz (84)
                                                     1970–71 William Stafford (91)
                                                     1968–70 William Jay Smith (72, 95)
                                                     1964–65 Reed Whittemore (69)
                                                     1948–49 Léonie Adams (66)
                                                     1945–46 Louise Bogan (68)
                                                     1944–45 Robert Penn Warren (69)
Louise Glück

                            Ted Kooser

                                                         52        National Endowment for the Arts
The Bollingen                                         National Medal of Arts
Prize for Poetry
                                                      The National Medal of Arts, established in 1985, is the
The Bollingen Prize for                               highest award given to artists and arts patrons by the
Poetry, established in 1949,                          United States government. It is awarded annually by
is awarded biennially by                              the President of the United States to individuals and
the Yale University Library                           groups who have made outstanding contributions to
to an American poet for the                           the excellence, growth, support, and availability of the
best book published during                            arts in the United States.
the previous two years and                            The following NEA Literature Fellows received the award (the
for lifetime achievement in                           fiscal year they received the fellowship is in parentheses).
poetry. The prize includes an
award of $75,000.
                                                      2004 Anthony Hecht (89)
The following NEA Literature
                                                      2001 Rudolfo Anaya (79)
Fellows received the award (the
fiscal year they received the                          1995 Gwendolyn Brooks (89)
fellowship is in parentheses).                        1993 Stanley Kunitz (84)
                                                      1987 Robert Penn Warren (69)
2005 Jay Wright (68)                                  1986 Eudora Welty (89)
2001 Louise Glück (70, 79, 88)
1999 Robert Creeley (80)
1993 Mark Strand (68, 78, 86)
                                                      National Humanities Medal
1991 Laura Riding Jackson (80)
     Donald Justice (66, 79, 89)                      The National Humanities Medal, established in 1988
1987 Stanley Kunitz (84)                              originally as the Charles Frankel Prize, honors individ-
                                                      uals or groups whose work has deepened the nation’s
1985 John Ashbery (69)
                                                      understanding of the humanities, broadened our
1983 Anthony Hecht (89)                               citizens’ engagement with the humanities, or helped
1981 May Swenson (74)                                 preserve and expand Americans’ access to important
1979 W. S. Merwin (69, 77)                            resources in the humanities.

1971 Mona Van Duyn (67, 85)                           The following NEA Literature Fellows received the award (the
                                                      fiscal year they received the fellowship is in parentheses).
1969 John Berryman (68)
1967 Robert Penn Warren (69)
                                                      2000 Ernest J. Gaines (68)
                                                      1997 Maxine Hong Kingston (80)
                                                      1996 Rita Dove (77, 89)
                                                      1994 William Kittredge (74, 81)
                                                      1992 Eudora Welty (89)

                         NEA Literature Fellowships         53
PEN/Faulkner Award
                                                                1999 Michael Cunningham (88)
                                                                      The Hours (winner)
Named for William Faulkner, who used his Nobel Prize
                                                                     Russell Banks (78, 83)
funds to create an award for young writers, and affili-                Cloudsplitter (finalist)
ated with PEN, the international writers’ organization,              Richard Selzer (88)
the PEN/Faulkner Award was founded by writers in 1980                The Doctor Stories (finalist)
to honor their peers. The award winner receives $15,000;
each of the other four finalists receives $5,000, making         1998 Donald Antrim (02)
                                                                      The Hundred Brothers (finalist)
PEN/Faulkner the largest juried award for fiction in the
United States.                                                  1997 Gina Berriault (86)
The following NEA Literature Fellows received the award (the           Women in their Beds (winner)
fiscal year they received the fellowship is in parentheses).          Ron Hansen (80, 87)
                                                                       Atticus (finalist)
                                                                     Jamaica Kincaid (86)
                                                                       The Autobiography of My Mother (finalist)
2005 Jerome Charyn (80, 85)
                                                                1996 Richard Ford (80, 86)
       The Green Lantern (finalist)
                                                                       Independence Day (winner)
                                                                     Madison Smartt Bell (92)
2004 Frederick Busch (76)
                                                                       All Souls’ Rising (finalist)
       Elroy Nights (finalist)
     Tobias Wolff (78, 85)
                                                                1995 Frederick Busch (76)
       Old School (finalist)
                                                                       The Children in the Woods (finalist)
                                                                     Ursula Hegi (90)
2003 Peter Cameron (87)
                                                                       Stones from the River (finalist)
      The City of Your Final Destination (finalist)
                                                                     Joyce Carol Oates (69)
     William Kennedy (81)
                                                                       What I Lived For (finalist)
      Roscoe (finalist)
     Gilbert Sorrentino (74, 83)
                                                                1994 Stanley Elkin (72)
      Little Casino (finalist)
                                                                      Van Gogh’s Room at Arles (finalist)
                                                                     Dagoberto Gilb (92)
2002 Karen Joy Fowler (88)
                                                                      The Magic of Blood (finalist)
       Sister Noon (finalist)
                                                                     Fae Myenne Ng (90)
     Jonathan Franzen (02)
                                                                      Bone (finalist)
       The Corrections (finalist)
                                                                1993 Annie Proulx (91)
2001 Denis Johnson (75, 81)
                                                                      Postcards (winner)
      The Name of the World (finalist)
                                                                     Robert Olen Butler (94)
     Mona Simpson (86)
                                                                      A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain (finalist)
      Off Keck Road (finalist)
                                                                     Maureen Howard (88)
                                                                      Natural History (finalist)
2000 Frederick Busch (76)
                                                                     Sylvia Watanabe (89)
       The Night Inspector (finalist)
                                                                      Talking to the Dead (finalist)

                                                                1992 Stephen Dixon (74, 90)
                                                                      Frog (finalist)
                                                                     Allan Gurganus (76, 85)
                                                                      White People (finalist)

                                                               54      National Endowment for the Arts
1991 Paul Auster (79, 85)                                         1985 Tobias Wolff (78, 85)
       The Music of Chance (finalist)                                     The Barracks Thief (winner)
     Joanne Meschery (80, 85)                                          Harriet Doerr (83)
       A Gentleman’s Guide to the Frontier (finalist)                     Stones for Ibarra (finalist)
     Steven Millhauser (86)                                            David Leavitt (88)
       The Barnum Museum (finalist)                                       Family Dancing (finalist)

1990 Russell Banks (78, 83)                                       1984 Ron Hansen (80,87)
      Affliction (finalist)                                                The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward
     Lynne Sharon Schwartz (85, 02)                                      Robert Ford (finalist)
      Leaving Brooklyn (finalist)                                       William Kennedy (81)
                                                                         Ironweed (finalist)
1989 Isaac Bashevis Singer (67)                                        Jamaica Kincaid (86)
       The Death of Methuselah and Other Stories                         At the Bottom of the River (finalist)
       (finalist)                                                       Cynthia Ozick (68)
                                                                         The Cannibal Galaxy (finalist)
1988 T. C. Boyle (78, 83)
       World’s End (winner)                                       1983 Maureen Howard (88)
     Richard Bausch (83)                                                Grace Abounding (finalist)
       Spirits (finalist)                                               Bobbie Ann Mason (83)
     Cynthia Ozick (68)                                                 Shiloh and Other Stories (finalist)
       The Messiah of Stockholm (finalist)
     Lawrence Thornton (87)                                       1982 David Bradley (91)
       Imagining Argentina (finalist)                                    The Chaneysville Incident (winner)
                                                                       Richard Bausch (83)
1987 Richard Ford (80, 86)                                              Take Me Back (finalist)
       The Sportswriter (finalist)                                      Robert Stone (68, 83)
     Maureen Howard (88)                                                A Flag for Sunrise (finalist)
       Expensive Habits (finalist)
     Charles Johnson (80)                                         1981 Walter Abish (79, 85)
       The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (finalist)                              How German Is It (winner)
     Janet Kauffman (84)                                                Gilbert Sorrentino (74, 83)
       Collaborators (finalist)                                          Aberration of Starlight (finalist)

1986 Peter Taylor (84)
      The Old Forest (winner)
     William Gaddis (67, 74)
      Carpenter’s Gothic (finalist)
     Hugh Nissenson (78)
      The Tree of Life (finalist)
     Grace Paley (67, 87)
      Later the Same Day (finalist)

                                NEA Literature Fellowships   55
American Book Award                    1998 Jim Barnes (78)                         1991 Lucia Berlin (87)
                                              On Native Ground: Memoirs and                Homesick: New and Selected
The American Book Awards, es-                 Impressions                                  Stories
tablished in 1978 by the Before             Nora Okja Keller (00)                        Jessica Hagedorn (95)
Columbus Foundation, recognize                Comfort Woman                                Dogeaters
outstanding literary achievement            Thomas Lynch (88)                            Joy Harjo (77, 92)
                                              The Undertaking: Life Studies                In Mad Love and War
by contemporary American authors,
                                              from the Dismal Trade                      Meridel Le Sueur (80)
without restriction to race, sex,           Brenda Osbey (90)                              Harvest Song
ethnic background, or genre.                  All Saints
                                            John A. Williams (78)                   1990 Paula Gunn Allen (77)
The following NEA Literature Fellows
                                              Safari West                                 Contemporary Writing by Native
received the award (the fiscal year                                                        American Women
they received the fellowship is in     1997 Dorothy Barresi (97)                         Barbara Grizzuti Harrison (81)
parentheses).                                 The Post-Rapture Diner                      Italian Days
                                            Tom DeHaven (80, 86)                         Adrienne Kennedy (72)
                                              Derby Dugan’s Depression Funnies            People Who Led to My Plays
                                            Martin Espada (86, 92)
2004 Diana Abu-Jaber (94)                     Imagine the Angels of Bread           1989 Isabel Allende, translated by
      Crescent                              Louis Owens (89)                             Margaret Sayers Peden (81, 89)
                                              Nightland                                    Eva Luna
2003 Jewell Parker Rhodes (82)                                                           Frank Chin (74, 80)
       Douglass’ Women                 1996 Sherman Alexie (92)                            Chinaman Pacific & Frisco
                                              Reservation Blues                            R.R. Co.
2002 Alex Kuo (90)                          Kimiko Hahn (86, 92)                         Audre Lorde (81, 90)
       Lipstick and Other Stories             The Unbearable Heart                         A Burst of Light
     Al Young (75)                          Arthur Sze (82, 93)                          Leslie Scalapino (76, 86)
       The Sound of Dreams                    Archipelago                                  Way
       Remembered: Poems 1990–2000
                                       1995 Li-Young Lee (87, 95)                   1988 Jimmy Santiago Baca (87)
2001 Tillie Olsen (67)                        The Winged Seed: A Remembrance               Martin and Meditations on the
       Lifetime Achievement Award                                                          South Valley
                                       1994 Janet Campbell Hale (95)                     Charles Olson (69)
2000 Michael Lally (78, 81)                   Bloodlines: Odyssey of a Native              The Collected Poems of Charles
       It’s Not Nostalgia: Poetry             Daughter                                     Olson
       and Prose                            Lawson Fusao Inada (72, 79)                  Ed Sanders (87)
     Frank Chin (74, 80)                      Legends from Camp                            Poems 1961-1985
       Lifetime Achievement Award                                                        Ronald Sukenick (80, 89)
     Robert Creeley (81)               1993 Denise Giardina (88, 96)                       Down and In
       Lifetime Achievement Award             The Unquiet Earth
                                            Diane Glancy (90, 03)                   1987 Ai (79, 85)
1999 James D. Houston (76)                    Claiming Breath                              Sin
       The Last Paradise                    Leroy Quintana (78)                          Ana Castillo (90, 95)
     Spear Morgan (78)                        The History of Home                          The Mixquiahuala Letters
       The Freshour Cylinders               Eugene Redmond (78)                          Juan Felipe Herrera (79, 85)
     Gloria Naylor (85)                       The Eye in the Ceiling: Selected             Face Games
       The Men of Brewster Place              Poems                                      Etheridge Knight (72, 81)
     Josip Novakovich (91, 02)                                                             The Essential Etheridge Knight
       Salvation and Other Disasters   1992 Verlyn Klinkenborg (88)                      Terry McMillan (88)
                                             The Last Fine Time
                                            Sandra Scofield (89)
                                                                                         James Welch (70)
                                             Beyond Deserving
                                                                                           Fools Crow
                                                                                         John Wieners (69, 86)
                                                                                           Selected Poems, 1958–1984

                                                              56         National Endowment for the Arts
1986 Raymond Federman (85)                   1982 Russell Banks (78, 83)
       Smiles on Washington Square                  The Book of Jamaica
     Linda Hogan (86)                             Lorna Dee Cervantes (77, 93)
       Seeing Through the Sun                       Emplumada
     Terence Winch (92)                           Frank Chin (74, 80)
       Irish Musicians/American                     The Chickencoop Chinaman and
       Friends                                      The Year of the Dragon
                                                  Leroy Quintana (78)
1985 Sandra Cisneros (81, 88)                       Sangre
       The House on Mango Street                  Jerome Rothenberg (76)
     Robert Duncan (67, 80)                         Pre-Faces & Other Writings
       Ground Work: Before the War                Al Young (75)
     Louise Erdrich (83)                            Bodies & Soul
       Love Medicine
     Angela Jackson (80)                     1981 Toni Cade Bambara (83)
       Solo in the Box Car, Third Floor E           The Salt Eaters
     Colleen McElroy (77, 91)                     Robert Kelly (76)
       Queen of the Ebony Aisles                    In Time
     Maureen Owen (79)                            Ben Santos (82)
       Amelia Earhart (AE)                          A Scent of Apples
     Sonia Sanchez (77)
       Homegirls and Handgrenades            1980 Rudolfo Anaya (79)
     May Sarton (67)                                Tortuga
       At Seventy: A Journal                      Mei-Mei Berssenbrugge (76, 81)
     Gary Soto (82, 91)                             Random Possession
       Living Up the Street                       Jayne Cortez (79, 86)
                                                    Mouth on Paper
1984 Mei-Mei Berssenbrugge (76, 81)               Ed Dorn (69)
      The Heat Bird                                 Hello, La Jolla
     William Kennedy (81)                         Leslie Marmon Silko (74)
      O Albany!                                     Ceremony
     Paule Marshall (68, 78)
      Praisesong for the Widow
     Thomas McGrath (74, 82, 87)
      Echoes Inside the Labyrinth

1983 Judy Grahn (79)
       Queen of Wands
     Jessica Hagedorn (95)
       Pet Food & Tropical Apparitions
     James D. Houston (76)
     Cecilia Liang (83) trans.
       Chinese Folk Poetry
     John A. Williams (78)
       !Click Song
     Evangelina Vigil (79)
       Thirty An’ Seen a Lot

                                    NEA Literature Fellowships      57
National Book Award
Since 1950, the National Book Awards have been given to recognize achievements in four genres:
fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and young people’s literature. The winners, selected by five-member,
independent judging panels for each genre, receive a $10,000 award.
The following NEA Literature Fellows received the award (the fiscal year they received the fellowship is in parentheses).

2005 W. S. Merwin (69, 77)                    1993 Annie Proulx (91)                        1980 John Irving (74)
       Migration: New and Selected                   The Shipping News (Fiction)                   The World According to Garp
       Poems (Poetry)                                                                              (Fiction)
                                              1992 Mary Oliver (72)                              Philip Levine (76, 81, 87)
2004 Jean Valentine (72)                            New & Selected Poems (Poetry)                  Ashes (Poetry)
       Door in the Mountain: New and
       Collected Poems (Poetry)               1991 Norman Rush (86)                         1977 Wallace Stegner (90)
                                                     Mating (Fiction)                             The Spectator Bird (Fiction)
2003 C. K. Williams (85, 93)                       Philip Levine (76, 81, 87)
        The Singing (Poetry)                         What Work Is (Poetry)                  1976 William Gaddis (67, 74)
                                                                                                   JR (Fiction)
2002 Julia Glass (04)                         1990 Charles Johnson (80)                          John Ashbery (69)
        Three Junes (Fiction)                        Middle Passage (Fiction)                      Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror
2001 Jonathan Franzen (02)                    1988 Pete Dexter (70)
       The Corrections (Fiction)                     Paris Trout (Fiction)                  1975 Robert Stone (68, 83)
                                                                                                   Dog Soldiers (Fiction)
2000 Lucille Clifton (70, 73)                 1987 Larry Heinemann (81, 87)                      Marilyn Hacker (74, 85)
       Blessing the Boats (Poetry)                   Paco’s Story (Fiction)                        Presentation Piece (Poetry)

1999 Ai (79)                                  1984 Harriet Doerr (83)                       1974 Isaac Bashevis Singer (67)
       Vice: New & Selected Poems                    Stones for Ibarra (Fiction)                   A Crown of Feathers (Fiction)
       (Poetry)                                                                                  Allen Ginsberg (79, 87)
                                              1983 Gloria Naylor (85)                              The Fall of America (Poetry)
1998 Gerald Stern (76, 82, 87)                       The Women of Brewster Place
       This Time: New & Selected Poems               (First Novel)                          1972 Howard Moss (84)
       (Poetry)                                    Alice Walker (78)                               Selected Poems (Poetry)
                                                     The Color Purple (Fiction,
1997 William Meredith (72, 84)                       hardcover)                             1971 Mona Van Duyn (67)
       Effort at Speech: New & Selected            Eudora Welty (89)                              To See, To Take (Poetry)
       Poems (Poetry)                                Collected Stories of Eudora Welty
                                                     (Fiction, paperback)                   1970 Isaac Bashevis Singer (67)
1996 Andrea Barrett (92)                           Galway Kinnell (77, 84)                         A Day of Pleasure (Children’s)
       Ship Fever (Fiction)                          Selected Poems (Poetry)                     Joyce Carol Oates (69)
     Hayden Carruth (67, 75, 88)                   Charles Wright (75, 84)                         Them (Fiction)
       Scrambled Eggs and Whiskey                    Country Music: Selected Early
       (Poetry)                                      Poems (Poetry)                         1969 John Berryman (68)
                                                                                                   His Toy, His Dream, His Rest
1995 Stanley Kunitz (84)                      1982 Tracy Kidder (74)                               (Poetry)
       Passing Through: The Later Poems              The Soul of a New Machine
       (Poetry)                                      (Nonfiction)

1994 William Gaddis (67, 74)                  1981 Wright Morris (86)
       A Frolic of His Own (Fiction)                  Plains Song (Fiction)
     James Tate (79)                               Maxine Hong Kingston (80)
       Worshipful Company of Fletchers               China Men (General Fiction)
       (Poetry)                                    Lisel Mueller (90)
                                                     The Need to Hold Still (Poetry)

                                                                     58         National Endowment for the Arts
National Book Critics Circle Award
The National Book Critics Circle, founded in 1974, consists of nearly 700 active book reviewers devoted
to honoring quality writing and communicating with one another about common concerns. Every year,
the NBCC presents awards for the best book in five categories: fiction, general nonfiction, biography/
autobiography, poetry, criticism.
The following NEA Literature Fellows received the award (the fiscal year they received the fellowship is in parentheses).

2003 Edward P. Jones (86)                     1989 Rodney Jones (84)
       The Known World (Fiction)                     Transparent Gestures (Poetry)
     Susan Stewart (82, 89)
       Columbarium (Poetry)                   1988 Bharati Mukherjee (86)
                                                     The Middleman and Other Stories
2002 B. H. Fairchild (88)                            (Fiction)
       Early Occult Memory Systems
       of the Lower Midwest (Poetry)          1987 C. K. Williams (85, 93)
                                                     Flesh and Blood (Poetry)
2001 Albert Goldbarth (74, 79, 86)
       Saving Lives: Poems (Poetry)           1986 Reynolds Price (66)
                                                     Kate Vaiden (Fiction)
1998 Marie Ponsot (79)                             Edward Hirsch (81)
      The Bird Catcher (Poetry)                      Wild Gratitude (Poetry)

1997 Charles Wright (75, 84)                  1985 Louise Glück (70, 79, 88)
       Black Zodiac (Poetry)                         The Triumph of Achilles (Poetry)

1996 Gina Berriault (86)                      1984 Louise Erdrich (83)
       Women in Their Beds (Fiction)                 Love Medicine (Fiction)
                                                   Sharon Olds (82)
1995 Stanley Elkin (72)                              The Dead and the Living (Poetry)
       Mrs. Ted Bliss (Fiction)
     William Matthews (75, 84)                1983 William Kennedy (81)
       Time and Money (Poetry)                      Ironweed (Fiction)

1994 Mark Rudman (95)                         1982 Stanley Elkin (72)
      Rider (Poetry)                                 George Mills (Fiction)
                                                   Katha Pollitt (84)
1993 Ernest J. Gaines (68)                           Antarctic Traveler (Poetry)
       A Lesson Before Dying (Fiction)
     Mark Doty (87)                           1980 Frederick Seidel (69)
       My Alexandria (Poetry)                        Sunrise (Poetry)

1992 Hayden Carruth (67, 75, 88)              1979 Philip Levine (76, 81, 87)
       Collected Shorter Poems (Poetry)              Ashes and Seven Years from
                                                     Nowhere (Poetry)
1991 Jane Smiley (78, 87)
       A Thousand Acres (Fiction)             1976 John Gardner (72)
     Albert Goldbarth (74, 79, 86)                   October Light (Fiction)
       Heaven and Earth: A Cosmology
       (Poetry)                               1975 John Ashbery (69)
                                                     Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror

                                    NEA Literature Fellowships          59
Pulitzer Prize
The Pulitzer Prizes have been awarded annually since 1917 in print journalism, literary achievements, and
musical compositions. Recipients of the award are chosen by an independent board officially administered
by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. The prize was established by Joseph Pulitzer,
a Hungarian-American newspaper publisher in the late 19th century.
The following NEA Literature Fellows received the award (the fiscal year they received the fellowship is in parentheses).

2005 Ted Kooser (76, 84)                      1994 Annie Proulx (91)                         1978 James Alan McPherson (72)
      Delights and Shadows (Poetry)                 The Shipping News (Fiction)                     Elbow Room (Fiction)
                                                   Yusef Komunyakaa (81, 88)
2004 Edward P. Jones (86)                            Neon Vernacular (Poetry)                1976 John Ashbery (69)
       The Known World (Fiction)                                                                    Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror
     Franz Wright (85, 92)                    1993 Robert Olen Butler (94)                          (Poetry)
        Walking to Martha’s Vineyard                 A Good Scent from a Strange
        (Poetry)                                     Mountain (Fiction)                      1973 Eudora Welty (89)
                                                   Louise Glück (70, 79, 88)                       The Optimist’s Daughter (Fiction)
2003 Jeffrey Eugenides (95)                           The Wild Iris (Poetry)                       Maxine Kumin (67)
       Middlesex (Fiction)                                                                          Up Country (Poetry)
                                              1992 Jane Smiley (78, 87)
2002 Carl Dennis (88)                                A Thousand Acres (Fiction)              1972 Wallace Stegner (90)
      Practical Gods (Poetry)                      James Tate (79)                                 Angle of Repose (Fiction)
                                                     Selected Poems (Poetry)
2001 Stephen Dunn (73, 81, 89)                                                               1971 W. S. Merwin (69, 77)
      Different Hours (Poetry)                1991 Mona Van Duyn (67)                               The Carrier of Ladders (Poetry)
                                                    Near Changes (Poetry)
2000 C. K. Williams (85, 93)                                                                 1970 Richard Howard (87)
      Repair (Poetry)                         1990 Oscar Hijuelos (85)                              Untitled Subjects (Poetry)
                                                     The Mambo Kings Play Songs of
1999 Michael Cunningham (88)                         Love (Fiction)                          1969 George Oppen (80)
       The Hours (Fiction)                         Charles Simic (75, 79)                           Of Being Numerous (Poetry)
     Mark Strand (68, 78, 86)                        The World Doesn’t End (Poetry)
       Blizzard of One (Poetry)                                                              1968 Anthony Hecht (89)
                                              1987 Peter Taylor (84)                                The Hard Hours (Poetry)
1998 Charles Wright (75, 84)                         A Summons to Memphis (Fiction)
       Black Zodiac (Poetry)                       Rita Dove (77, 89)
                                                     Thomas and Beulah (Poetry)
1997 Steven Millhauser (86)
       Martin Dressler: The Tale of an        1986 Henry Taylor (77, 86)
       American Dreamer (Fiction)                   The Flying Change (Poetry)
     Lisel Mueller (90)
        Alive Together: New & Selected        1984 William Kennedy (81)
        Poems (Poetry)                               Ironweed (Fiction)
                                                   Mary Oliver (84)
1996 Richard Ford (80, 86)                           American Primitive (Poetry)
       Independence Day (Fiction)
     Jorie Graham (84)                        1983 Alice Walker (78)
        The Dream of the Unified Field               The Color Purple (Fiction)
                                              1981 James Schuyler (72)
1995 Philip Levine (76, 81, 87)                      The Morning of the Poem (Poetry)
      The Simple Truth (Poetry)
                                              1980 Donald Justice (79, 89)
                                                     Selected Poems (Poetry)

                                                                      60         National Endowment for the Arts
                                 In memory of
                                 Literature Director
                                 Cliff Becker, a true
                                 champion of the
                                 NEA Literature
                                 Fellowship program.

              1964 – 2005

NEA Literature Fellowships   3
A Great Nation Deserves Great Art.

             1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
             Washington, DC 20506-0001
                   (202) 682-5400

Shared By:
Tags: Literature