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HOMEWORK _3 _amp; _4

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 27

									    CLASSIFYING THE INTERESTING
CORRESPONDENCE SETS AND DOING
        SOMETHING ABOUT THEM
                         PART II
The correspondence sets should be arranged
to show either contrast or complementary
distribution.
Contrasting sets look like this:
k=k=Ɂ=Ɂ /__#
Ɂ=Ɂ=Ɂ=Ɂ / __#

An apparent contrast:
a=a=i=a /CVC__(C)#
a=a=a=a /CVC__(C)#
Adam’s observation
His data set covered all the words ending with a simple vowel.

The a=a=i=a correspondence set is peculiar, because the /i/ always ends the
    word, whereas the /a/s never do—they are regularly closed by a velar
    nasal, as the next display illustrates.
                          MATU-
 # GLOSS BELAWI           DARO          DALAT        KANOWIT CORR


181 bone       tulaŋ      tulaŋ         tuli         tulaŋ   a=a=i=a


190 wing       kə-payaŋ   kə-payaŋ      lə-payi l-   n.c.    a=a=i=4


215 spider     bəlagaŋ                  bəlagi               a=2=i=4


332 look for   piñaŋ      piñaŋ         piñi                 a=a=i=4


150 star       bitaŋ      bintaŋ -nt-   biti                 a=a=i=4
What is the implication of the
observed regularity of patterning?

a=a=i=a /CVC__(C)# < aŋ=aŋ=i=aŋ /__#

a=a=a=a /CVC__C#       :where C# is not ŋ#
                          MATU-
 # GLOSS BELAWI           DARO          DALAT        KANOWIT CORR


181 bone       tulaŋ      tulaŋ         tuli         tulaŋ   aŋ=aŋ=i=aŋ


190 wing       kə-payaŋ   kə-payaŋ      lə-payi l-   n.c.    aŋ=aŋ=i=4


215 spider     bəlagaŋ                  bəlagi               aŋ=2=i=4


332 look for   piñaŋ      piñaŋ         piñi                 aŋ=aŋ=i=4


150 star       bitaŋ      bintaŋ -nt-   biti                 aŋ=aŋ=i=4
Crowley says on p. 103
  “What you must do is look for
   evidence of complimentary
   distribution before you do
   your final reconstruction.”
Talk until you understand.




 Alexander Graham Bell’s diagram for a
 telephone, 1876.           (go to next slide)
Some more correspondence sets in
complementary distribution should have
been generated by the homework
assignments distributed so far. But not
everyone will be so blessed.

         THE MIKE IS OPEN !
To be continued ...


               LING 485/585
               Winter 2009
What to do with complementary
distribution and contrast
Take our earlier sets, and assume contrast.
                        You must reconstruct two proto-phonemes. Call them *k and *Ɂ. You must
                        write rules for each of the four dialects, e.g. *k > /__#in B & M-D; *k >
k=k=Ɂ=Ɂ /__#            Ɂ/__# in D & K; and finally, * Ɂ > Ɂ/__# in B, M-D, D and K.
Ɂ=Ɂ=Ɂ=Ɂ / __#
                               Assuming contrast, you must reconstruct two proto-phonemes. What
An apparent contrast:          proto-phonemes? a=a=a=a surely must reflect *a. So a=a=i=a must be *a2.
                               If you are a uncomfortable with that, dig deeper. If later you find CD
a=a=i=a /CVC__(C)#             then *a2 will dissolve into *a. But if the contrast holds up, then *a2 may
a=a=a=a /CVC__(C)#             be further postulated to be *[æ], *[ᴧ] ,*[ɑ] or whatever.
Proto-phonemes imply rules,
and some rules imply changes.
Continuing to assume contrast re: a=a=i=a and a=a=a=a,
 we have reconstructed *a to account for for a=a=a=a
 and *a2 to account for a=a=i=a. This implies that rules
 (often called diachronic correspondences) are needed
 to derive the dialect data from the proto-language.
             *a > a=a=a=a              *a2 > a=a=i=a



      B     M-D D        K      B     M-D D        K
      a     a   a        a      a     a   i        a
Question: Why *a2? Why not reconstruct
*i to account for a=a=i=a?
Why not reconstruct *i to account for
a=a=i=a?

 Because Proto-Melanau *i is already taken.


 Remember we are reconstructing a language,
 constrained by Realism, meaning our protolanguage
 must have properties of a real language. A real
 language does not have two phonemes *i.
Question: Then why not reconstruct *i2 to
account for a=a=i=a?
Why not reconstruct *i2 to account for
a=a=i=a?

 No problem, formally considered. However, let us consider the consequences.


 What is simpler: to derive a=a=i=a from *i2 or from *a2?


 What is meant by “simpler” in this context?
Which is simpler?
 *a2 requires one change:     *a2 > i in Dalat.
 *i2 requires three changes: *i2 > a in B, M-D and K
Is simplicity an absolute value?
        Absolutely not! But ...
 A scientist will not choose the more complicated
 solution over a simpler one, all things being equal.

 To overturn a simpler solution, strong evidence is
 needed.

 Einstein: A scientific theory should be as simple as
 possible, but not simpler.
                  Ergo

*a2 is formally better than *i2 because it is
simpler.

A scientist will stop there unless some new
evidence appears that forces them to re-
open the investigation.
But of course this whole line was
an exercise in methods, using a
counter-factual assumption.
 Not only did we feel uncomfortable with *a2 (and *i2), we knew from Adam’s
   observation that there was complementary distribution, at least in the case of
   aŋ=aŋ=i=aŋ/__# vs. aC=aC=i=aC/__#, where C=not ŋ. That observation led
   us earlier to posit a more satisfying explanation.
This is what CD looks like
*a > a=a=a=a/__C# where C is not *ŋ
*a > a=a=i=a /__ŋ#

                 alternatively (and with perhaps more clarity):


*a > aC=aC=aC=aC/__# where C is not *ŋ
*a > aŋ=aŋ=iŋ=aŋ /__#
Question: Where does the
environment belong, with the
dialects or the protolanguage?
Is the environment in the dialects or
is it part of the proto-language?

Proto-language.
*a > aC=aC=aC=aC/__# where C is not *ŋ
*a > aŋ=aŋ=iŋ=aŋ /__#
                                         Another rule is needed to
                     Ø                   account for Dalat.
*a > aŋ=aŋ=i =aŋ /__#
STUDY THIS CHART UNTIL YOU UNDERSTAND THE TWO CHANGES IN DALAT


                          MATU-
 # GLOSS BELAWI           DARO          DALAT        KANOWIT CORR


181 bone       tulaŋ      tulaŋ         tuli         tulaŋ   aŋ=aŋ=i=aŋ


190 wing       kə-payaŋ   kə-payaŋ      lə-payi l-   n.c.    aŋ=aŋ=i=4


215 spider     bəlagaŋ                  bəlagi               aŋ=2=i=4


332 look for   piñaŋ      piñaŋ         piñi                 aŋ=aŋ=i=4


150 star       bitaŋ      bintaŋ -nt-   biti                 aŋ=aŋ=i=4
However, there is more to a=a=i=a, as
many of you have observed.

  A Valentine’s Teddy goes to the student who figures
  out the next part of the problem.

  I’ll come up with another prize for the student who
  finds hidden implications that follow from the next
  part .
Sufficient unto the day is the
evil thereof.     --Matthew 6:34



                 LING 485/585
                 Winter 2009

								
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