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									                         RADAR MATELLIC WIRES
                                 Electronic warfare
 Military use of electronics to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use and to
                                   protect friendly
                   use of electromagnetic radiation equipment.
 Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to
   control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. That is called
‘Electronic Warfare.’ The three major subdivisions within electronic warfare are:
     electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support
   Proper application of these components produces the effects of detection,
                                 denial, disruption,
    deception, and destruction in varying degrees to enhance overall mission

                                   EW TENETS
  Control. To control is to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum, directly or
 so that friendly forces may attack the adversary and protect themselves from
                                    or attack.

 Exploit. To exploit is to use the electromagnetic spectrum to the advantage of
                                   friendly forces.

            Enhance. To enhance is to use EW as a force multiplier.
   Electronic Attack (EA) :- EA is the component of EW
 involving the use of electromagnetic, directed energy,
or anti radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities,
or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing,
or destroying enemy combat capability. EA also prevents
     or reduces an enemy’s use of the electromagnetic
   spectrum. It can be accomplished through detection,
     denial, disruption, deception, and destruction. EA
    includes direct attack with high speed anti radiation
   missiles (HARMs); active applications such as decoys,
   noise jamming, deceptive jamming, and expendable
   miniature weapons(lasers, radio frequency weapons,
      particle beams, etc.). Electronic emission control
  (EMCON) and low observable technologies are passive
 applications of EA. jamming decoys; and employs EM or
                   EA Examples
                Standoff Jamming
     High-speed Anti radiation Missile (HARM)
              Self-defense Jamming
                 Directed Energy

 Electronic Protection (EP):- EP includes the actions
taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment
    from any EW employment that may degrade,
  neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability.

                  EP EXAMPLES:-
            Frequency agility in a radio
Change pulse repetition frequency (PRF) on a radar
   Electronic and material shielding for systems
  Processes to counter mea coning, interference,
          jamming, and intrusion (MIJI)
• Electronic Support (ES):- ES responds to taskings to search for, intercept,
  identify, and locate sources of intentional and unintentional radiated
  electromagnetic energy for the purpose of threat recognition.

  Radar Warning Receivers
  Communication Intelligence
  Electronics Intelligence
• Detection—Assesses the electromagnetic environment to include
• Frequency, electro-optics/laser, and infared spectrums using active and
  passive means.
• Denial—Controls the information an adversary receives and prevents the
  adversary from gaining accurate information about friendly forces.
• Deception—Utilizes the electromagnetic spectrum to confuse or mislead
  an adversary.
• Disruption—Degrades or interferes with the enemy’s control of it’s
  forces in order to limit attacks on friendly forces.
• Destruction Eliminates some or all of a adversary’s electronic defenses
                   EW COMPONENTS

                Intercept, identify, and

                           Direct attack (offensive
                          and defensive), chaff, and
                           flares, directed energy

                                                Protect from
                                           friendly and enemy
                                              EW employment

Self-defense jamming, chaff, and flares are a part of EA.
                     Electronic countermeasure
•   Electronic countermeasure:- An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or
    electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like
    infrared (IR) or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting
    information to an enemy. The system may make many separate targets appear to the enemy,
    or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. It is used effectively to
    protect aircraft from guided missiles. Most air forces use ECM to protect their aircraft from
    attack. It has also been deployed by military ships and recently on some advanced tanks to
    fool laser/IR guided missiles. It is frequently coupled with stealth advances so that the ECM
    systems have an easier job. Offensive ECM often takes the form of jamming. Defensive ECM
    includes using blip enhancement and jamming of missile terminal homers.
   ECM is used to protect aircraft, including airplanes, guided and
 ballistic missiles, and helicopters, surface ships, submarines, and
  ground targets from enemy detection by electronic devices and
  from destruction by radio-controlled missiles or other weapons.
    Such measures are also used to disrupt other enemy activities
  involving the use of radio equipment, for example, to jam radio
communications. ECM includes actions taken against the operation
   of radio and radar equipment (radio ECM), infrared equipment
(infrared ECM), and optical-electronic equipment, including lasers.
 The generic functional reference design for an Electronic Counter
                       Measures (ECM) system is
   shown in the figure below. This system is used to lock onto and
                    jam threat signals emitted by an
    enemy. These include both sensor signals, such as are used in
                      RADAR, and communications
      signals. This system typically works in conjunction with an
                  electronic support measure system
   performing wideband spectral analysis and direction finding to
                        identify threat signals. In
    addition, the ECM system may target a single frequency band,
                    jamming all threat signals within
 that band, or it may employ a search strategy where the RF front
                      end will step through a larger
               frequency band in a pre-defined manner.
                 Types electronic countermeasure:-
                1) Active electronic countermeasure
               2) Passive electronic countermeasure
  Active electronic countermeasure:- This involves degradation of
      the effectiveness of the enemy system by generating an
transmitting electromagnetic energy .This may be achieved either
             by noise jamming or by deceptive jamming.
   Passive electronic countermeasure:- This involves deception of
  enemy's system by employing confusion reflectors. This may be
   achieved either by chemical or mechanical means. This type of
 jamming is also sometimes called 'Expendable Countermeasures'
(means an ECM device which is used up in its employment). Chaff
and flares are the important examples. In its broadest sense, it not
       only uses the expendable passive ECM devices but also
   expendable active devices. These latter devices may be either
    jammers or deceivers, depending upon the particular effect
     Chaff (countermeasure):-There exists today an
   electronic equivalent to 'smoke'; it is called 'chaff '
   (during World War II, called 'window'). Instead of
 scattering or absorbing electromagnetic energy, as in
 the case of smoke, it reflects electromagnetic energy
to confuse or deceive an enemy system. Chaff consists
   of either thin metallic glass or plastic rods, or thin
metal foil or wire, the dimensions of which correspond
   to half a wavelength of the frequency used by the
  enemy radar. Cartridges packed with large quantities
 of chaff of different sizes are dispensed from aircraft,
  ships or vehicles. The chaff forms a cloud of metallic
dipoles, as shown inFig.9 and appears on enemy radar
 screens either as a blot (i.e., clutter) masking the real
 target, or as hundreds of false targets around the real
  one. This effectively breaks the track of radar guided
   missiles. In1973, Israeli boats used rapid blooming
  chaff to screen themselves from the radars of Syrian
          gunboats equipped with Styx missiles.
Application of chaff:-Modern armed forces use chaff ( for instance,
using short-range SRBOC rockets) to distract radar-guided missiles
 from their targets. Most military aircraft and warships have chaff
 dispensing systems for self-defence. An intercontinental ballistic
  missile may release in its midcourse phase several independent
           warheads, a large number of decoys, and chaff.
      Flare (countermeasure):- A flare is a pyrotechnic (i.e., like
    fireworks) target launched from an aircraft or other vehicles
  causing infrared homing missiles or other optical devices to be
decoyed away from the true target. The flares are dispersed when
the heat-seeking missile approaches its target to divert the missile
                           from its target.

 Most dispensers used for chaff can also be used to drop infrared
 flares capable of confusing heat-seeking missiles. In addition to
   protecting tactical aircraft, flares also playa role in protecting
     strategic bombers. Early infrared (IR) weapons were very
 vulnerable to decoy flares, but most recent designs use flares or
dual operating frequencies in order to estimate roughly where the
                    peak level of IR output lies.
                                   Usage of flare:-
      Apart from military use, some civilian aircraft are also equipped with
 countermeasure flares, against terrorism: the Israeli airline El-Al, having been
the target of the failed 2002 airliner attack, in which shoulder-launched surface-
to-air missiles were fired at an airliner while taking off, began equipping its fleet
  with radar-based, automated flare release countermeasures from June 2004.
This caused concerns in some European countries, which proceeded to ban such
                       aircraft from landing at their airports.

  A US HH-60H Sea Hawk helicopter launches countermeasure flares during a


                        F-15E Strike Eagle releasing flares.

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