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RADAR MATELLIC WIRES Electronic warfare Military use of electronics to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use and to protect friendly use of electromagnetic radiation equipment. Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. That is called ‘Electronic Warfare.’ The three major subdivisions within electronic warfare are: electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support Proper application of these components produces the effects of detection, denial, disruption, deception, and destruction in varying degrees to enhance overall mission objectives. EW TENETS Control. To control is to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum, directly or indirectly, so that friendly forces may attack the adversary and protect themselves from exploitation or attack. Exploit. To exploit is to use the electromagnetic spectrum to the advantage of friendly forces. Enhance. To enhance is to use EW as a force multiplier. Electronic Attack (EA) :- EA is the component of EW involving the use of electromagnetic, directed energy, or anti radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability. EA also prevents or reduces an enemy’s use of the electromagnetic spectrum. It can be accomplished through detection, denial, disruption, deception, and destruction. EA includes direct attack with high speed anti radiation missiles (HARMs); active applications such as decoys, noise jamming, deceptive jamming, and expendable miniature weapons(lasers, radio frequency weapons, particle beams, etc.). Electronic emission control (EMCON) and low observable technologies are passive applications of EA. jamming decoys; and employs EM or DE EA Examples Standoff Jamming High-speed Anti radiation Missile (HARM) Chaff Flare Self-defense Jamming Directed Energy Electronic Protection (EP):- EP includes the actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any EW employment that may degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. EP EXAMPLES:- Frequency agility in a radio Change pulse repetition frequency (PRF) on a radar set Electronic and material shielding for systems Processes to counter mea coning, interference, jamming, and intrusion (MIJI) • Electronic Support (ES):- ES responds to taskings to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of threat recognition. • ES EXAMPLES:- Radar Warning Receivers Communication Intelligence Electronics Intelligence EW EFFECTS:- • Detection—Assesses the electromagnetic environment to include radar/radio • Frequency, electro-optics/laser, and infared spectrums using active and passive means. • Denial—Controls the information an adversary receives and prevents the adversary from gaining accurate information about friendly forces. • Deception—Utilizes the electromagnetic spectrum to confuse or mislead an adversary. • Disruption—Degrades or interferes with the enemy’s control of it’s forces in order to limit attacks on friendly forces. • Destruction Eliminates some or all of a adversary’s electronic defenses EW COMPONENTS ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT Intercept, identify, and Locate ELECTRONIC ATTACK Direct attack (offensive and defensive), chaff, and flares, directed energy ELECTRONIC PROTECTION Protect from friendly and enemy EW employment Self-defense jamming, chaff, and flares are a part of EA. Electronic countermeasure • Electronic countermeasure:- An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting information to an enemy. The system may make many separate targets appear to the enemy, or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. It is used effectively to protect aircraft from guided missiles. Most air forces use ECM to protect their aircraft from attack. It has also been deployed by military ships and recently on some advanced tanks to fool laser/IR guided missiles. It is frequently coupled with stealth advances so that the ECM systems have an easier job. Offensive ECM often takes the form of jamming. Defensive ECM includes using blip enhancement and jamming of missile terminal homers. ECM is used to protect aircraft, including airplanes, guided and ballistic missiles, and helicopters, surface ships, submarines, and ground targets from enemy detection by electronic devices and from destruction by radio-controlled missiles or other weapons. Such measures are also used to disrupt other enemy activities involving the use of radio equipment, for example, to jam radio communications. ECM includes actions taken against the operation of radio and radar equipment (radio ECM), infrared equipment (infrared ECM), and optical-electronic equipment, including lasers. The generic functional reference design for an Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system is shown in the figure below. This system is used to lock onto and jam threat signals emitted by an enemy. These include both sensor signals, such as are used in RADAR, and communications signals. This system typically works in conjunction with an electronic support measure system performing wideband spectral analysis and direction finding to identify threat signals. In addition, the ECM system may target a single frequency band, jamming all threat signals within that band, or it may employ a search strategy where the RF front end will step through a larger frequency band in a pre-defined manner. Types electronic countermeasure:- 1) Active electronic countermeasure 2) Passive electronic countermeasure Active electronic countermeasure:- This involves degradation of the effectiveness of the enemy system by generating an transmitting electromagnetic energy .This may be achieved either by noise jamming or by deceptive jamming. Passive electronic countermeasure:- This involves deception of enemy's system by employing confusion reflectors. This may be achieved either by chemical or mechanical means. This type of jamming is also sometimes called 'Expendable Countermeasures' (means an ECM device which is used up in its employment). Chaff and flares are the important examples. In its broadest sense, it not only uses the expendable passive ECM devices but also expendable active devices. These latter devices may be either jammers or deceivers, depending upon the particular effect desired. Chaff (countermeasure):-There exists today an electronic equivalent to 'smoke'; it is called 'chaff ' (during World War II, called 'window'). Instead of scattering or absorbing electromagnetic energy, as in the case of smoke, it reflects electromagnetic energy to confuse or deceive an enemy system. Chaff consists of either thin metallic glass or plastic rods, or thin metal foil or wire, the dimensions of which correspond to half a wavelength of the frequency used by the enemy radar. Cartridges packed with large quantities of chaff of different sizes are dispensed from aircraft, ships or vehicles. The chaff forms a cloud of metallic dipoles, as shown inFig.9 and appears on enemy radar screens either as a blot (i.e., clutter) masking the real target, or as hundreds of false targets around the real one. This effectively breaks the track of radar guided missiles. In1973, Israeli boats used rapid blooming chaff to screen themselves from the radars of Syrian gunboats equipped with Styx missiles. Application of chaff:-Modern armed forces use chaff ( for instance, using short-range SRBOC rockets) to distract radar-guided missiles from their targets. Most military aircraft and warships have chaff dispensing systems for self-defence. An intercontinental ballistic missile may release in its midcourse phase several independent warheads, a large number of decoys, and chaff. Flare (countermeasure):- A flare is a pyrotechnic (i.e., like fireworks) target launched from an aircraft or other vehicles causing infrared homing missiles or other optical devices to be decoyed away from the true target. The flares are dispersed when the heat-seeking missile approaches its target to divert the missile from its target. Most dispensers used for chaff can also be used to drop infrared flares capable of confusing heat-seeking missiles. In addition to protecting tactical aircraft, flares also playa role in protecting strategic bombers. Early infrared (IR) weapons were very vulnerable to decoy flares, but most recent designs use flares or dual operating frequencies in order to estimate roughly where the peak level of IR output lies. Usage of flare:- Apart from military use, some civilian aircraft are also equipped with countermeasure flares, against terrorism: the Israeli airline El-Al, having been the target of the failed 2002 airliner attack, in which shoulder-launched surface- to-air missiles were fired at an airliner while taking off, began equipping its fleet with radar-based, automated flare release countermeasures from June 2004. This caused concerns in some European countries, which proceeded to ban such aircraft from landing at their airports. A US HH-60H Sea Hawk helicopter launches countermeasure flares during a demonstration . F-15E Strike Eagle releasing flares.
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