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Causes of the Civil War The Civil War 1861


									The Civil War 1861-1865
Map of United States during the Civil War
Union                            Confederacy
   California
   Connecticut                     Alabama
   Indiana
                                    Arkansas
   Iowa                            Florida
   Kansas
   Maine
                                    Georgia
   Massachusetts                   Louisiana
   Michigan
   Minnesota                       Mississippi
   Nevada                          North Carolina
   New Hampshire
   New Jersey                      South Carolina
    New York
                                    Tennessee
   Ohio             Maryland
   Oregon                          Texas
                     Kentucky
                                    Virginia
   Rhode Island     Delaware
   Vermont
   West Virginia
                     Missouri
   Wisconsin
   "A house divided against itself cannot
    stand. I believe this government cannot
    endure permanently half-slave and half-
    free. I do not expect the Union to be
    dissolved - I do not expect the house to
    fall - but I do expect it will cease to be
    divided. It will become all one thing or all
    the other."

Lincoln's 'House-Divided' Speech in
  Springfield, Illinois, June 16, 1858.
             Abraham Lincoln
   Life of Abe Lincoln
       Lincoln-Douglas Debates
   Abraham Lincoln                  Stephan A Douglas

Lincoln/Douglas debates
From Aug. to Oct. 1858 the two meet in 7 public
  debates contesting Douglas’ Senate seat from Illinois
Douglas wins re-election but Lincoln and young
  Republican party rise to national prominence.
  Attraction to freesoilers.
                     Republican Party Platform in 1860
ß Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers].
ß Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].
ß Protect the rights of immigrants
ß Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].
ß Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.
ß Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].
                                                      platform attracts
                                                      wide base
South Carolina makes good on pre-election promise. Secedes 12-
Followed by 6 more (AL., MS., FL., GA., LA., TX.) – then 4 more
                                    Original 7 meet in
                                    Montgomery, AL. 2 -1861.
                                    Form the Confederate
                                    States of America and
                                    elect Jefferson Davis as

Jefferson Davis: President C.S.A.
Lincoln took his
oath of office in
March 1861 from
steps of the still
unfinished capitol
building. A fitting
visual irony.

Lincoln’s “Lame Duck” Interlude
Time between election (Nov.) & inauguration (March)
Outgoing President Buchanen takes no steps to address
  South. Can find no Constitutional support for executive
  branch to stop state action.
Lincoln, technically still a civilian, is powerless.
Southern Secession Reasoning
1. Political balance favors the north (population)
2. Sectional Republicans threat to ALL slaveholding.
3. Want to be left alone from abolitionist “nagging”
4. Little expectation that north will go to war.
5. Northern bankers and manufacturers, dependent
   on southern cotton, not likely to “slit their own
   economic throats”.
6. Desire to develop own banking, shipping,
7. World-wide mid 19th century impulses of
   nationalism (e.g. Germany, Italy ) in south.
8. South views this as national self-determination –
   same as colonists to British in 1776
Before the start of the Civil War in 1861, the United States
consisted of 19 free states, 15 slave states, and several
territories. Eleven slave states withdrew from the Union and
made up the Confederate States of America. The remaining
23 states and the territories fought for the Union.
    (1811 – 1896)

So this is the lady who
started the Civil War.

   -- Abraham Lincoln
 Sold 300,000 copies in
  the first year.
 2 million in a decade!
Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852
Civil War:

1) State’s Rights
 Secession
2) Slavery
 Agriculture v. Industry
 Abolitionists
 Dred Scott v. Sanford
3) Sectionalism and Expansion
 Compromises
    – Missouri Compromise 1820
    – Compromise of 1850
    – Kansas-Nebraska Act
   “Bleeding Kansas”
Compromise of 1850
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
4) Tensions
 Taxes
    – Tariffs, high taxes and panics
   Uprisings
    – John Brown and Harper’s Ferry
4) Tensions cont.
 Election of 1860
 Republican Party Platform in 1860
ß Non-extension of slavery
ß Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists]
ß Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the
ß Internal improvements [for the West] at federal
ß Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers]
Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
   Civil War:
Events and Battles
      Confederate States of America
    South Carolina                         Louisiana
    Mississippi                            Texas
    Florida                                Virginia
    Alabama                                Arkansas
    Georgia                                Tennessee
    •Formed independent country             North Carolina
    •Jefferson Davis was elected President
        •West Point Graduate
        •Former US Army Officer
        North v. South
North                         South
 Population 22 million        Pop. 9 million
 4 million men of military    1 million men of military
  age                           age
 Northern volunteers were     Southern volunteers were
  paid                          paid nothing
 Drafted men 20-45            Drafted men 17-50
 Horrible Generals            Strong Generals including
 Factories                     Lee (Military schools in South)
       Food and Weapons       Only one weapon factory
   Strong Central Gov’t       Weak Central Gov’t
1861- South was winning for the first 3 years of the war
   Fort Sumter
       Confederates fire on Federal Fort
       Charleston, South Carolina
       Start of the Civil War
   First Battle of Bull Run
       Just 25 miles southwest of Washington D.C.
       Union attacked the rebels
       Stonewall Jackson
   Slavery was abolished in Washington D.C.
   Monitor v Merrimac
       Fight for control of “The Chesapeake Bay”
       Naval Battle
   Battle of Shiloh
       General Grant stood his ground
   Antietam
       Bloodiest day of the war
       Emancipation Proclamation
   Emancipation Proclamation
       Freed Slaves in Rebel States
       Asked Black soldiers to enlist in Union Army
       Changed focus of the war (war to preserve union
        now became war to end slavery)
   Battle at Gettysburg and Battle of
       Turning Points of the War
   Gettysburg Address
   General Grant is appointed to lead the
   Many battles
       Siege of Petersburg
       Burning of Atlanta
       Shenandoah Valley
       Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
   13th Amendment
   Appomattox Courthouse
   Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Gettysburg and the
Gettysburg Address
             The Battle
►July1 to July 3 1863
►By the end of the conflict involved
 160,000 Americans
►Lee believed his army was invincible
 and he would win the conflict quickly
►Total of almost 50,000 lost from
           Gettysburg Address
► Delivered   November 19, 1863
   At the dedication of the National Cemetery
   4 ½ months after the battle
► Edward   Everett (US Senator, great speaker,
  Pres. Of Harvard) was asked to give main
  address. His speech lasted 2 hours!
► Lincoln’s address lasted 2 minutes!
► Established key definition of what
  democracy is:
   “Government of the people, by the people, for
    the people”
► “President
 Gettysburg Address”

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