Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

US History to 1877 5th Grade.ppt

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 242

									                        1st 9 Weeks
                        Created by Cathy Vanvalzah




      US History to 1877

          5th   Grade


CVV
           Geography Skills




Continents are large land masses surrounded by
water.
                                          US1.2a
     What are the seven continents?




                  Europe


North America                         Asia

                  Africa


South America                     Australia

                 Antarctica                  US1.2a
Europe is considered a continent even though
it is not entirely surrounded by water.




The land mass is frequently called Eurasia.

                                          US1.2a
Geographic regions of North America

                        Coastal Plain
                        • Located along
                          the Atlantic
                          Ocean and
                          Gulf of Mexico
                        • Broad lowland
                          providing
                          many
                          excellent
                          harbors
                                      US1.2b
Geographic regions of North America
                      Appalachian
                        Highlands
                      • Located west of
                        Coastal Plain
                        extending from
                        eastern Canada to
                        western Alabama;
                        includes the
                        Piedmont
                      • Old, eroded
                        mountains (oldest
                        mountain range in
                        North America)

                                      US1.2b
Geographic regions of North America

                     Canadian Shield
                     • Wrapped around
                       Hudson Bay in a
                       horseshoe shape
                     • Hills worn by
                       erosion and
                       hundreds of lakes
                       carved by glaciers
                     • Holds some of the
                       oldest rock
                       formations in North
                       America
                                      US1.2b
Geographic regions of North America
                      Interior Lowlands
                      • Located west of
                        the Appalachian
                        Mountains and
                        east of the Great
                        Plains
                      • Rolling flatlands
                        with many rivers,
                        broad river
                        valleys, and
                        grassy hills
                                      US1.2b
Geographic regions of North America
                       Great Plains
                       • Located west of
                         Interior Lowlands
                         and east of the
                         Rocky Mountains
                       • Flat land that
                         gradually
                         increases in
                         elevation
                         westward;
                         grasslands
                                      US1.2b
Geographic regions of North America
                    Rocky Mountains
                    • Located west of the
                      Great Plains and
                      east of the Basin
                      and Range
                    • Rugged mountains
                      stretching from
                      Alaska almost to
                      Mexico; high
                      elevations
                    • Contains the
                      Continental Divide,
                      which determines
                      the directional flow
                      of rivers
                                       US1.2b
Geographic regions of North America

                     Basin and Range
                     • Located west of
                       Rocky Mountains
                       and east of the
                       Sierra Nevadas and
                       the Cascades
                     • Area of varying
                       elevations
                       containing isolated
                       mountain ranges
                       and Death Valley,
                       the lowest point in
                       North America
                                      US1.2b
Geographic regions of North America

                      Coastal Range
                      • Rugged
                        mountains along
                        the Pacific Coast
                        that stretch from
                        California to
                        Canada
                      • Contains fertile
                        valleys


                                      US1.2b
Major bodies of water in the United States

                          Oceans
                        Pacific
                        Atlantic
                      • The Pacific Ocean was
                        an early exploration
                        route.
                      • The Atlantic Ocean
                        served as the highway
                        for explorers, early
                        settlers, and later
                        immigrants.
                                        US1.2c
Major bodies of water in the United States

                        Lakes

                        Great Lakes

                     • Inland port cities
                       grew in the Midwest
                       along the Great
                       Lakes.

                                       US1.2c
Major bodies of water in the United States

                      Gulf
                      Gulf of Mexico
                    • provided the French
                      and Spanish with
                      exploration routes to
                      Mexico and other
                      parts of America

                                       US1.2c
Major bodies of water in the United States

                          Rivers

                          Colorado River

                          • was explored
                            by the Spanish




                                           US1.2c
What are some ways bodies
of water in the United States
have supported interaction
and created links to other
regions?
      1. Trade
      2. Transportation
      3. Settlement
                            US1.2c
Trade, transportation, and settlement

                     The Missouri and
                     Mississippi Rivers


                      • were the
                        transportation
                        arteries for farm
                        and industrial
                        products

                                        US1.2c
Trade, transportation, and settlement


                     The Ohio River
                     • was the gateway
                       to the west.




                                        US1.2c
Trade, transportation, and settlement

                       The Columbia
                       River

                       • was explored
                         by Lewis and
                         Clark.




                                        US1.2c
Trade, transportation, and settlement

                   The Rio Grande River

                    • forms the
                      border with
                      Mexico.




                                        US1.2c
Test Your
Knowledge
Identify the shaded land mass on the map.

     A.   Europe
     B.   South America
     C.   Africa
     D.   Asia

                                            USI.2a
The map shows the continent of –

     A.   Antarctica
     B.   Australia
     C.   North America
     D.   South America
                                   USI.2b
Which geographic region is located west of the
Rocky Mountains, east of the Sierra Nevada’s
and the Cascades, and contains Death Valley?

 A.   Basin and Range
 B.   Great Plains
 C.   Coastal Range
 D.   Interior Lowlands




                                           USI.2b
The Continental Divide, which determines the
directional flow of rivers, is located in which
geographic region?

     A.   Coastal Range
     B.   Rocky Mountains
     C.   Basin and Range
     D.   Appalachian Highlands




                                                  USI.2b
Which geographic region is located along the
Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and has broad
lowland providing many excellent harbors?

     A.   Coastal Plain
     B.   Coastal Range
     C.   Basin and Range
     D.   Great Plains
Which body of water served as a highway for
explorers, early settlers and later immigrants?

     A.   Gulf of Mexico
     B.   Pacific Ocean
     C.   Great Lakes
     D.   Atlantic Ocean
Which is the BEST title for the graphic?

     A.   Bodies of water
     B.   Land masses
     C.   Islands
     D.   Deserts
                                           USI.2c
Inland port cities grew up in the Midwest
along the –

    A.   Colorado River
    B.   Gulf of Mexico
    C.   Columbia River
    D.   Great Lakes



                                        USI.2c
Which river was explored by the Spanish and is
number 2 on the map?

     A.   Columbia River
     B.   Colorado River
     C.   Mississippi River
     D.   Ohio River
                                            USI.2c
    In which areas of
      North America
did the American Indians
 (First Americans) live?
           ?



                      USI.3a
       Inuit (Eskimo) Indians




• Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska and
  northern Canada.
• They lived in Arctic areas where the
  temperature is below freezing much of
  the year.
                                           USI.3a
                Kwakiutl




• Kwakiutl inhabited the Pacific
  Northwest coast, characterized by a
  rainy, mild climate.
                                        USI.3a
                 Sioux




• Sioux inhabited the interior of the
  United States, called the Great Plains
  and characterized by dry grasslands.
                                           USI.3a
                Pueblo




• Pueblo inhabited the Southwest in
  present-day New Mexico and Arizona,
  where they lived in desert areas and
  areas bordering cliffs and mountains.
                                          USI.3a
               Iroquois



                  Iroquois




• Iroquois inhabited northeast North
  America, the Eastern Woodland, which
  is heavily forested.
                                         USI.3a
How did geography and
 climate affect the way
American Indian groups
met their basic needs?

       +              =
           Food and Clothing




• The American Indians (First Americans)
  fished, hunted, and harvested crops for
  food.
• Clothing was made from animal skins
  and plants.
                                            USI.3b
                Shelter




• Their shelter was made of resources
  found in their environment (e.g., sod,
  stones, animal skins, wood).

                                           USI.3b
Test Your
Knowledge
Which American Indians (First Americans)
inhabited the Pacific Northwest Coast,
characterized by a rainy, mild climate?

     A.   Inuit
     B.   Pueblo
     C.   Kwakiutl
     D.   Iroquois




                                           USI.3a
The area labeled number 3 on the map was
inhabited by the –

     A.   Inuit
     B.   Sioux
     C.   Pueblo
     D.   Iroquois
                                      USI.3a
Which American Indian (First American) tribe
lived in the area described?

     A.   Sioux
     B.   Pueblo
     C.   Inuit
     D.   Kwakiutl
                                          USI.3b
Major European countries were
in competition to extend their
power into North America and
claim the land as their own.




                                 USI.4a
Motivating forces for exploration



• Economic—Gold, natural resources,
  and trade
• Religious—Spread of Christianity
• Competitions for empire and belief in
  superiority of own culture

                                          USI.4a
        Obstacles to exploration




•   Poor maps and navigational tools
•   Disease/starvation
•   Fear of unknown
•   Lack of adequate supplies

                                       USI.4a
Accomplishments of exploration




• Exchanged goods and ideas
• Improved navigational tools and ships
• Claimed territories


                                          USI.4a
Regions of North America explored
  by Spain, France, and England
  Regions explored by Spain




• Francisco Coronado claimed southwest
  United States for Spain.
                                    USI.4a
 Regions explored by France




• Samuel de Champlain established the
   French settlement of Quebec.
 • Robert La Salle claimed the
   Mississippi River Valley.
                                        USI.4a
 Regions explored by England




• John Cabot explored eastern Canada.

                                        USI.4a
Regions explored by Portugal




• The Portuguese made voyages of
  discovery along West Africa.

                                   USI.4a
          Cultural
        Interaction
          with the
        New World




Spain    France       England
  Spanish--Cultural interaction




• Conquered and enslaved American
  Indians (First Americans)
• Brought Christianity to the New World
• Brought European diseases
                                      USI.4b
French---Cultural interaction




 • Established trading posts
 • Spread Christian religion
                                USI.4b
English--Cultural interaction




  Jamestown




• Established settlements and claimed
  ownership of land
• Learned farming techniques from
  American Indians (First Americans)
• Traded                             USI.4b
      Areas of cooperation




• Technologies (transportation of
  weapons and farm tools)
• Trade
• Crops
                                    USI.4b
       Areas of conflict




•   Land
•   Competition for trade
•   Differences in cultures
•   Disease
•   Language difference       USI.4b
  How did West African empires impact
  European trade?

• Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
  became powerful by
  controlling trade in West
  Africa.
• The Portuguese carried
  goods from Europe to
  West African empires,
  trading metals, cloth, and
  other manufactured
  goods for gold.
                                        USI.4c
Why did Europeans
establish colonies in
  North America?
    Roanoke Island




                                Jamestown




• Roanoke Island (Lost Colony) was
  established as an economic venture.
• The first permanent English settlement in
  North America (1607), Jamestown
  Settlement, was an economic venture by the
  Virginia Company.
                                            USI.5a
• Plymouth colony was settled by
  separatists from the Church of England
  who wanted to avoid religious
  persecution.
• Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled
  by the Puritans for the same reasons.
                                       USI.5a
• Pennsylvania was settled by the
 Quakers, who wanted to have freedom to
  practice their faith without interference.
                                         USI.5a
• Georgia was settled by people who had
  been in debtor’s prisons in England.
• They hoped to experience a new life in
  the colony and to experience economic
  freedom in the New World.
                                      USI.5a
 Interactions of people
and the environment in
   Colonial America.


                      USI.5b
                    New England
Geography     • Appalachian Mountains, Boston harbor,
and climate     hilly terrain, rocky soil, jagged coastline
              • Moderate summers, cold winters
Economy       • Fishing, shipbuilding industry and naval
                supplies, trade and port cities
              • Skilled craftsmen, shopkeepers
Social life   • Village and church as center of life
              • Religious reformers and separatists
Political and • Town meetings
civic life

                                                       USI.5b
                     Mid-Atlantic
Geography       • Appalachian Mountains, coastal
and climate       lowlands (harbors and bays, wide and
                  deep rivers), rich farmlands
                • Moderate climate
Economy         • Livestock and grain, trading
                • Unskilled and skilled workers and
                  fishermen
Social life     • Villages and cities
                • Varied and diverse lifestyles
                • Diverse religions
Political and   • Market towns
civic life                                         USI.5b
                          South
Geography       • Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont,
and climate       Atlantic Coastal Plain, good harbors,
                  rivers
                • Humid climate
Economy         • Large farms/plantations, cash crops,
                  wood products, small farms
                • Slavery
Social life     • Plantations (slavery), mansions,
                  indentured servants, few cities, few
                  schools
                • Church of England
Political and   • Counties
civic life                                                USI.5b
 How did people’s lives
  vary among different
social groups in colonial
        America?
           Large landowners
• Lived predominately in the South
• Relied on indentured servants and/or
  slaves for labor
• Were educated in some cases
• Had rich social culture
                                         USI.5c
                  Farmers
• Worked the land according to the region
• Relied on family members for labor

                                       USI.5c
                  Shoemaker   Silversmith




                Artisans

• Worked as craftsmen in towns and on the
  plantation
• Lived in small villages and cities
                                            USI.5c
                Women
• Worked as caretakers, house-workers,
  homemakers
• Could not vote
• Had few chances for an education
                                     USI.5c
            Indentured servants
• Consisted of men and women who did
  not have money for passage to the
  colonies and who agreed to work without
  pay for the person who paid for their
  passage
• Were free at the end of their contract
                                      USI.5c
                      Slaves
• Were captured in their native Africa and sold
  to slave traders, then were shipped to the
  colonies where they were sold into slavery
• Were owned as property for life with no
  rights
• Were often born into slavery (Children of
  slaves were born into slavery.)
                                          USI.5c
   How did England
impose its political and
 economic control over
     the colonies?
          Economic relationships


• England imposed strict control over
  trade.
• England taxed the colonies after the
  French and Indian War.
• Colonies traded raw materials for goods.



                                        USI.5d
          Political relationships


• Colonists had to obey English laws that
  were enforced by governors.
• Colonial governors were appointed by
  the king or by the proprietor.
• Colonial legislatures made laws for
  each colony and were monitored by
  colonial governors.
                                       USI.5d
Test Your
Knowledge
Which completes the diagram?

    A.   Technology-new weapons
    B.   Economic-gold, natural resources, trade
    C.   Maps-poor quality
    D.   Labor-Enslave American Indians

                                              USI.4a
What title BEST fits the diagram?

A.   Obstacles to Exploration
B.   Effects of the American Revolution
C.   Accomplishments of Exploration
D.   Areas of Cooperation in the Colonies


                                            USI.4a
Which European explorer is NOT correctly
matched with his area of exploration?

A. John Cabot – Eastern Canada for England
B. Francisco Coronado – Southwest United
   States for Spain
C. Samuel de Champlain – Quebec for France
D. Robert LaSalle – Great Lakes for Portugal




                                           USI.4a
Which European explorers conquered and
enslaved American Indians (First Americans)
and brought Christianity and European
diseases?

     A.   Spanish
     B.   French
     C.   English
     D.   Portuguese




                                          USI.4b
Portugal traded metals, cloth, and other
manufactured goods with Ghana, Mali, and
Songhai for –

     A.   spices
     B.   gold
     C.   ships
     D.   diamonds




                                           USI.4c
Which colony is NOT correctly matched with the
reason it was settled?

A. Georgia – settled by separatists to avoid religious
   persecution
B. Pennsylvania – settled by Quakers for religious freedom
C. Jamestown – settled as an economic venture by the
   Virginia Company
D. Plymouth – settled by separatists from the Church of
  England


                                                      USI.5a
The first permanent English settlement in North
America was –

     A.   Pennsylvania
     B.   Georgia
     C.   Plymouth
     D.   Jamestown




                                             USI.5a
What geographic feature was found in the New
England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies?

     A.   Piedmont
     B.   Appalachian Mountains
     C.   Boston Harbor
     D.   Coastal Plain




                                           USI.5b
The economy of the New England colonies was
BEST known for –

    A.   livestock and grain
    B.   large plantations
    C.   fishing, shipbuilding, and naval supplies
    D.   wood products and cash crops




                                               USI.5b
Which title BEST completes the diagram?

     A.   Slave
     B.   Homemaker
     C.   Artisan
     D.   Indentured servant


                                          USI.5c
A woman in colonial America would –

     A.   vote in an election
     B.   hold a political office
     C.   be a care taker and house worker
     D.   have a college education




                                             USI.5c
To establish economic control over the colonies
England did all of the following EXCEPT –

     A.   placed strict control over trade
     B.   taxed the colonies
     C.   traded goods for raw materials
     D.   provided raw materials for the colonies




                                                USI.5d
The list BEST describes –

A. England allowing the colonists to govern themselves
B. England imposing strict political control over
   the colonies
C. the colonists learning how to govern themselves
D. the colonists practicing economic independence


                                                  USI.5d
                        2nd 9 Weeks Created by
                        Cathy Van Valzah




      US History to 1877

          5th   Grade


CVV
As England expanded control over the
American colonies, many colonists
became dissatisfied and rebellious.




                                 USI.6a
  England’s reasons for control


                           $ $
                          $ $
• England desired to remain a world
  power.
• England imposed taxes, such as the
  Stamp Act, to raise necessary revenue
  to pay the cost of the French and Indian
  War.                                   USI.6a
  England’s reasons for taxation
       French and Indian War




• To help finance the French and Indian
  War
• To help with the maintaining of English
  troops in the colonies
                                        USI.6a
Sources of colonial dissatisfaction




 • Colonies had no representation in
   Parliament.
 • Some colonists resented power of
   colonial governors.
 • England wanted strict control over
   colonial legislatures.
                                        USI.6a
Sources of colonial dissatisfaction



      Taxes




• Colonies opposed taxes.
• The Proclamation of l763 hampered the
  western movement of settlers.
                                      USI.6a
Test Your Knowledge
As England expanded control over the
American colonies, many colonists resented
the power of colonial –

     A.   governors
     B.   legislatures
     C.   landowners
     D.   proprietors




                                             USI.6a
Why did the colonists oppose the Proclamation of
1763?

A. It encouraged colonists to move south to Florida.

B. It limited immigration from Europe.

C. It did not allow colonists to settle west of the
  Appalachian Mountains.

D. It did not allow colonists to cross the Mississippi
   River.

                                                      USI.6a
New political ideas led to a
desire for independence and
democratic government in the
American colonies.



                               USI.6b
          Ideas of John Locke



• People have natural rights to life, liberty,
  and property.
• Government is created to protect the
  rights of people and has only the limited
  and specific powers the people consent to
  give it.

                                           USI.6b
   Key philosophies in the Declaration of
              Independence



• People have “certain unalienable rights” (rights
  that cannot be taken away)—life, liberty, pursuit
  of happiness.
• People establish government to protect those
  rights.
• Government derives power from the people.
• People have a right and a duty to change a
  government that violates their rights.
                                                USI.6b
Test Your Knowledge
Who is the author of this political idea?

     A.   Thomas Jefferson
     B.   Thomas Paine
     C.   John Locke
     D.   John Adams



                                            USI.6b
Which of the following is a key idea in the
Declaration of Independence?

A. People have a right and duty to change a
   government when it violates their rights.

B. People do not have to obey the law.

C. The government can take away people’s
   rights without their consent.

D. The government is the source of all power
   to rule.
                                               USI.6b
Many individuals played important
roles in shaping events of the
American Revolution.




                              USI.6c
 Key individuals from England



           King George III




King George III:
 British king during the Revolutionary Era
Lord Cornwallis:
British general who surrendered at
Yorktown
                                       USI.6c
Key individuals from the Colonies
                           “Thomas, will
                           you write the
                           Declaration of
                           Independence?”




John Adams:
Championed the cause of independence
                                            USI.6c
Key individuals from the Colonies

                    "Nothing short of
                    independence, it appears to
                    me, can possibly do. A peace
                    on other terms would..... be a
                    peace of war."

                    George Washington 1778



George Washington:
Commander of the Continental Army
                                             USI.6c
Key individuals from the Colonies
          Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson




 Thomas Jefferson:
 Major author of the Declaration of
 Independence
                                           USI.6c
Key individuals from the Colonies




Patrick Henry:
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses;
inspired colonial patriotism with “Give me
liberty or give me death” speech.
                                      USI.6c
Key individuals from the Colonies
           Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson




Benjamin Franklin:
Prominent member of Continental
Congress; helped frame the Declaration
of Independence                       USI.6c
Key individuals from the Colonies




        The document denounced British rule.


 Thomas Paine:
 Journalist, author of Common Sense
                                               USI.6c
   Other important individuals




Phillis Wheatley:
A former slave who wrote poems and plays
supporting American independence
                                     USI.6c
  Other important individuals

                         "One if by land two
                         if by sea."

                         Paul Revere, on his
                         Midnight Ride, 1775




Paul Revere:
Patriot who made a daring ride to warn
colonists of British arrival
                                               USI.6c
Key events and the roles
  of key individuals in
the American Revolution




                           USI.6c
Key Events—American Revolution




• Boston Massacre: Colonists in Boston
  were shot after taunting British
  soldiers.
• Boston Tea Party: Samuel Adams and
  Paul Revere led patriots in throwing tea
  into Boston Harbor to protest tea taxes.
                                        USI.6c
Key Events—American Revolution




• First Continental Congress: Delegates
  from all colonies except Georgia met to
  discuss problems with England and to
  promote independence.
• Battle of Lexington and Concord: This
  was the site of the first armed conflict
  of the Revolutionary War.                USI.6c
Key Events—American Revolution




• Approval of the Declaration of
  Independence: Colonies declared
  independence from England (July 4,
  1776).
                                       USI.6c
 American Revolution

• Battle of Saratoga: This
  American victory was
  the turning point in the
  war.
• Surrender at Yorktown:
  This was the colonial
  victory over forces of
  Lord Cornwallis that
  marked the end of the
  Revolutionary War.
                             • Blue indicates an American Victory.
                             • Red indicates a British Victory.
Key Events—American Revolution




 • Signing of the Treaty of Paris: England
   recognized American independence in
   this treaty.
                                        USI.6c
Test Your Knowledge
Which key individual is correctly matched with his
role in the American Revolution?

A. John Adams – championed the cause of
   independence

B. George Washington – commander of the British
   Army

C. Benjamin Franklin – major author of the
   Declaration of Independence

D. Phyllis Wheatley – author of the Treaty of Paris

                                               USI.6c
The author of Common Sense was –

    A.   George Washington
    B.   Benjamin Franklin
    C.   Thomas Paine
    D.   Patrick Henry




                                   USI.6c
Which event completes the timeline?

     A.   Treaty of Paris
     B.   French Indian War
     C.   Bill of Rights
     D.   Battle of Lexington and Concord

                                            USI.6c
What advantages helped the
American colonists win the
   Revolutionary War?


                             USI.6d
         Colonial advantages




• Colonists’ defense of their own land,
  principles, and beliefs
• Support from France and Spain
• Strong leadership
                                          USI.6d
Test Your Knowledge
What is the BEST title for this chart?

A.   British Advantages in the American Revolution
B.   England’s Reasons for Taxation
C.   England’s Control Over the Colonies
D.   Colonial Advantages in the American Revolution


                                                USI.6d
The Articles of Confederation was a
constitution written during the
American Revolution to establish the
powers of the new national government


                                  USI.7a
What were the basic weaknesses of the Articles
of Confederation?




 • Provided for a weak national government
 • Gave Congress no power to tax or regulate
   commerce among the states
 • Provided for no common currency
 • Gave each state one vote regardless of size
 • Provided for no executive or judicial branch
                                                  USI.7a
Test Your Knowledge
Regulate commerce means to control –

    A.   voting in state legislatures
    B.   trading among the states
    C.   printing of money in the states
    D.   making of laws in the states




                                           USI.7a
The Articles of Confederation provided for a –

A. Congress in which the large states had more
   power

B. national court system to settle disputes

C. strong executive for the new nation

D. national government with no power to regulate
   trade


                                                 USI.7a
                     Shared
                     Powers




    The Constitution of the United States of
    America established a federal system of
government based on power shared between the
       national and state governments.

The Bill of Rights provided a written guarantee of
                 individual rights.

                                             USI.7b
What were the basic principles of
   governments stated in the
Constitution of the United States
 of America and Bill of Rights?




                               USI.7b
 Basic principles of government




• Separation of powers
• The structure of the new national
  government was based on James Madison’s
  “Virginia Plan,” which called for three
  separate branches of government:

                                        USI.7b
           Legislative Branch



• Legislative Branch (Congress) makes the laws.
• Congress is a two-house legislature
• All states are represented equally in the Senate
  (two Senators per state)
• In the House of Representatives the number of
  a state’s representatives is based on state’s
  population.
                                                 USI.7b
 Judicial and Executive Branch




• Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)
  determines if laws made by Congress
  are constitutional.
• Executive Branch (President) carries
  out the laws.
                                         USI.7b
          Checks and balances
                      Executive Branch
                     Carries out the Laws


Legislative Branch                          Judicial Branch
Writes the laws                              Are the laws
                                            constitutional?




• Each branch can check the power of
  the other.
• These checks keep any one branch
  from gaining too much power.
                                                          USI.7b
                             Bill of Rights
• James Madison-- author of the Bill of Rights.
• The first ten amendments to the Constitution of
  the United States of America provide a written
  guarantee of individual rights
  1    Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.

  2    Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated militia.

  3    No quartering of soldiers.
  4    Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
  5    Right to due process of law, freedom from self-incrimination, double
       jeopardy.
  6    Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a speedy and public trial.

  7    Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
  8    Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments.
  9    Other rights of the people.
  10   Powers reserved to the states.
                                                                                    USI.7b
Test Your Knowledge
Which branch of government is correctly
matched with its duties?

A. Executive Branch – makes the laws

B. Judicial Branch – determines if laws are
   constitutional

C. Legislative Branch – carries out the laws

D. Federal Branch – separates government


                                               USI.7b
The system of checks and balances is important
because it –

A. divides the power between the national
   government and the states

B. selects the President of the United States

C. keeps any branch of government from
   becoming too powerful

D. prevents the government from abusing the
   rights of people
                                                USI.7b
The structure of the new national government
was based on James Madison’s –

     A.   Pennsylvania Plan
     B.   New York Plan
     C.   New Jersey Plan
     D.   Virginia Plan




                                           USI.7b
   Alexander Hamilton and Thomas
Jefferson had opposing views on the
role of the national government. That
opposition resulted in the creation of
          two political parties.




                                   USI.7c
     Leader of Federalists



• Alexander Hamilton
• Favored strong national government
• Favored limits on states’ powers
• Favored development of industry on a
  national scale
• Favored a national bank
                                         USI.7c
Leader of the Democratic Republicans




•   Thomas Jefferson
•   Favored a weak national government
•   Supported states’ powers
•   Favored small business and farmers
•   Opposed a national bank
                                         USI.7c
Test Your Knowledge
These major differences led to the creation of –

     A.   Bill of Rights
     B.   Constitution of the United States
     C.   three branches of government
     D.   two political parties

                                              USI.7c
Who was the leader of the Democratic-
Republican Party in the early 1800s?

     A.   George Washington
     B.   Alexander Hamilton
     C.   Thomas Jefferson
     D.   John Adams




                                        USI.7c
 What were the major national
issues and events faced by the
     first five presidents?




                                 USI.7d
George Washington
         (Virginia)

• Federal court system was established.
• Political parties grew out of the
  disagreements between Hamilton and
  Jefferson over the proper role of the
  national government.
• The Bill of Rights was added to the
  Constitution of the United States of
  America.
                                      USI.7d
      George
   Washington
       (cont.)



• Plans were initiated for development of
  the national capital in Washington, D.C.
• Benjamin Banneker, an African
  American astronomer and surveyor,
  helped complete the design for the city.
                                        USI.7d
                   John Adams
                   (Massachusetts)
                             Federalists

                                 Vs.

                     Democratic Republican Party




A two-party system emerged during his
administration.
                                               USI.7d
         Thomas Jefferson
             (Virginia)



                            Lewis and Clark Trail




• He bought Louisiana from France
  (Louisiana Purchase).
• Lewis and Clark explored this new land
  west of the Mississippi River.
                                               USI.7d
       James Madison
          (Virginia)




 The War of l812 caused European
nations to gain respect for the United
               States.
                                         USI.7d
        James Monroe
          (Virginia)
                "The American continents, by the free
                and independent condition which they
                have assured and maintain, are
                henceforth not to be considered as
                subjects for future colonization by any
                European powers. We should consider
                any attempt on their part to extend their
                system to any portion of this
                hemisphere as dangerous to our peace
                and safety."



 He introduced the Monroe Doctrine
  warning European nations not to
interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
                                                     USI.7d
Test Your Knowledge
What president’s name would replace the
question mark in the graphic?

     A.   James Madison
     B.   Thomas Jefferson
     C.   George Washington
     D.   John Adams
                                          USI.7d
All of the first five presidents were Virginians
EXCEPT –

     A.   James Madison
     B.   John Adams
     C.   Thomas Jefferson
     D.   James Monroe




                                                   USI.7d
Test Your Knowledge
from the 1st 9 Weeks
Which geographic region is located west of the
Appalachian Mountains and east of the Great
Plains?
     A. Region 1
     B. Region 2
     C. Region 3
     D. Region 4
                                            USI.2b
Which river explored by Lewis and Clark
empties into the Pacific Ocean?

     A.   Ohio River
     B.   Columbia River
     C.   Rio Grande River
     D.   Mississippi River




                                          USI.2c
Which country made voyages of discovery
along West Africa?

    A.   Portugal
    B.   England
    C.   France
    D.   Spain




                                          USI.4a
Which completes the diagram?

    A.   Land
    B.   Disease
    C.   Farm tools (Technology)
    D.   Language differences
                                   USI.4b
Which two colonies were established mainly as
economic ventures?

     A.   Plymouth and Roanoke Island
     B.   Roanoke Island and Jamestown
     C.   Georgia and Plymouth
     D.   Massachusetts Bay and Pennsylvania




                                           USI.5a
Which colonial geographic region had coastal
lowlands, moderate climate, diverse religions,
and market towns?

     A.   West
     B.   New England
     C.   South
     D.   Mid-Atlantic




                                             USI.5b
All of these statements describe how England
imposed economic control over the colonies
EXCEPT –

A. England imposed strict rules over trade.

B. England ensured freedom of religion.

C. England taxed the colonies after the French
   and Indian War.

D. Colonies traded raw materials for English
   goods.
                                               USI.5d
                        3rd 9 Weeks Created by
                        Cathy Van Valzah




      US History to 1877

          5th   Grade


CVV
       We want more Land!




Between 1801 and 1861,
exploration was encouraged as
America underwent vast territorial
expansion and settlement.
                              USI.8a
New territories added to the US after 1801




                        Lewis and Clark Trail


• Jefferson bought land from France (the
  Louisiana Purchase), which doubled the size
  of the United States.
• In the Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether
  Lewis and William Clark explored the
  Louisiana Purchase from the Mississippi
  River to the Pacific Ocean.
                                                USI.8a
                 Florida




• Spain gave Florida to the United States
  through a treaty.
                                        USI.8a
              Texas

              1836: Texas declares itself an
              independent republic. Mexico, too
              distracted with other problems to deal
              effectively with the revolt, will continue
              to regard it as a renegade province.
              The US takes a different view,
              confusing and complicating relations
              between the two countries, and
              helping to bring on The US-Mexican
              War


• Texas was added after it became an
  independent republic.
                                                    USI.8a
  Oregon


• The Oregon
  Territory was
  divided by the
  United States
  and Great
  Britain.



              USI.8a
              California




• War with Mexico resulted in California and
  the southwest territory becoming part of
  the United States.
                                         USI.8a
Test Your Knowledge
Which territory was added to the United
States after it became an independent
republic?

          A. Texas
          B. Louisiana
          C. Florida
          D. Oregon


                                          USI.8a
The Oregon Territory was divided by the
United States and –

        A.   Mexico
        B.   Spain
        C.   Great Britain
        D.   Russia



                                          USI.8a
Identify the territory shaded on the map.

         A.   Florida
         B.   California
         C.   Oregon
         D.   Louisiana
                                        USI.8a
What factors influenced
westward migration?




                          USI.8b
Geographic and economic factors that
influenced westward movement




• Population growth in the eastern states
• Availability of cheap, fertile land
• Economic opportunity, e.g., gold
  (California Gold Rush), logging,
  farming, freedom (for runaway slaves)
                                       USI.8b
Geographic and economic factors that
influenced westward movement



                  Oregon Trail    Santa Fe trail




• Cheaper and faster transportation, e.g.,
  rivers and canals (Erie Canal),
  steamboats
• Knowledge of overland trails (Oregon
  and Santa Fe)
                                                   USI.8b
Geographic and economic factors that
influenced westward movement




• Belief in the right of “Manifest
  Destiny”—The idea that expansion was
  for the good of the country and was the
  right of the country
                                       USI.8b
Test Your Knowledge
Which completes the diagram?

A.   Increase in Southern Plantations
B.   Canal Building in New England
C.   Migration and Expansion Westward
D.   Population Growth in Eastern States

                                       USI.8b
All were factors that led to westward
movement of Americans EXCEPT –


 A.   population growth in eastern states
 B.   cheap fertile land
 C.   economic opportunities
 D.   overland trade routes leading to
      Mexico


                                        USI.8b
Prior to the Civil War, most industrialization
in America was in the North; however, the
equipment produced in the North had an
impact on the farming society in the South.


 How did the inventions affect the lives of
 Americans?


                                           USI.8c
       New technologies
            The cotton gin




• was invented by Eli Whitney. It
  increased the production of cotton and
  thus increased the need for slave labor
  to cultivate and pick the cotton.
                                       USI.8c
               The reaper




• Jo Anderson (a slave) and Cyrus McCormick
  worked to invent the reaper. The reaper
  increased the productivity of the American
  farmer.
                                          USI.8c
              The steamboat




• The steamboat was improved by Robert
  Fulton It eventually provided faster river
  transportation that connected Southern
  plantations and farms to Northern
  industries and Western territories
                                          USI.8c
        The steam locomotive




• The steam locomotive provided faster
  land transportation.

                                         USI.8c
Test Your Knowledge
The reaper -

A. was invented by Eli Whitney
B. increased the productivity of the
   American farmer
C. provided improved land transportation
D. provided faster river transportation



                                      USI.8c
The invention that increased the production
of cotton and thus increased the need for
slave labor was the –

      A.   reaper
      B.   cotton gin
      C.   steam locomotive
      D.   canal



                                        USI.8c
        Abolitionist movement
The abolitionists worked to end slavery.


                  Freedom

• Most abolitionists demanded immediate freeing
  of the slaves.
• Abolitionists believed that slavery was wrong.
• Morally wrong
• Cruel and inhumane
• A violation of the principles of democracy

                                             USI.8d
    Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman a former slave used many
techniques to rescue over 300 slaves:
  •`using the master's horse and buggy
  • heading south if she encountered possible slave
     hunters
  • Tubman even carried a gun which she used to
     threaten the fugitives if they became too tired or
     decided to turn back, telling them, "You'll be free
     or die."
William Lloyd Garrison




  Published the anti-slavery
  newspaper, the Liberator
         Frederick Douglass




A great orator and writer, a leading figure in the
abolitionist movement, Frederick Douglass was
born into slavery in Maryland and eventually
escaped. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick
Douglass: an American slave, tells the hardships
of slavery.
              Suffrage movement
The suffrage movement helped women gain
equal rights.




  • Supporters declared that “All men and
    women are created equal.”
  • Supporters believed that women were
    deprived of basic rights.
                                        USI.8d
       Suffrage movement




• Denied the right to vote
• Denied educational opportunities,
  especially higher education
• Denied equal opportunities in business
• Limited in rights to own property
                                       USI.8d
       Suffrage movement




• The movement was led by strong
  women who began their campaign
  before the Civil War and continued after
  the war had ended.
                                       USI.8d
         Sojourner Truth




Former slave delivers her "Ain't I a
Woman?” speech before a spellbound
audience at a women's rights convention in
Akron, Ohio.
                                      USI.8d
            Susan B. Anthony




Susan B. Anthony was raised in New York as a
Quaker and was a strong advocate of equal right
for women. One of her famous quotes was “Men
their rights and nothing more; women their rights
and nothing less.”

                                              USI.8d
  Elizabeth Cady Stanton




“Because man and woman are the
 complement of one another, we need
 woman’s thought in national affairs to
 make safe and stable government.”
                                     USI.8d
Test Your Knowledge
Abolitionists believed all EXCEPT –

A. slavery was morally wrong
B. slavery was cruel and inhumane
C. slavery was a violation of the
   principles of democracy
D. slavery was an economic necessity
   for the South


                                       USI.8d
These Americans were –

 A.   Southern spies
 B.   weak women
 C.   Federalists
 D.   suffragists


                         USI.8d
How did cultural, economical,
and constitutional issues create
bitter divisions between the
North and the South?



                               USI.9a
  Issues that divided the nation




Slavery
• While there were several differences
  between the North and the South, the
  issues related to slavery increasingly
  divided the nation and led to the Civil
  War.
                                            USI.9a
   Issues that divided the nation



Cultural
• The North was mainly an urban society in
  which people held jobs.
• The South was primarily an agricultural
  society in which people lived in small villages
  and on farms and plantations.
• Because of their cultural differences, people
  of the North and South found it difficult to
  agree on social and political issues
                                               USI.9a
  Issues that divided the nation



Economic        Tariffs?
• The North was a manufacturing region, and its
  people favored tariffs that protected factory
  owners and workers from foreign competition.
• Southerners opposed tariffs that would cause
  prices of manufactured goods to increase.
  Planters were also concerned that England
  might stop buying cotton from the South if
  tariffs were added.
                                            USI.9a
Issues that divided the nation




Constitutional
• A major conflict was states’ rights
  versus strong central government


                                        USI.9a
Test Your Knowledge
Issues that divided the nation
Before the Civil War, the North was
mainly –

 A.   an agricultural society
 B.   an urban society
 C.   cotton producing
 D.   tobacco producing

                                      •USI.9a
According to the chart -
 A. cultural, economical, and constitutional
    issues divided the nation
 B. slavery was the only issue that divided the
    nation
 C. the North and South always agreed on
    important issues
 D. there were few cultural differences in the
    North and South                            USI.9a
How did the issues of states’
 rights and slavery increase
sectional tension between the
      North and South?




                                USI.9b
Issues that divided the nation
      National           State
       Laws      VS.     Laws

      North              South

• An important issue separating the
  country related to the power of the
  Federal government. Southerners
  believed that they had the power to
  declare any national law illegal.
  Northerners believed that the national
  government’s power was supreme over
  that of the states.
                                      USI.9b
   Issues that divided the nation




           Slavery?


• Southerners felt that the abolition of
  slavery would destroy their region’s
  economy. Northerners believed that
  slavery should be abolished for moral
  reasons.
                                           USI.9b
 Compromises attempting to
    resolve differences




• Missouri Compromise (1820): Missouri
  was a slave state; Maine, a free state.
                                        USI.9b
• Compromise of l850: California was a
  free state. Southwest territories would
  decide about slavery.
                                            USI.9b
• Kansas-Nebraska Act: People decided the
  slavery issue (“popular sovereignty”).
                                       USI.9b
        Southern secession



• Following Lincoln’s election, the southern
  states seceded from the Union. Confederate
  forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina,
  marking the beginning of the Civil War.
• Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the
  United States was one nation that could not be
  separated or divided. Most Southerners
  believed that states had freely created and
  joined the union and could freely leave it.
                                             USI.9b
Test Your Knowledge
Which BEST completes the diagram?

 A.   Kansas-Nebraska Act
 B.   Compromise of 1850
 C.   Missouri Compromise (1820)
 D.   Emancipation Proclamation
                                    USI.9b
At the beginning of the Civil War, a major
goal of President Lincoln was to –

 A.   punish the south
 B.   preserve the Union
 C.   spread slavery to California
 D.   add more states to the Union



                                        USI.9b
Which is the correct sequence for these
events?

 A.   1, 2, 4, 3
 B.   2, 4, 1, 3
 C.   4, 2, 1, 3
 D.   2, 1, 4, 3
                                          USI.9b
Test Your Knowledge
 from the 1st and 2nd
       9 Weeks
The oldest mountain range in North
America is found in the –

 A.   Canadian Shield
 B.   Appalachian Highlands
 C.   Rocky Mountains
 D.   Basin and Range



                                     USI.2b
The river that forms the border with
Mexico is the –

 A.   Colorado
 B.   Mississippi
 C.   Columbia
 D.   Rio Grande



                                       USI.2c
The Iroquois inhabited –

 A.   region 1
 B.   region 2
 C.   region 3
 D.   region 4
                           USI.3a
The Mid-Atlantic colonies were known for
their –

 A.   varied and diverse lifestyles
 B.   shipbuilding industry
 C.   slavery and indentured servants
 D.   religious reformers



                                        USI.5b
Thomas Jefferson borrowed ideas for the
Declaration of Independence from which
English philosopher?

 A.   Patrick Henry
 B.   Benjamin Franklin
 C.   King George III
 D.   John Locke



                                      USI.6b
One major weakness of the government
under the Articles of Confederation was
that it –

 A. had no power to tax the states
 B. regulated all commerce among the
    states
 C. had no legislative branch
 D. gave large states more power


                                          USI.7a
James Madison’s Virginia Plan called for –

A. two house legislature in Congress
B. a system of checks and balances
C. separation of powers into three
   branches
D. creation of a Bill of Rights



                                       USI.7b
The system of checks and balances is
Important because it –

A. makes the executive branch strong
B. divides the power between the national
  government and the states
C. prevents the government from abusing
   the rights of the people
D. keeps any one branch from gaining too
   much power

                                        USI.7b
The Federalist Party favored –

 A.   a weak national government
 B.   a national bank
 C.   strong state powers
 D.   small business and farmers




                                   USI.7c
The African American astronomer and
Surveyor who helped complete the
design for Washington, D.C. was -

 A.   Frederick Douglass
 B.   Harriet Tubman
 C.   Benjamin Banneker
 D.   Phillis Wheatley


                                      USI.7d
These were accomplishments during the
presidency of –

 A.   Thomas Jefferson
 B.   John Adams
 C.   George Washington
 D.   James Madison

                                    USI.7d

								
To top