2006 Football Season.ppt by sushaifj


									New Football Officials
  Training Program

Course Objectives
         - Prepare you to officiate Sub-Varsity

         - Have fun doing it

         - Increase your proficiency and
           comfort level of rules and mechanics

         - Some learn faster than others based
           on “life experiences” ...
           Former players, coaches or …….
The Absolute Best Training Possible….
      Bill Stimmel
      • Officiating 22 years
      • High School Referee, LJ,
      • Lone Star Conference
        Side Judge, Referee and
        Crew Chief , 13 Years
      • Southland Conference
        Side Judge and Referee
        5 Years
      • Big XII Replay Official
      • New Officials Training
        Chairman, 11 Years
      • Real Estate Broker at
        Coldwell Banker
     Dee Anderson
     • Officiating 27 years
     • High School Line Judge
     • Junior College and D3
       College officiating
     • Replay Official, Mountain
       West, WAC, Sunbelt
     • New Officials Instructor, 5
     • Honorable Sheriff of
       Tarrant County
     Arthur Williams
      • Officiating 26 years
      • High School Back
      • Lone Star Conference
        Back Judge
      • New Officials
        Instructor, 10 Years
    Klaus Strassmann
      • Officiating 26 years
      • High School Umpire
      • New Officials
        Instructor, 3 Years
      • Administrative

• Bill Stimmel            bstimmel@aol.com

• Arthur Williams         arthurwilliamsj@aol.com

• Dee Anderson       sheriffanderson@tarrantcounty.com

• Klaus Strassmann
    Schedule and Lesson Plans
June 21                  Introduction and Welcome, Rule Book, Mechanics Book
June 28                  Rule 1 , Introduction of 5 Man Mechanics, SubV Assignment
                         Process (Wayne Pollard guest speaker)
July 12                  Rule 2 and Introduction of 4 Man Mechanics
July 19                  Rule 2, Training DVDs, 2 & 3 Man Mechanics, SubV Assigners
July 26                  Rule 3, DVDs, First Full Chapter Meeting
                         Rules 4,5 , (Equipment supplier to attend)
August                   Rule 6 and Kicking Game, Chapter Officers & Structure
August 7 (Sat)           On-field session at Pennington Field
August 17                Rule 7 and Passing Game
August 24      Rule 8, 9
August 25      Rule 10, Penalty Enforcement, Guest Speaker Roy Rennels
               District Meeting
Sept 1         Labor Day, No meeting
Sept 8         Review First Week’s experiences, 2 and 3 Man Mechanics
Sept 15        Training DVDs, Discussion, Review 4 Man Mechanics, Rule 1, 2
Sept 21        Training DVDs, Discussion , Review 5 Man Mechanics, Rule 3

All at Tarrant County College South Campus
    Schedule and Lesson Plans
Sept 28                  Training DVDs
Oct 3                    Passing Game Oct 13   No meeting
Oct 20                   NCAA Video,

All at Tarrant County College South Campus
    Week One Lesson Plan 6/23/08
Introduction of Football Officiating


•      You love the game of football
•      It’s a great way to stay in shape
•      Being a positive role model
•      Being all that you can be (personal development)
•      Lifelong friendships and fellowship
•      You enjoy pissing off half the people watching you with every
       decision you make.
•      For the money?
              Potential income opportunities (Profit/Loss)
                Sub Varsity Junior High, Middle School, Chains, Clocks
                JV and Sophs
                PeeWee Football
  Week One Lesson Plan 6/23/08
How do I become a football official?

        This class; Clinics; State meeting; Chapter meetings;

                 Fort Worth Chapter of TASO


        Study rules and mechanics; Learn from veterans (mentor program)

        OK! I’m in!
                 - Application (TASO application online FWFO site)
                 - $50 application fee up front
                 - Rule book, Study guides (Redding)
                 - Uniforms and equipment (more specifics later)
                          Local shop, Barry Steele 817-307-4767 officialsports.net
                 - No Physical required
                 - FWFO.ORG

        How will football officiating change my life? …
             Life of a Football Offical
           Life of a football official              Life of a FIRST YEAR official

June      Clinics and Rules Study                   NM Training classes, study

July      Chapter meetings*, Study                  NM Training, Chapter meetings, Study

August  Chapter meetings, Study                     NM Training, Chapter meetings, Study
          Scrimmages                                 Scrimmages
 Mon    Chapter meetings, 7th                       NM Training! Chapter meetings, Study
 Tues 7th , 8th                                     7th , 8th
 Weds Light subV schedule                           same
 Thurs Heavy SubV, 8th , 9th , JV                   same
          (light Varsity schedule)
 Fri      Varsity                          Chain assignments, 6 Man V?
 Sat      PeeWees, Light SubV, JUCO PeeWees, Light SubV
          (light Varsity schedule)
 Sun      Church, Family, NFL (no sound)            same (plus STUDY)

* Chapter meetings consist of Position Breakout meetings, Rules and play reviews,   General
Chapter business, Speakers, rules and breakout, etc
* Physical conditioning
              Year Two and Beyond
Year 2: Continue Clinics, On field, Off field clinics, Study year round, Conditioning
         year round.


         As you develop … Advancement depends on a myriad of factors…
                 Concentrate on those you can control.

         Accumulation of “points”
                High school : higher classification games; playoffs
                Juco, Semi Pro
                D3, D2, Arena

         To Crew or not to Crew

How do I get assigned to games?
        Sub Varsity assignment and Arbiter (demonstrate future class)
        Chapter Website (demonstrate future class)
            Week One Lesson Plan
Overall concept of officiating …

         First Rule of Officiating … Always back into your parking place.

         What we are there for. What we are not there for.

         What we are supposed to watch. What not to watch.

                  Deprogramming … Learn to Not watch the ball

         Who does what on the field. We are not all “referees”

                  R, U, L, H, B

         5, 4, 3, 2 Man Crews (hopefully not 1 man crew)

  We can’t teach Judgment … We can teach you rules and mechanics

Get in Shape! … Heat acclamation ... Looking good in your uniform

The rule book and how to use it…
                               Rule Book
Get to know it … Want to see it crumpled and dog eared … Write in it, highlight it

We will NOT read the entire book to you. You must do intense study on your own.

Team A , Team B , K , R

Rule 1 The Game, Field, Players and Equipment

                  Shape of the ball, Height of goal posts, Numbering of players,

Rule 2 Definitions                    VERY IMPORTANT SECTION!

                  Defines a “Catch”      Defines a “Fumble”     Forward Progress

Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions

         Length of games, NCAA Overtime Rules, Clock starts/stops

Rule 4 Ball in play, Dead Ball, Out of Bounds

         Live ball/Dead ball     In Bounds and OB
                             Rule Book
Rule 5 Series of Downs, Line to Gain

        …shortest rule section in book … yet officials have lost their jobs due to it

        What happens after 4th down is over …      1st and 25?

Rule 6 Kicks
                 The most complicated penalty enforcements

Rule 7 Snapping and Passing the Ball

        Legal snap … False starts … Eligible receivers

Rule 8 Scoring
                  1-0 not just a baseball score … Impetus?

Rule 9 Conduct of Players and Others Subject to the Rules

        When can/can’t block below waist … Running into K, Roughing K
        Poor behavior, Bad dancing, and UNS
                              Rule Book
Rule 10 Penalty Enforcement

          Which way do I walk and for how many steps?

Rule 11 The Officials: Jurisdiction and Duties

          Who does what in the big crews

Rule 12 Instant Replay

          Relax, No worries for a few years.

Summary of Penalties

Signals       (examples of Signals on TV commercials)
                    Mechanics Books
Interpretations   … An entire section, almost half the rule book … Serves to illustrate
                     the spirit and application of a rule.
                     EXCELLENT STUDY TOOL!
How it differs from the Rules

Illustrates the positions and duties according to the number of officials actually
working the game.

You will get DVDs pertaining to the “mechanics” of working football games as

         Two Man crew
         Three Man crew
         Four Man crew
  Week Two Lesson Plan 6/30/08
Review of First Week’s class

Rule Book            Points of Emphasis :

    Defenseless players : QB down the line, Kickers, Punt returners,
                             Receivers, Players out of the play

    Sideline Control : Change in penalty from recent years, now it
       costs them for the first offense. No more free warnings …

                               5, 5, 15

The Football Code … Coaching Ethics, Talking to opponents, etc

Diagram of Field … numbers, pylons etc.
  Week Two Lesson Plan 6/30/08
Rule 1
Section 1 General Provisions
         2 teams of 11 ….    Or fewer! …. But not more

         5 properly numbered big guys

         Captains, max of 4     …

         Article 6 … “Persons Subject to the rules” includes
                   trainers, cheerleaders, the band, mascots, PA announcers

Section 2      The Field ….     How long is a football field?  How wide?
            Size, shape and color of markings … don’t worry too much about all this.

      Two things to help…
                              Inbounds lines = hash marks
                              9 yard marks (usually at side numbers)
                                   Rule 1
Section 2 (continued)

Article 4 Team Area and Coaching Box

        Between the 25 yd lines      … YOU have the first 6’ or 2 yds … OWN IT !

        Coaches box is the next 6’ or 2 yds … Then comes the team area

Article 5 Goals           Describes size/shape …
                  For your purposes, we will play with whatever field and post we
                  have … AS LONG AS IT IS SAFE …(Article 5e … padded posts)

Article 7 Line to Gain and Down Indicators          …. The “Chains”

        6’ off the sideline … Why?               Discuss safety issues of chains

SECTION 3         THE BALL               … New or nearly new ….

                  at lower levels, play with what you’ve got.   Basic ball mechanics.
                                    Rule 1
SECTION 4             Players and Playing Equipment

Recommended numbering

Article 1 Shows all the “recommended” numbering. Not important. But DO need to
know what LEGAL numbering is.

            Legal numbers in general are 1-99 (no “0 or 00”)
            At least 5 players on LOS numbered 50-79
            Tackle’s don’t “report”
            Defense can wear any numbers

Article 3 Contrasting Colors … Visitors in White        … Again, let them play.

Article 4     Mandatory Equipment                 Now we get to important stuff!

            Don’t get sued.   Watch at ALL levels for proper padding…

            Knee pads, Chin straps, Mouthpieces
                                       Rule 1
Article 5 Illegal Equipment

           Artificial limbs ok, Bionic weapons not ok

           Braces, etc must be safely padded          … Cleat specifications (no worries)

           Towels and eye shields

           Penalties … under Article 6          1st 3 infractions/half we dock them a TO

           4th violation is 5 yds, dead ball, succeeding spot (after result of play)

           Don’t let it get to all of this complication

Article 7 Coaches’ Certification:
          “Coach, are all your players properly and safely equipped per rule?
          Do they know to leave the game if any required equipment becomes
          unsafe? Is anyone wearing a hard cast, exposed metal knee brace, or any
          other piece of equipment that we need to look at prior to the game?

End of Rule 1 discussion
                   5 Man Mechanics
5 Man Mechanics, Overview, Positions and Responsibilities

 Sub Varsity Assignment Process .. .Wayne Pollard guest speaker
           Press Box

G 10   20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10     G

            O            X

            O OO X X
       R           X
               O     X
G 10   20   30 40 50 40 30 20 10   G

        Week 3 Lesson Plan 7/7/08
Review of First 2 Week’s classes

Rule 2 Definitions

Section 1    Approved Rulings and Officials Signals         (Video)

   ARs are in the 2nd part of the Rule Book, “Case studies” or Examples/What ifs

   Official’s Signals   refer to the two pages of signals and when they are used

Section 2 The Ball: Live, Dead, Loose
  Live ball is a ball in play… a pass in flight is a live ball.
  Dead Ball …. Is a ball not in play
  Loose ball … a live ball not in player possession
                       …can be during running play, scrimmage or free kick, pass play
                 … All eligible to touch, catch, etc a loose fumble/bkward pass
                   BUT, certain additional rules govern loose kicks and forward pass

  Ready for play … Discuss UIL differences with NCAA timing rules…a dead ball is
ready for play when the R sounds his whistle and gives either the RFP signal or the
Wind clock signal.
                      Rule 2 Definitions
 Article 5
             In Possession … holding or controlling of a live ball

   a. A player “gains possession” when he is firmly holding or controlling the ball
         while contacting the ground inbounds.

   b. A team is “in possession” when one of its players is “in possession” …
      While a forward pass is in flight
      Or one of its players was last in possession during a loose ball.

Article 7     Catch, Interception, Recovery

     A catch is an act of firmly establishing player possession of a live ball in flight.

    A catch of an opponent’s fumble or pass in an Interception.

    Securing player possession of a live ball after it strikes the ground is
        “recovering it”.
                   Rule 2 Definitions
 Article 7 a …. To catch, intercept or recover a ball, a player who leaves his feet
                must have the ball firmly in his possession when he first returns to
                the ground inbounds with any part of his body
                (knee, butt, elbow)

        First foot inbounds, if ball in control, it’s a catch

        Loss of ball simultaneous to returning to the ground is NOT a catch.

        Catch by a kneeling or prone player, is still a catch.

        When in question, it is NOT a catch.

Simultaneous catch … when two players have joint possession (alpha male)

SECTION 3     BLOCKING        … is obstructing an opponent by contacting him
                           with any part of the blocker’s body.
             Pushing is blocking an opponent with open hands. Quite legal
                    Rule 2 Definitions
Below Waist         … Blocking below the waist is the initial contact below the waist
                 with any part of the blocker’s body against an opponent.

        Initial contact against an opponent with one or both feet ON the ground.
        First contact above the waist … then slides below the waist, not a foul.

Chop Block       … a high-low or low-high combination block by any two players
                against an opponent anywhere on the field. The “low” component
               is at the opponent’s thigh or below.

Block in the Back       … is contact against an opponent occurring when the force
                         of the initial contact is from behind and above the waist.

        The position of the blocker’s head or feet does not necessarily indicate the
        point of initial contact.

Section 4 Clipping          …. Is a block with the force of the initial contact from
                               behind and at or below the waist.
                  Rule 2 Definitions
Section 6   Down and Between Downs        … A down is a unit of the game starting
              with a legal snap, ending when ball is dead.

Section 7   Fair Catch …of a scrimmage kick is a catch, beyond neutral zone, by
            a Team B player who has made a valid signal during a scrimmage kick
            that is untouched beyond the NZ.

        Same components during a Free Kick. Yes, you can fair catch a kickoff.

        Valid/invalid FC signal deprives the receiving team of opportunity to
        advance the ball. (so if another B player signals, teammate catches and
        runs, KILL it!)

        Valid Signal … is a signal given by B who has obviously signaled his
        intention by extending one hand only, clearly above his head and waving
        that hand from side to side more than once.

        Invalid Signal … Any waiving signal by B that doesn’t meet the guidelines
                   Rule 2 Definitions
Section 8     Forward, Beyond and Forward Progress

 Forward Progress … is a term indicating the end of advancement by the ball
       carrier or airborne pass receiver of either team and applies to the position
       of the ball when it became dead by rule.

   Look at the AR’s for Forward Progress … Discuss … 5-1-3- I, II, III, IV

Section 9       Foul and Violation
        Foul… rule infraction which carries a penalty
        Violation …. Rule infraction with no penalty, but certain repercussions occur

Section 10 Fumbling, Muffing, Batting, Touching, Blocking a Kick

         Fumble … any act other than passing, kicking, or successful handing
                  resulting in loss of player possession.

         Muff … an unsuccessful attempt to catch or recover a ball

         Batting … intentionally striking it or changing ball’s direction hands/arms
                  Rule 2 Definitions
Section 10 continued…

        Touching … any contact, intentional or not, When in question, NOT

Section 11   Lines

        Goal Lines … vertical plane separating EZ from Field of Play. Extends
        beyond sidelines. A team’s goal line is that which it is defending.

        Restraining Lines … part of a vertical plane when a ball is touched or is in
        possession. Extends beyond sidelines.

        Yard Lines … any line in field of play parallel to the end lines.

        Inbounds Lines (hash marks) … Two, 60’ from sidelines.

        Out of Bounds Lines … area enclosed by sidelines and end lines is “in
        bounds” and area surrounding and including sidelines and end lines is “out
        of bounds”.

        Nine Yard Marks …located 9 yards from sidelines (or legal yd line numbers)
                   Rule 2 Definitions
Section 12 Handing the Ball … transferring player possession, without
                                throwing, fumbling or kicking it.
         Only legal in certain situations …

         Loss of possession is fumble charged to       last guy who had it …

         Backward handoff .. Runner releases ball before it is beyond the yard line
                             where runner is positioned.

Section 13 Huddle … 2 or more players, after RFP, before the snap

Section 14 Hurdling … attempt by a player (not the runner) to jump, foot/knee
                     foremost over an opponent, still on his feet.

Section 15 Kicks… kicking the ball is intentionally striking ball with knee, lower
                   leg, or foot.
        Legal Kick … a punt, drop kick, place kick made by rule, by A, before
                     change of team possession. Any other act is illegal.

 Any free kick or scrimmage kick continues to be a kick until caught/recovered/dead
                  Rule 2 Definitions
Section 15 continued…

        Punt … a kick, player drops the ball and kicks it before it strikes ground

        Drop Kick … gimme a break

        Place Kick … Field goal place kick is a kick while ball is controlled on
                     ground by a holder. Kicking tee ok in high school.

          Free kick place kick, KICK OFF. Positioned on a tee, or ground, or held
                 by holder.

                 Tee … device to elevate the ball, max elev 1 inch.

        Free Kick … Kickoff          either place kick or punt after safey.

                 Kickoff … only from ground or tee
                 Safety … ground, tee, or punt

  Scrimmage Kick …Article 7.. It’s a FRICKIN’ PUNT!
                        made in/behind NZ, before change of team possession.
                 Rule 2 Definitions
Section 15 continues…

       Return Kick … after change of possession by a dumbass.

       Field Goal Attempt … let’s call it a scrimmage kick.

       Scrimmage Kick Formation … IMPORTANT!

                at least 1 player 7 yds deep

                no player in position to receive a hand to hand snap (duh.. QB)

                and obvious that a kick may be attempted.

Section 17 The Neutral Zone       … the space between the 2 lines of scrimmage

Section 18 Encroachment and Offside

       Encroachment …. After the RFP, Encroachment occurs when an offensive
                      player violates the NZ after the snapper touches the ball.
                   Rule 2 Definitions
Section 18 continued

        Offside … after the RFP, when a defensive player

        … is in/beyond the NZ when ball is legally snapped.
        … contacts an opponent beyond the NZ before the ball is snapped.
        … contacts the ball before it is snapped.
        … threatens an offensive lineman (who immediately reacts)
        … not behind his restraining line on a kick off.

        … also Offside when kicking team crosses restraining line early.

Section 19 Passes … Passing the ball is throwing it. Continues as a pass til
                   caught or incomplete.

   Forward and Backward Pass

Forward Pass … determined by where ball first strikes ground, player, beyond the
spot of the pass. All others are backward passes. There are no laterals.
                     Rule 2 Definitions
Section 19 continued

b. … any intentional forward movement of hand/arm starts pass.
c. … when in question it is a pass not a fumble
d. … snap is a backward pass when snapper releases.

Article 3 Crosses Neutral Zone … a pass has crossed NZ when 1st strikes ground,
          player, official or anything beyond NZ.

Article 4     Catchable Forward Pass… Untouched , Legal , Forward , Beyond NZ …
            to an eligible player , with reasonable opportunity to catch the ball.
            When in question, it is catchable.

Section 20      Penalty   …is a result imposed by rule against a team guilty of a foul
                               may include : Loss of yardage, LOD, Auto 1st, DQ

Section 21 Scrimmage : Scrimmage play is a “down” that begins with a legal snap
     Line of Scrimmage : Yard line and vertical plain passing thru end of ball
                         closest to respective team’s goal line.
                   Rule 2 Definitions
Section 22 Shift
        Simultaneous change of position by 2 or more players after the RFP
        and before next snap.

Section 23     Snapping the Ball … Legal snap is
    handing or passing backward , from ground , quick and continuous motion,
    ball must leave the snappers hand.

 Snap starts when ball is legally moved and ends when ball leaves snappers hand

 If ball slips, becomes backward pass (not fumble) and is in play.

 First movement Must be backward. Not legal snap if 1st lifted or moved forward.

 If touched by Team B during snap, Ball remains Dead, Foul by B (Can’t slap it)

 Not necessarily between snapper’s legs, but must be quick/continuous, backward

Section 24 Series and Possession …. Series is 4 consecutive downs, each
           beginning with a snap.
                    Rule 2 Definitions
Section 25 Spots

Enforcement Spot …          point from which penalty is enforced.

Previous Spot … where the ball was last put in play.

Succeeding Spot … where the ball is next to be put in play.

Dead-Ball Spot … where the ball became dead.

Spot of the Foul … where the foul occurs.

Out of Bounds Spot … where ball dead by rule by going OB

Inbounds Spot … if dead outside the hash marks, back to the hash mark

Spot Where Run Ends …
- Where ball declared dead in player possession   -Where backward pass is thrown
 - Where possession lost on a fumble              - Where illegal kick made beyond LOS
 - Where handing of the ball occurs               - Where a return kick occurs
 - Where illegal FP is thrown.
                    Rule 2 Definitions
Section 25 continued

Spot Where Kick Ends … ends at spot where possession is gained or
                       regained or ball dead by rule.

       * When kick ends in B’s EZ, PSK spot is B’s 20.
       * On successful FG, untouched by B, PSK spot is previous spot.
          * If previous spot is inside B20, and unsuccessful FG attempt untouched by
            B, spot where kick ends goes to B20.

Basic Spot
Article 10 …When “basic spot” is stated in penalty enforcement, fouls during
running play, pass play, or legal kick play are penalized from the “basic spot”.
This discussion is covered more completely in Rule 10
                   Rule 2 Definitions
Article 11.   Postscrimmage Kick Spot              …
                                       Serves as basic spot when PSK applies.

a. When kick ends in field of play (special cases/exceptions below) the PSK
   spot is the spot where the kick ends.

b. When kick ends in B’s EZ, PSK spot is B’s 20

Special Cases…

1. On unsuccessful FG attempt, ball untouched by B after crossing NZ and
   declared dead beyond NZ, the PSK spot is:

   a. Previous Spot, if Previous Spot is on or outside B’s 20    or

   b. B’s 20, if the Previous Spot is between B’s 20 and it’s goal line.

2. When Rule 6-3-11 is in effect (batting by A after ball in/over Goal Line)
   then PSK spot is B’s 20.
                     Rule 2 Definitions
Section 27           Team and Player Designations
Team A … team designated to put ball in play           Team B … the opponent
     and they retain their designations until ball ready for next play

Article 3       Kicker and Holder ….. Kicker is any player who punts, drop
            kicks, or place kicks according to rule. He remains a kicker until he
            has had a reasonable time to regain his balance.

Article 4     Lineman and Back
            Lineman … Any Team A player in one of the following positions:
            - Legally on his scrimmage line when ball is snapped
            - “Interior Lineman”: legally on LOS and positioned between the “end”
               Team A players who are also on the LOS at snap.
            - Ineligible pass receiver of Team A is “on his LOS” at the snap when
            he faces his opponent’s goal line with line of his shoulders parallel
            to and his head breaking plane of the line drawn through waistline
            of the snapper.
            - Eligible receiver of Team A is on his LOS at snap when facing
            opponent’s goal line, with shoulders Approximately parallel to and his
            head breaking plane drawn through waistline of the snapper.
                  Rule 2 Definitions
  Back: any Team A player whose head or body does NOT break the plane of
       the line drawn through the rear most part, other than the legs or feet,
       of the nearest Team A player (except the snapper) on the LOS when
       ball is snapped.
       A Lineman becomes a Back before the snap when he moves to a
                 position as a back and stops.

Passer (Article 5)   The Passer is the player who throws a legal forward
        pass. He is the passer from the time he releases the ball until it is
        complete, incomplete or intercepted or he moves to participate in the

Player    … A Player is any one of the participants in the game who is not a
         substitute or a replaced player and is subject to the rules when
         inbounds or out of bounds.

         An airborne player is a player not in contact with the ground
         A departing player is a player leaving the field, having been replaced
                 by a substitute.
                  Rule 2 Definitions
Snapper … the player who snaps the ball. Becomes the snapper when he
       assumes his position and touches or simulates (hands at knees or
       below) touching the ball.

Substitute … a legal substitute is a replacement for a player or a player
        vacancy during the interval between downs.

        A legal incoming sub becomes a player when he enters field of play
        or end zone and communicates with a teammate or an official, enters
        the huddle, is positioned in an offensive or a defensive formation
        or participates in a play.

Replaced Player …. One who participated during the previous down, has been
       replaced by a substitute and has left the field of play and EZs.

Section 28       Tripping ….     Intentionally using the lower leg or foot to
                                 obstruct an opponent below the knees.
                Rule 2 Definitions
Section 29     Timing Devices

Game Clock … Any device under the direction of the official used to
             time the game.

Play Clock … “25 Second Clock” … Each end of field … Starts on RFP

Section 30     Play Classifications

  Forward Pass Play … the interval between the snap and when a legal
      forward pass is complete, incomplete, or intercepted.

  Free Kick Play … interval from the time the ball is legally kicked until
       it comes into player possession or is declared dead by rule.

  Scrimmage Kick Play … interval between the snap and when a
       scrimmage kick comes into player possession or the ball is
       declared dead by rule.
                Rule 2 Definitions
Running Play
      … any live ball action other than that during a free kick play, a
      scrimmage kick play or a legal forward pass play.

       A run is that segment of a running play during which a ball
       carrier has possession.

       If a ball carrier loses possession by a fumble, backward pass,
       or illegal forward pass, the running play Includes the spot
       where the run ends and the loose-ball interval before
       possession is regained or the ball is declared dead (AR 2-30-4-I &II)

       A new running play begins when a player gains or regains

Section 31    Field Areas

       The Field … area within the limit lines, including team area

       Field of Play … area enclosed by sidelines and goal lines.
                 Rule 2 Definitions
End Zones … rectangle defined by the goal line, sidelines, and end
    line. Goal line and pylons are IN THE END ZONE.
Playing Surface … Field Turf , Astro-Turf, Grass, Dirt, Mud
Playing Enclosure … Stadium, Dome, Stands, Not the scoreboard (?)

Section 32 Fighting …         Any attempt by a player, coach, or squad
       member in uniform to strike an opponent in a Combative
       manner UNRELATED to football. Includes …
        - an attempt to strike an opponent with the arms, hands, leg,
          or foot, whether or not there is contact.
        - an unsportsmanlike act toward an opponent that causes
          any oppenent to retaliate by fighting (Rule 9-2-1-a , 9-5-1-a,c)

Section 33 Three and One Principle       …. Principle of penalty enforcement
             that applies when the penalty statement for a foul does not
             specify the enforcement spot. See Rule 10-2-2-c

Section 34    Tackle Box … the rectangular area enclosed by the NZ, the two
             lines parallel to the sidelines 5 yards from the snapper, and
             Team A’s end line. (Diagram FR 20)
Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions
Section 1           Start of Each Period

Article 1      First and Third Periods …     Starts with a Kickoff (40)
                      … Discuss Coin Toss … Options for Cpt who wins toss

Article 2     Second and Fourth Periods…
                                Change Goals …          Ball relocated “Exactly…”

Article 3     Extra Periods … NCAA Tiebreaker System. Yes, we use it in UIL games
            Read about it, not going to go into detail in this class.

Section 2           Playing Time and Intermissions

Article 1     Length of Periods and Intermissions
             60 Minutes NCAA but in Texas High School … 12 minute quarters …
             … Varies with different levels of games … Half time IS what it IS.

Article 2     Timing Adjustments …
                    Before game … R can do it, but must be 4 equal quarters
                    After game starts … Mutual agreement by coaches and R
              Play Clock corrections … Can be done at direction of R (common sense)
Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions
Article 3         Extension of Periods …
      You extend a period for an untimed down ( 00:00 on Game Clock ) IF:
        a. A penalty is accepted for a live ball foul
           (Not extended if part of the penalty includes LOD)
        b. There are offsetting fouls
        c. You have an inadvertent whistle or signal
Article 4   Timing Devices … IGNORE ALL REFERENCE TO A 40 SECOND CLOCK
    Game Clock … On the scoreboard, or kept on the field
                                                               Game Clock     25 Sec
             Who does what?                    5 man              L              B
                                               4 man              L              R
                                               3 man              L/U           R
                                               2 man              U              R

    Malfunction or other “Problem”?      Run it on the field
Section 3           Timeouts: Starting and Stopping the Clock
  Article 1    An official shall signal timeout when rules provide for stopping the clock
or when a timeout is charged to a team or to the officials. Other officials repeat signal.
Officials may declare and charge themselves with timeouts.
When Team is out of timeouts, simply don’t acknowledge request for more.
Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions
Section 3 … continued …
 Article 2     Starting and Stopping the Clock
  a. Free Kick… Starts when ball legally touched in Field of Play, stopped
        when dead by rule.
  b. Scrimmage Down… Beginning of a period, on snap… On all other
        scrimmage downs, clock starts when ball is legally snapped or on a
        prior signal by the R (RFP).
        Clock doesn’t run: During a Try, Extension of a period, Overtime
  c. After a Score … Game clock stops after a TD, FG or Safety. Doesn’t
        start again until Free Kick legally touched.
  d. Starts on the Snap … For each of the Following, the game clock stops.
        If the next play begins with a snap, the clock starts on the snap:
        - Touchback
        - Less than 2 minutes remaining in a Half with a Team A ball carrier,
           fumble, or backward pass is ruled out of bounds.
           (Exception: Team A forward fumble, clock starts on RFP)
        - Team B is awarded a 1st Down and will next snap the ball.
        - A forward pass is ruled incomplete.
        - A team is given a charged team timeout.
Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions
d. Starts on the Snap… Continued

  - The ball becomes illegal.
  - Violation of a rule for mandatory equipment
  - A legal kick down ends.
  - A return kick is made.
  - Scrimmage kick is made beyond the neutral zone.
  - Team A commits a delay-of-game foul while in scrimmage kick formation
  - A period ends.

e. Starts on R’s signal … For each of the following reasons, the game clock is stopped.
   If the next play begins with a Snap, the clock will start on the RFP:
     - 1st Down awarded to Team A
     - Team A forward fumble goes OB
     - Other than with fewer than 2 minutes …. NOT OUR RULE!!!!!
     - To complete a penalty
     - An injury timeout is allowed
     - An inadvertent whistle is sounded
     - A possible 1st down measurement
     - A delay in making the ball ready for play is caused by both teams
Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions
e. Starts on R’s signal … For each of the following reasons, the game clock is stopped.
   If the next play begins with a Snap, the clock will start on the RFP:
 - A live ball comes into possession of an official.
 - The ball carrier’s helmet comes completely off.
 - Head coach’s conference is granted.
 - R grants a media timeout.
 - R declares a discretionary timeout.
 - R declares a timeout for unfair noise.
 - An illegal pass is thrown to conserve time.
 - The R interrupts the 25 second count.

Article 3   Suspending the Game
Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions
Rule 3 Periods, Time Factors, Substitutions
Rule 4          Ball in Play, Dead Ball, Out of Bounds
Section 1   Ball in Play – Dead Ball

Dead Ball Becomes Alive
Article 1 … After a dead ball is made RFP it becomes a live ball when it is legally
snapped or legally free kicked. A ball snapped or free kicked before it is made RFP
remains dead.

Live Ball Becomes Dead
Article 2
Rule 5 Series of Downs, Line to Gain
Rule 6   Kicks
     Plays Field Goal Plays
    Try andFrom Scrimmage

      40    30   20       10

                                   U   BJ


     40     30   20       10

Free Kick Positioning
                    U      L                        R

10   20   30        40     50   40   30   20   10


10   20   30        40     50   40   30   20   10

                    BJ                              LJ
                        PRESS BOX
         Scrimmage Kicks
       Plays From Scrimmage
                      L                                                        BJ

            40                 30                20                 10


        40                     30               20                  10

                      R watches play on kicker, L holds until ball crosses neutral zone, then moves slowly
                 LJ   downfield covering on his side between line of scrimmage and deep receiver(s). LJ stays
                      on line until snap, then moves slowly downfield covering his side between the line of
PRESS BOX             scrimmage and the deep receiver(s). L and LJ be alert for blocked or partially blocked
                      kick. BJ takes a position on L's side and slightly ahead of receiver(s). L, know if kick
                      crosses neutral zone. Be alert for delay by kicking team designed to confuse opponents.
Rule 7 Snapping and Passing the Ball
Rule 8 Scoring
Rule 9           Conduct of Players and Others Subject to Rules
Section 1 Contact and Interference Fouls

 Article 2 … The “Thou Shalt Nots”

  q. FMM
Rule 9   Conduct of Players and Others Subject to Rules
Rule 9   Conduct of Players and Others Subject to Rules
Rule 10 Penalty Enforcement

     Fouls by offensive team Behind the Basic
     Spot are enforced from Spot of Foul.

     a. Basic spot on running plays ending
     beyond NZ is spot where related run ends.
        Fouls by Offense behind Basic Spot are
     spot fouls.
        * Except FMM, ILH, OH, ILB, PF if
     behind NZ by Offense, go from Previous
        * Safety if foul occurs behind Team A’s
     goal line.
    Rule 10 Penalty Enforcement
b. Basic spot on running plays when run ends behind NZ is previous spot,
   and fouls by Offense behind the basic spot are spot fouls.

c. Basic spot on running plays when no NZ (interception runbacks, kick
   runbacks, fumble advances, etc) is spot where related run ends, fouls by
   Offense behind basic spot are spot fouls.

d. Basic spot on legal forward pass plays is Previous Spot, fouls by Offense
   behind basic spot are spot fouls.

 Except … DPI may be a spot foul
          RFP added to end of last run when ends beyond NZ
          IT enforced from previous spot
          OFMM, OH, ILB, PFs if behind NZ go from Previous spot

e. Basic spot on legal kick plays, before change of possession, is Previous
   Spot, fouls by Offense behind basic spot are spot fouls.
                   Official’s Uniform
Additional Equipment and Tools of the Trade...

Flag                 One, worn inconspicuously in front

Bean Bag             White

Down Indicator       Black, or rubber band

Tossing Coin         Heads or tails

Clip                 Two if on chain crew or working HL

Watch                Simple countdown, easy to set, big numbers

Whistle              Lanyard, finger whistle

Travel bag           Black, On rollers?

Game Card/Pencil
                 Official’s Uniform
“Summer Uniform”         for most scrimmages, SubV games

Shirt           Short sleeve, B&W, not mesh, pocket left chest
Black Shorts    “Coaches” shorts, Belt loops
White socks     Not B&W striped, short low calf
Black shoes     Prefer solid black, but B&W is ok
T-Shirt         Black … no chest hair or gold medallions
Cap             Black with white “piping”. Fitted, not mesh.

Varsity & “Winter Uniform”                   Varsity games, Colder weather

Shirt           Same as above but long sleeve
Knickers        White, for football officials (not recycled baseball pants)
Stockings       One piece 3 stripes (Careful, not 2 stripes like NFL)

Chain Crew      Same as Varsity uniform except wear white golf shirt rather than
                striped shirt. Black jacket approved for colder weather.
Game Cards
Game Cards
         Game Day ! (SubVarsity)
•   Arrive on time
•   Quick pre-game with your crew, Review 2 man, 3 man mechanics
•   Inspect field
•   Game clock and 25 second clock location and test
•   Certify equipment and players with coaches
•   Figure out payroll paperwork
•   Check chains and brief chain crew
• Approve game balls (remind coaches to work in their ball or play with the
   same one.
• Get your captains and conduct coin toss

• Play Ball!
Free Kick Positioning
                    U      L                        R

10   20   30        40     50   40   30   20   10


10   20   30        40     50   40   30   20   10

                    BJ                              LJ
                        PRESS BOX
              Passing Game
• Prior to the snap
 Position/Mechanics … Responsibilities …   Fouls/Rules
• During the play
 Position/Mechanics … Responsibilities …   Fouls/Rules
• After the play
 Position/Mechanics … Responsibilities …   Fouls/Rules
           Scrimmage Kicks
• Prior to the snap
 Position/Mechanics … Responsibilities …   Fouls/Rules
• During the play
 Position/Mechanics … Responsibilities …   Fouls/Rules
• After the play
 Position/Mechanics … Responsibilities …   Fouls/Rules
                     Free Kick Mechanics
•   R      Obtain all crew members ready signal and when all are ready, sound your whistle as you give the
           ready for play signal. Assist BJ to ensure the correct number of players are on each side of the kicker
           when ball is kicked.

•   BJ     When ball is kicked, ensure the correct number of players are on each side of the kicker. Be alert for
           Team A encroaching.

•   ALL    Mark the out of bounds spot, with flag if appropriate, if kick goes out of bounds between goal lines.
           Maintain position enabling coverage of your sideline at all times. If kicked in your area, cover any muff,
           advance, or any Team B player who catches or recovers the ball.

           Observe any player who is out of bounds before or during the kick, including Team A players who
           enter the field after the ball is declared ready for play.

           Observe legality of blocks and action away from the ball when not covering the runner.

•   R,LJ   If kick goes deep, retreat to position to observe actions involving the goal line, sideline or end line. R
           will take the ball only if in his side zone. The official who does not have the ball is responsible for
           action in front of runner. If touchback occurs, move into field of play to stop any late or illegal actions
           but do not ignore players behind you.

•   BJ,L, Watch for infractions involving restraining lines. Watch for short kick and whether it is touched or
    U     recovered legally or illegally.

•   ALL    Be alert for fair catch signal and interference with the opportunity to catch a kick.

•   NOTE: Maintain position in front of player attempting to catch the ball. When you do not have the ball, take a
          position to observe action in your area ahead of the runner.
               Free Kick Situations
During Team A's free kick from the A40, Team A player goes out of bounds to avoid a
block. He returns to the field of play and recovers the kick at the Team B 20 yard line.
      a) B 1/10 @ B20 Ready
      b) A 1/10 @ B20
      c) Rekick @ A30
      d) B 1/10 @ B20 Snap

A's ball, free kick, on A's 40. Team B player catches A's free kick in B's end zone, runs to
his left, and while still in B's end zone, turns and throws a backward pass to a teammate
on the other side of the end zone. The backward pass is muffed and bounces out to B's 2
where it goes out of bounds. Clock?
       a) B 1/10 @ B2 Snap
       b) B 1/10 @ B2 Ready
       c) Touchback; B 1/10 @ B20
       d) Safety

A's ball, free kick, on A's 40. Team B player catches A's free kick in B's end zone, runs to
his left, and while still in B's end zone, turns and throws a backward pass to a teammate
on the other side of the end zone. The ball sails over his head and out of bounds.
       a) Touchback; B 1/10 @ B20 Ready
       b) Touchback; B 1/10 @ B20 Snap
       c) Safety
      Plays From Scrimmage
     Plays From Scrimmage

       40              30             20              10

                T E

                  U                                  BJ
            E T

       40             30              20              10

             LJ       R takes runner sideline to sideline behind line of scrimmage. L and
                      LJ watch action on line of scrimmage; take runner in their side
PRESS BOX             zone; responsible for their sideline. U watches 5 interior linemen
                      and runner in his area on short drives. BJ has deep responsibility;
                      helps with out of bounds runs, especially in team areas.
    Plays From Scrimmage

     40        30      20    10


    40         30      20   10


           PRESS BOX
    Plays From Scrimmage

     40        30      20    10


    40         30      20   10


           PRESS BOX
     Scrimmage Play Situations
A 3/23 @ A's 27. The defensive end grasps the QB’s facemask on A's 22 in a twisting
action. The QB breaks away and subsequently completes a legal forward pass to the
tight end who is downed on A's 44.
       a) A 1/10 @ B41 Ready
       b) A 1/10 @ A42 Ready
       c) A 1/10 @ A37 Ready

A 4/5 @ B26. Pass is complete to the wide receiver who runs to the B5 and fumbles. The
ball rolls into and out of the end zone. While the pass was in the air, Team B roughed the
       a) A 1/10 @ B13 Snap
       b) A 1/10 @ B11 Snap
       c) A1/10 @ B13 Ready
       d) A1/10 @ B 11 Ready

Fourth and goal on B's 9. Team B intercepts QB's legal forward pass one yard deep in
B's end zone. Team B player is immediately contacted in the back and driven to B's 3
where he is downed.
      a) Touchback; B 1/10 @ B20 Snap
      b) B 1/10 @ B3 Ready
      c) Touchback; B 1/10 @ B20 Ready
      d) B 1/10 @ B3 Snap
         Scrimmage Kicks
       Plays From Scrimmage
                      L                                                        BJ

            40                 30                20                 10


        40                     30               20                  10

                      R watches play on kicker, L holds until ball crosses neutral zone, then moves slowly
                 LJ   downfield covering on his side between line of scrimmage and deep receiver(s). LJ stays
                      on line until snap, then moves slowly downfield covering his side between the line of
PRESS BOX             scrimmage and the deep receiver(s). L and LJ be alert for blocked or partially blocked
                      kick. BJ takes a position on L's side and slightly ahead of receiver(s). L, know if kick
                      crosses neutral zone. Be alert for delay by kicking team designed to confuse opponents.
        Scrimmage Kick Coverage
                                       **AFTER THE SNAP**

R       Watch blocking and illegal action by players behind the line. Observe action of and against the kicker,
        using signal #11 if appropriate, and observe players while proceeding slowly downfield if the kick
        remains inbounds. If the flight of the kick is toward a sideline, move quickly to position in line with the
        flight and use arm signals to direct the official covering that sideline to out of bounds spot. When
        correctly aligned, drop your arm as indication that the official hold the spot until ball is spotted for next
        If the kick is caught or recovered downfield, be conscious of coverage of either sideline. Be prepared
        to take over the runner.
R, U    Be alert for blocked kick. Be alert for recovery and advance.
U       Look down the line at the initial charge, checking blocks of offense and action by defensive players.
        Observe defensive linemen over center to avoid serious injury to snapper. Shift observations to
        contact between defensive players. After players go past your position turn and move toward the
        return area, observe the center picture for illegal action by players of either team, assist with
        substitutes. Be alert for sleeper plays.
U       If the kick is short or partially blocked, know if it crossed the neutral zone.
L       Primary responsibility to know if kicked ball crosses neutral zone.
L, LJ   After initial line charge, observe blocks for defensive holding. If the kick is short to your side, observe
        first touching, legal or illegal, catch interference, valid or invalid signal for fair catch. Maintain position
        to cover in front of the runner after catch or recovery of the kick, maintain coverage until the runner
        cuts toward the opposite side or, if on your side, is picked up by you. You have responsibility for the
        entire sideline on your side.
        Scrimmage Kick Coverage
                             **AFTER THE KICK**
BJ      If kick is short to either sideline, the sideline official will assume responsibility
        for the ball. Observe action in front of the ball. On all other kicks cover the
        receiver, taking a position ahead of the receiver if possible. Observe first
        touching, interference, and fair catch situations. Cover kicks on ground or in air
        which go 25 yards or more. If in doubt as to spot of out of bounds kick in the air,
        raise hand and R will assist. If there is any question regarding covering official,
        communicate verbally.

L, LJ   If kick goes to side opposite you, drift downfield, observing all action and be
        alert for a sudden cut toward your side and possible exchange in coverage of
        the runner. When you do not have the ball, take a position to observe action in
        your area ahead of the runner.

        Mark and hold out of bounds spot of rolling kick on your side. Be alert to cover
        and accept R's signal in spotting out of bounds kick in flight.

BJ      BJ will be primarily responsible for ruling on fair catch signal in his area. LJ and
        L observe other action surrounding the ball. If player signaling fair catch does
        not touch the ball, LJ and L must observe legality of his actions until the ball
        becomes dead. Be ready to rule on kick in end zone. Be alert for batting. Use a
        bean bag to mark the spot where kick ends.
     Scrimmage Kick Situations
A 4/6 @ A's 29. A4 punts. Team A player commits an interference with opportunity foul
on B's 38. The Receiver muffs the kick on B's 36. While the ball is loose on B's 43, the SJ
blows his whistle. If there is a penalty – the penalty is accepted.
      a) Replay the down – clock on the snap
      b) B 1/10 A49 – clock on the ready
      c) B 1/10 A47 - clock on the ready
      d) B 1/10 A42 - clock on the snap

A 4/12 @ B's 48. The Receiver lets the punt bounce on B's 10. The ball rolls toward Team
B's end zone. On B's 2, Team A player bats the ball backward, with the ball striking a
Team B player on the leg on B's 8. Team A falls on the ball on B's 10.
      a) A 1/10 B10 – clock on the ready
      b) B 1/10 B2 - clock on the snap
      c) B 1/10 B10 – clock on the ready
      d) A 4/27 A37 - clock on the snap
A 4/14 @ A's 36. Team A's punt is shanked, hits the ground on A's 42 and bounces back
to A's 33 where a Team B player recovers while grounded. During the down, the
Defensive End committed a holding foul on A's 46. Team A was illegally in motion at the
      a) Offset and Replay - clock on the ready
      b) B 1/10 B44 - clock on the ready
      c) Team B can decline the Team A foul - clock on the ready
      d) If Team B accepts the Team A penalty – offset - clock on the ready
      e) All of the above are correct
      f) None of the above are correct
     Plays Field Goal Plays
    Try andFrom Scrimmage

      40    30   20       10

                                   U   BJ


     40     30   20       10

Try and Field Goal Situations
PAT @ B's 3. Team A has only six players on the line at the snap. The try is blocked behind the
line of scrimmage. The ball never crosses the neutral zone. Team B picks up the ball on B's 10
and returns the ball across Team A's goal line. During Team B's run, a Team B player held @
B's 18.
       a) Score 2 pts for B – administer the penalty on the Kickoff
       b) Replay the Try from the B1-1/2
       c) Team B cannot advance this ball – play is dead when B picks up the ball
       d) Penalty is declined by rule – no score is allowed

PAT @ B3. The score is A28-B28 with time expired in the fourth quarter. A's kick is good. The
Tight End was called for holding and the Safety committed a personal foul after the Try.
      a) Replay Try from the B 6-1/2
      b) Offsetting fouls – replay Try from the B3
      c) Replay Try from the B2 after enforcing both fouls
      d) Fouls on both teams – Try ends

PAT @ B’s 3. Team B defensive end intercepts Team A's legal forward pass and is downed on
A's 40. During Team B's run, a Team B player clips. Team A was illegally in motion. Team B
was offside.
      a) Offsetting fouls – try ends
      b) Fouls occur both before and after the change of possession – try ends
      c) Replay try
R       When spotting the ball after each scrimmage, be sure there is no need for measurement before announcing the down.
        If close, announce the down and be alert for either captain's request for measurement, if doubtful, call for measurement
        without captain’s request.

BJ      Will ensure the ball is not moved after being spotted for measurement. Hold ball if necessary. Clear the area of officials
        and players for press box view.

R       When the ball becomes dead in a side zone or out of bounds and measurement should be at the dead ball spot, have
        covering official place the ball at the proper spot. If short of a first down, use the forward point established on the chain
        when spotting the ball at the inbounds line. If alternate game ball is available following the measurement, leave the ball
        in the side zone until an alternate ball is placed at a corresponding inbounds spot.

        See that the U is ready. Observe the relative position of ball and point to be gained, then announce your ruling.

        Remain over the ball and announce down and distance. Get ready signals from captains while L is resetting chain.
        When L is ready, declare the ball ready for play.

R,L,U   Check for kinks in chain and be sure that chain is taunt.

U       Take forward rod. Wait until L calls "ready" then carefully tighten the chain only once. Don’t pull or jerk it. Have the rod
        perpendicular to the ground at the side of the ball until R announces his ruling, then return rod to the chain crew.

LJ      Go to yard line nearest stake. Mark a spot perpendicular to the ball to aid. Also, aid L in positioning the chain for an
        accurate measurement.

L       Grasp chain at point of its intersection with the back edge of the marked yard line nearest the rear rod, after clip of snap
        is affixed to mark the correct point, grasp the chain firmly as assistants carry it to the position on the field. Instruct the
        box operator to place the box at the nearest rod.

        Maintaining grasp, place the correct point of the chain on the back edge of the proper yard line, call "ready" and be sure
        the chain is not jerked from your grasp when tightened bythe U.

        If not first down, retain firm grasp and personally set the chain at its original spot on the sideline. Check the point
        marked by your assistant.
  Calling and Reporting Fouls
ALL   Fouls by jersey color or offense/defense or A/B,
      number/position of offender. Report Who fouled, What
      was the foul, Where did the foul occur and When did it

      R will state foul. R will give preliminary signal. Wing officials
      notify coaches on all fouls number/ position. One official
      hold spot of foul. Check R's options and U's enforcement.
         Game Administration
•   Work slow
•   Hustle
•   Be patient
•   Keep your cool
•   Talk to communicate with everyone
•   Know your role
•   We will be the enemy
•   Sell everything
•   Make it big
•   Don’t fish in someone else’s pond
           Officiating Philosophies
Line of Scrimmage
Work to keep OL legal, Only call ILF when obvious after repeated warnings.
         Don’t wait til 4th Qtr to enforce.

If OL is lined up with head clearly behind the rear end of the Center, a foul will be
           called without warning.

Don’t be too technical on a WR or slot in determining if on/off LOS. When in
         question, it is NOT a foul.

When in question, a WR is NOT covering up a TE.

Sample Test Questions
        Sample Test Questions
1.   A 2nd & 4 at B 30. NoseGuard B75 anticipating the snap crosses the
     neutral zone before the ball is snapped and contacts A56. Left tackle A72
     then grabs the facemask of B95 and pulls him to the ground.

     a. A 2nd & 4 at B 30 (fouls offset)
     b. A 1st & 10 at B 40
     c. A 1st & 10 at B 20

2.   A 2nd & 9 at A 6. QB A10 drops back into the end zone and throws the ball
     downfield to wide receiver A81 at the A 31. Left tackle A73 grabs the arm
     of B92 at the A 2 and pulls him to the ground in the end zone.

     a. Safety, KO from A 40
     b. A 2nd & 12 at A 1
     c. A 2nd & 12 at A 3

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