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					KOREA’s Initiative for IT Application
                and
   the Development of Internet

             March 1998


            WAN-IL CHOI
   National Computerization Agency
Contents

• Current Status of Information Infrastructures
• National IT Initiatives and Policy
• Internet Development and Policy




                        National Computerization Agency
                  Current Status of
         Information Infrastructures
• IT Production
• PC Diffusion
• Telecommunications
• CATV
• Internet
• Informatization Index




                          National Computerization Agency
                                           IT Production
• Computer and PC Production (million Dollors)
         Year         1993       1994        1995      1996
     Computer         964        1,231       1,725     2,119
          PC          929        1,181       1,420     1,835

       ※ exchange rate 800 won/US $

• 1997. 10 : Computer : 1,734,817 million won (US $2,168)
             PC          : 962,362 million won (US $1,203)


                                      National Computerization Agency
                                    PC Diffusion
• Number of PCs Sold Domestically(thousands)
  Year     1991      1992    1993    994      1995    1996
  Computer 614       665     773     1185     1500    1900

•Number of PCs in Use : 7 Million (as of the end of 1997)

•Goal set in NBIS (National Basic Information System)
   - One PC per household by the Year 2000
   - 10 mil PC’s diffused to offices and homes



                            National Computerization Agency
                          Telecommunications
• Market Structure for Basic Service
     - KT Monopoly Broken at the Mid, 1991
     - International Call Carrier : Oligopoly (KT, Dacom, Onse)
     - Domestic Long Distance : Jan ‘96. Duopoly (KT, Dacom)
     - Local Calls : Duopoly (KT,Dacom)
• Telephone Lines per 100 population(1996) : 44.4
     - U.S. : 62.5 (1995)
     - Japan : 48.8 (1995)
     - U.K. : 50.5 (1995)
•Subscribers of Mobile Communications (thousands)
   Year     1993     1994      1995      1996      1997.6    1997.11
  Mobil      472      960      1,641    3,180      4,328      5,558
  Pager     2,648    6,366     9,658    11,904     13,600    15,105

                                 National Computerization Agency
                                                   CATV
• New Service : on Mar 1995

• Number of Subscribers
   - 500,000 (Jan 1996) : 5% of households
   - 1,700,000 (Mar 1997) : 13.1% of households
   - 2,002,000 (Jun 1997) : 15.4% of households
   - 2,452,000 (Feb 1998) : 19% of households
   - 6,500,000 (by the year 2000, Projection) : 50% of households

• Time for Diffusion of CATV
    - 10% of households : 8 ∼ 10 years (Canada, U.S.A.)
    - 6% of households : 8 years (Japan)

                              National Computerization Agency
                                              Internet
• Number of Internet Host Computers (thousands, Jan 1997)
   Korea       U.S.     Japan   Germany      U.K.      France
    81        10,110    1,168     994        987        333


   ※ 131 : Dec ’97




                             National Computerization Agency
Informatization Index(Overall) Korea 1990=100
 6000
               Korea
                Korea
 5000          U.S.A.
                U.S.
               Ja
                Japan
                Singapore
               Si
 4000           Europe
               Europe

 3000

 2000

 1000

    0
        1988    1989        1990   1991   1992   1993    1994    1995




                                    National Computerization Agency
National IT Initiatives and Policy

• NBIS, NAIS
• Master Plan and Strategy for Information
  Society
• Korea Information Infrastructure
• Policy Issues



                     National Computerization Agency
                              NBIS
(National Basic Information System)
• First National Initiative of IT Use and Production
   – 1st Five-Year Plan (1987 - 1991)
   – 2nd Five-Year Plan (1992 - 1996)
• Consensus on the Potentials of IT
   – Industrial Revolution vs. Information Revolution
• Strong Support by Government
   – Funding Schedule
   – NCB (National Computerization Board)
       • Under the Executive Office of the President
       • Effective Coordination among Government Agencies
       • Computerization Promotion Meeting (Presidential)


                                 National Computerization Agency
                              NBIS
(National Basic Information System)
• Objective
   –   Economic Growth in “Information Age”
   –   Use IT to Improve Competitiveness
   –   Take a Position of Developed Nation in 21st Century
   –   Improve Quality of Life
   –   Provide Initial Markets for IT Industries

• Implementation
   –   Administrations
   –   Financial Institutions
   –   Education and Research
   –   National Defense
   –   National Security

                                 National Computerization Agency
                                                       NAIS
(National Administration Information System)

• Small and Efficient Government
   – 1st Stage : Developing the Separate Systems
   – 2nd Stage : Sharing Information among Agencies
• Pre-assigned Fund : US $ 200 million (1987 - 1991)
• Six Subsystems
   –   Resident
   –   Vehicle
   –   Hose and Land
   –   Employment
   –   Customs Clearance
   –   Economic Statistics

                               National Computerization Agency
       Master Plan and Strategy for
               Information Society
• Legal Ground
   – Basic Act on Informatization Promotion(1995)
      • Basic guiding principles on building KII and
        creating information society
      • Basic plan for informatization and implementation
      • Establishment and operation of Informatization
        Promotion Committee
      • Operation of Informatization Promotion Fund


                            National Computerization Agency
                                       Master Plan
• 1st phase(1996-2000):
   – laying the foundation for building a national
     information network
• 2nd phase(2001-2005)
   – Spreading the usage of information networks
• 3rd phase(2006-2010)
   – Promoting a higher level of information network usage


                              National Computerization Agency
                               Major programs
• Promoting projects aimed at accelerated usage of the
  information network in the public sector
• Building an information superhighway
• Creating the desirable environment for the information and
  communication industry
• Establishing a legal framework
• Ensuring information security and standardization


                             National Computerization Agency
 Korea Information Infrastructure
• Aim: To construct high-speed government and public
  information networks
   – KII-G: needs of public administration, research
     institutes, and universities
   – KII-P : needs of industry and general public
• Construction
   – Operator: Korea Telecommunication, Dacom
   – Fund : US $ 580 million
   – Schedule: completed by 2010

                            National Computerization Agency
                                KII and Internet
• KII promotes the usage of Internet services

• Internet becomes the integral part of KII

• Vitalization of Internet as a basis of implementing
  Electronic government

• Development of Web based application in the KII




                              National Computerization Agency
                                              Policy Issues
• Demand-Pull vs. Supply-Push
   – KII Plan coordinated by Government : Supply-Push Model
   – Experience of Failed System in NBIS due to Insufficient Demand
   – Shifts of Interest to Demand Side
   – Nature of IT
       • Consumer’s potential needs and market demand to be developed
       • Unforeseen yet popular services generated by enabling technologies
   – Interaction and Synergy Effects of Demand and Supply



                                     National Computerization Agency
                                                Policy Issues
• Roles of Government
   – Strong Leadership in Economic Development Plan
   – Different Environments in Managing the KII Plan
   – Limited Roles of Government
   – Bureaucratic Attitudes Are Still Alive
   – Mixed Attittudes Held by Private Sectors
       • Preferring liberalized business environment
       • Seeking for direct government supports




                                      National Computerization Agency
  Internet Development and Policy
History of Internet use in Korea

o 1982 Installment of SDN(System Development Network) between
       Seoul National University and Korea Institute of Electronics and
       Telecommunication
o 1986 Establishment of KRNIC(Korea Network Information Center) at KAIST
o 1987 Interoperation of SDN with CSNet (9.6Kbps) extending to Research
       and Education Network
o 1994 Starting ISP Businesses, Providing Internet services to the Public
o 1994 KRNIC move to NCA(National Computerization Agency)
o 1997 Establishment of Commerce Network in KOREA, stimulating Internet
       Commerce

                                  National Computerization Agency
                     Status of Internet Usage
o Status of Internet in Korea
                      1993      1994       1995      1996    1997
  Hosts
  (Thousands)            7        13         36         73     131
  Domains               61       192        579      2,664   8,045
  Users
  (Thousands)                    138        366        731   2,500



o Internet Usage for Commerce
  - Market size for ‘96 : 6.3 bil won (US $4.2 mil)
  - Projection for year 2000 : 61.4 bil won (US $40.9 mil)




                                    National Computerization Agency
          Internet and New Businesses
• Application of Internet Technology to existing Businesses
 - Banking, Shopping, Distribution, Retailing, etc
 - Improving Efficiency and Productivity
    • Intra-firms
    • Between firms
    • Between Producers and consumers

• Generation of New Businesses
 - Huge Business opportunities provided by Large number of Users connected
   to the Internet
 - New production system and distribution channels
 - Access to cyber market requiring Small Investment


                                    National Computerization Agency
               List of Internet Businesses
• Internet Network Service Providers (NSP) : KT, Dacom
• Hardware Manufacture
• Internet Connection Service Providers (ISP) : 22 (‘98.3)
 Year                94         95          96        97     Mar-98
 ISP                  4         11          16        20         22
  ※ Commercial(‘98. 3) : 18, Non Profit ISP : 4
• Web Hosting Service Providers (WSP) : 120 (‘97)
• Internet Based S/W Developers
• Homepage Building Service
• Internet Contents Providers
• Internet Telephone and Fax


                                     National Computerization Agency
        Restructuring of Industrial
 Organization and Internet Business
• Overrule of Large Businesses and Economic Crisis

• Strategic Shift toward SME’s and Internet Businesses
   – New Government Strategy in favor of Small Businesses
   – Recognition of Internet as a means of Supporting Small Businesses
   – Easy Access to World Market with Modest Investment
   – Internet Technology enabling New Ideas into Businesses along
     with Venture Capital




                                National Computerization Agency
         Strategies for Development of
                     Internet Businesses
• Improvement of Internet Backbone Network

• Development of Internet Business Services on the CATV Network

• Government Support for Internet Businesses

• Promotion of R&D Investment for Internet Technologies

• Government role in Electronic Commerce

• Reformation of Regulations, Rules for Promotion of Internet Businesses



                                   National Computerization Agency
                    Improvement of Internet
                         Backbone network
• For the Short term : Examine traffic on the existing Internet
                      backbone to solve bottleneck point.
• For the long term : Use PUBNET and ATM to build Super-
                      high speed Internet backbone
                        - build more IX (Internet exchange point)
                        - 33.6Kbps → 56K bps


                                 National Computerization Agency
   Development of Internet Business
     Services on the CATV Network
• Merit : Provide Internet Service in low price

• Bandwidth
                    Current                 2002
   Upstream       0.768 Mbps              10 Mbps
  Downstream       10 Mbps                30 Mbps

• Status of HFC network
               Fiber Optic     Coaxial         Total
                  Cable         Cable
      KT         2,453.4       15,375.1      17,828.5
    KEPCO        2,078.0       25,534.0      27,612.0
     Total       4,531.4       40,909.1      45,440.5


                             National Computerization Agency
   Government Support for Internet
                       Businesses

• Support Model Project of Commercial Activity based on Internet

• Support Next generation Internet Pilot Project

• Support APAN (Asia Pacific Advanced network) Activity




                                National Computerization Agency
 Promotion of R&D Investment for
            Internet Technologies
• Direction
 - Driving force to develop new technology through Industrial-educational
  cooperation
 - positive utilization of Forward Delivery Trial Network to verify Internet
  technology which will be developed
 - Reinforce exchange information between Standardization and R& D




                                      National Computerization Agency
                Government Roles in EC
• Constructing technical infrastructure
   – EC related technology
   – Standards for electronic document
   – Physical network infrastructure
• Preparing legal and institutional arrangement
• Constructing the environment for elevating the social
  acknowledgement on EC
• Establishing the national strategy for issues on global EC
  and internal cooperation


                              National Computerization Agency
  Government initiatives for EC In
                            Korea
• Government took full initiatives in major areas during the
  introduction of EDI in Korea
   – logistics, customs, taxation, procurement
• Market formation as a investor and a user
• Promulgated independent EDI law for the first time in the
  world(1992)
• EDI is considered an integral part of the major social overhead
  capital
• MOTI(Ministry of Trade and Industry) and MIC(Ministry of
  Information) are major actors in EC policy.


                                National Computerization Agency
                             Policy direction
                        in Internet based EC

• Foster market mechanism and private sector initiatives

• More focus on production and logistics than consumption

• Active participation to Int’l cooperation

• Effective division of responsibility among government and

  private sector



                              National Computerization Agency
    Some Measure for Expansion of
             EC over the Internet
• Tariffs on Internet transaction
   – Visible merchandise : tariff as present
   – Invisible product : tentatively tariff-free
• Regulation on Contents
   – Development of consumer protect measure
   – Self regulation against harmful contents
• Preparation of Electronic Fund Transfer Act (during 1998)
• Operation of EC supporting Center for SME’s
• Launching and supporting EC pilot project in the public &
  private sector
   – Risk taking and awareness elevation

                                      National Computerization Agency
Thank you !




     National Computerization Agency

				
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