GOVERNMENT OPEN DATA
OVERVIEW OF GOVERNMENT OPEN DATA
FALL 2011 CITY WORKS CAMPAIGN
Open Government Data is the free use, reuse, and redistribution by
anyone of data and information produced or commissioned by
government or government controlled entities.
Why Open Government Data?
Why should government data be open?
1. Transparency. In a well-functioning, democratic society citizens need to know what their government is
doing. To do that, they must be able freely to access government data and information and to share that
information with other citizens. Transparency isn’t just about access, it is also about sharing and reuse —
often, to understand material it needs to be analyzed and visualized and this requires that the material be open
so that it can be freely used and reused.
2. Releasing social and commercial value. In a digital age, data is a key resource for social and commercial
activities. Everything from ﬁnding your local post ofﬁce to building a search engine requires access to data,
much of which is created or held by government. By opening up data, government can help drive the creation
of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value.
3. Participatory Governance. Much of the time citizens are only able to engage with their own governance
sporadically — maybe just at an election every 4 or 5 years. By opening up data, citizens are enabled to be
much more directly informed and involved in decision-making. This is more than transparency: it’s about
making a full “read/write” society, not just about knowing what is happening in the process of governance
but being able to contribute to it.
Source: Open Government Data (http://opengovernmentdata.org)
Deﬁning the Open in Open Data
1. ACCESS 8. NO DISCRIMINATION AGAINST
FIELDS OF ENDEAVOR
9. DISTRIBUTION OF LICENSE
10. LICENSE MUST NOT BE SPECIFIC
4. ABSENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL TO A PACKAGE
11. LICENSE MUST NOT RESTRICT
5. ATTRIBUTION THE DISTRIBUTION OF OTHER
7. NO DISCRIMINATION AGAINST
PERSONS OR GROUPS
Source: Open Deﬁnition (http://opendeﬁnition.org)
1 . ACC ES S
The work shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction
cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. The work must also be
available in a convenient and modiﬁable form.
Comment: This can be summarized as ‘social’ openness – not only are you allowed to
get the work but you can get it. ‘As a whole’ prevents the limitation of access by
indirect means, for example by only allowing access to a few items of a database at a
2 . R ED IS T RI BU T I ON
The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the work either on its
own or as part of a package made from works from many different sources. The
license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale or distribution.
3 . R EU SE
The license must allow for modiﬁcations and derivative works and must allow them to
be distributed under the terms of the original work.
Comment: Note that this clause does not prevent the use of ‘viral’ or share-alike
licenses that require redistribution of modiﬁcations under the same terms as the
5 . ATT R I BUT I ON
The license may require as a condition for redistribution and re-use the attribution of
the contributors and creators to the work. If this condition is imposed it must not be
onerous. For example if attribution is required a list of those requiring attribution
should accompany the work.
6 . IN T E G RIT Y
The license may require as a condition for the work being distributed in modiﬁed form
that the resulting work carry a different name or version number from the original
7 . NO DIS C R I M I N AT I O N A GA I NS T PE R S ONS OR G ROU P S
The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
Comment: In order to get the maximum beneﬁt from the process, the maximum
diversity of persons and groups should be equally eligible to contribute to open
knowledge. Therefore we forbid any open-knowledge license from locking anybody
out of the process.
Comment: this is taken directly from item 5 of the OSD.
8 . NO DIS C R I M I N AT I O N A GA I NS T FI EL D S OF END EAV OR
The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the work in a speciﬁc ﬁeld of
endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the work from being used in a business, or
from being used for genetic research.
Comment: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent
open source from being used commercially. We want commercial users to join our
community, not feel excluded from it.
Comment: this is taken directly from item 6 of the OSD.
9 . DI S TR IB U TI O N OF L I C EN S E
The rights attached to the work must apply to all to whom it is redistributed without
the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
Comment: This clause is intended to forbid closing up knowledge by indirect means
such as requiring a non-disclosure agreement.
Comment: this is taken directly from item 7 of the OSD.
1 0. L IC EN S E M U S T N OT B E S P E CI F I C TO A PAC KAG E
The rights attached to the work must not depend on the work being part of a
particular package. If the work is extracted from that package and used or distributed
within the terms of the work’s license, all parties to whom the work is redistributed
should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original
Comment: this is taken directly from item 8 of the OSD.
1 1. L IC EN S E M U S T N OT R E S TR I C T TH E DI S TRIB UTION OF
O T HE R W O R K S
The license must not place restrictions on other works that are distributed along with
the licensed work. For example, the license must not insist that all other works
distributed on the same medium are open.
Comment: Distributors of open knowledge have the right to make their own choices.
Note that ‘share-alike’ licenses are conformant since those provisions only apply if the
whole forms a single work.
Comment: this is taken directly from item 9 of the OSD.
COUNTRIES US CITIES
WHO HAS OPEN DATA?
CASE STUDIES IN THE US AND FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
UNITED STATES IRELAND
22 COUNTRIES ESTONIA NEW ZEALAND
HAVE OPEN DATA SITES
HONG KONG UNITED KINGDOM
Alabama Louisiana Ohio
Alaska Maine Oklahoma
Arizona Maryland Oregon
Arkansas Massachusetts Pennsylvania
California Michigan Rhode Island
Colorado Minnesota South Carolina
Connecticut Mississippi South Dakota
Delaware Missouri Tennessee
Florida Montana 29/50 Texas
Georgia Nebraska Utah
Hawaii Nevada Vermont
Idaho New Hampshire Virginia
Illinois New Jersey Washington
Indiana New Mexico West Virginia
Iowa New York Wisconsin
Kansas North Carolina Wyoming
Kentucky North Dakota
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
NEW YORK, NY
SAN FRANCISCO, CA
ANN ARBOR, MI
10 US CITIES
HAVE OPEN DATA WEBSITES
GREAT WAY TO FOSTER INNOVATION BY BRINGING PEOPLE TOGETHER
APPS FOR HEALTHY KIDS
NYC BIG APPS 2.0
$40,000 APPS FOR DEMOCRACY
DESIGN FOR AMERICA
47 APPS FOR DEVELOPMENT
44 APPS FOR AMERICA 2
APPS FOR AMERICA CIVIC APPS
$10,000 APPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
2009 2010 2011
APP COMPETITIONS IN THE US
TOTAL CASH PRIZE AND NUMBER OF SUBMISSIONS BY YEAR
STEP 1 CHOOSE YOUR DATABASE
STEP 2 APPLY AN OPEN LICENSE
STEP 3 MAKE THE DATA AVAILABLE
STEP 4 MAKE IT DISCOVERABLE
4 STEPS TO OPENING GOVERNMENT DATA
OPEN DATA LICENSES
PUBLIC DOMAIN, CREATIVE COMMONS, & OPEN DATA COMMONS LICENSES
CREATIVE COMMONS CC VER 1. RELEASED CC0 RELEASED
2001 2002 2009
WITH SUPPORT FROM THE INTRODUCES MACHINE UNIVERSAL WAIVER FOR
CENTER FOR THE PUBLIC READABLE COPYRIGHT PERMANENTLY RELEASING
PUBLIC DOMAIN DOMAIN AT DUKE. LICENSES. RIGHTS TO DATABASE.
BRITISH AND FRENCH JURIST USED PDDL RELEASED
TERMS SUCH AS PUBLICI JURIS TO
DESCRIBE WORKS NOT COVERED
FIRST EVER OPEN DATA
BY COPYRIGHT LAW.
LICENSE. ODC JOINS OKF
OPEN DATA COMMONS
LEGAL TOOLS FOR OPEN
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010 2011
OPEN KNOWLEDGE FOUNDATION OPEN DATA MANUAL
OPEN DEFINITION RELEASED
VOLUNTEER POWERED NONPROFIT
DEFINING THE OPEN IN OPEN DATA, BASIC CONCEPTS AND
DEDICATED TO PROMOTING OPEN CONCRETE INFO ON OPEN DATA
OPEN CONTENT, AND OPEN SERVICES.
KNOWLEDGE FOUNDED IN UK. IN RELATION TO GOVERNMENT.
HISTORY OF OPEN DATA LICENSES
LEGAL TOOLS AND OTHER RESOURCES FOR OPENING UP GOVERNMENT DATA
Introduced by Creative
Commons in 2002.
Creative Commons Open Data Commons
To Share To Share
To Remix To Create
TERMINOLOGY - HUMAN READABLE
TERMINOLOGY USED BY CREATIVE COMMONS AND OPEN DATA COMMONS
“A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use,
reuse, and redistribute it - subject only, at most, to the
requirement to attribute and share-alike.”
Open Data Commons
Public Domain and License ATTRIBUTION SHARE-ALIKE
Open Data Commons
Open Data Commons
Database License ATTRIBUTION SHARE-ALIKE
Creative Commons CCZero
DATA LICENSES CONFORMANT TO OPEN DEFINITION
THE DATA HUB FACTUAL SOCRATA
SEATTLE, BALTIMORE, CHICAGO
RESOURCES FOR OPENING DATA
CHALLENGEPOST ENABLES PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS
TO CHALLENGE THE PUBLIC TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AND
ACCOMPLISH GOALS COLLECTIVELY.
APPS FOR HEALTHY KIDS, NYC BIG APPS, NYC BIG APPS 2.0,
APPS FOR DEVELOPMENT, APPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, MTA APPQUEST
SUNLIGHT LABS IS A NONPROFIT COMMUNITY OF OPEN
SOURCE DEVELOPERS AND DESIGNERS DEDICATED
TO OPENING UP YOUR GOVERNMENT TO MAKE IT MORE
TRANSPARENT, ACCOUNTABLE, AND RESPONSIBLE.
APPS FOR AMERICA, APPS FOR AMERICA 2, DESIGN FOR AMERICA
CIVIC COMMONS IS A NONPROFIT INITIATIVE IN NEW YORK
THAT HELPS GOVERNMENTS BUILD AND USE SHARED
TECHNOLOGIES - AROUND OPEN CODE AND OPEN DATA.