Animation and Know How to Make It Know the origin of the cartoon or animated film, animated film-making techniques, Attitude Principle Animation, Types of Animation Techniques, Film animation Dwi-meter (flat animation), this type of bi-dimension animation, Animated Tri-dimension (Object Animation) , Types of animation, software and development diIndonesia. Origins of Film Cartoon / Animation Sutu animation is a technique used in many films in the world today, both as a unified whole, part of a film, and united with the film live. Actually stems from the world of film photography, while the animation is rooted in the world picture, which is an illustration graphic design (visual communication design). Through their history, both photography and illustration gets a new dimension and form in the live and animated films. Can be said that the animation is a medium that was born of two conventions or discipline, the clan movie images. To understand the clan use animation techniques, the two conventions should be understood and to understand. Film, normally used to record a state, or suggest something. Film used to fulfill a common requirement, namely to communicate an idea, message or reality. Because of the uniqueness of its dimensions, the clan because of the nature of entertainment, the film has been accepted as one of the audio visual media are the most popular and mainstream. Because it is also regarded as the most effective media. To be able to use the film media there are two main problems to be faced, namely the technical problems clan movie suggests something technical problems or so-called premises movie presentation techniques. Likewise, there is to know in the animated film, the animated engineering problems, and engineering problems communicating something with animation techniques. Words often said to be techniques to communicate more intimate art of communicating. In reality this is very closely related to various fields of art, whether visual or verbal or teateral. For a communications planner, the event was very important to understand. A problem facing filmmakers will make movies and art techniques to make a movie. All things which are written in this discussion, not a limitation, but a way of seeing and a summary of issues that must be developed. Origins of Animation Techniques Human desire to create an image or santiran (image) that live and move as pantara of disclosure (expression), was a manifestation of the basic form of animation that life evolved. The word itself is actually animated the adjustment of the word animation, which is derived from the basic to animate, in the general English-Indonesian dictionary means turn (Wojowasito 1997). In general, animation is an activity switch, move inanimate objects; An inanimate object is given a boost of strength, spirit and emotions to be alive and moving, or just a memorable life. Actually, since ancient times, humans have tried menganimasi their motion pictures of animals, as found by the archaeologist in the Lascaux cave Northern Spain, has lived over two hundred thousand years; They are trying to capture the fast motion of running animals, such as boar, bison or horse, described by eight feet in different positions and overlap (Hallas and Manvell 1973:23). The ancient Egyptians turned their image with a sequence of images of the wrestlers who are struggling, as a wall decoration. Made around 2000 BC (Thomas 1958:8) Ancient Japanese painting shows a plot of the living, the deploying roll paintings, made in the Heian period (794-1192) (encyclopedia Americana volume 19, 1976). Then came a toy called Thaumatrope around the 19th century in Europe, a sheet of cardboard discs, picture of birds in a cage, which left his right side tied the rope, when twisted by hand will give the bird moving image santir (Laybourne 1978:18) . Until the 1880's, Jean Marey record streak portrait using a continuous motion of flying birds, a variety of human activities and other animals. A tool that became the forerunner of the growing film camera life to date. And in 1892, Emile Reynauld develop a toy called Praxinoscope ayng animation, a series of hundreds of animated images are rotated and projected on a mirror into a motion film, a forerunner of the tool in cinema projectors (Laybourne 1978:23). Both novice movie maker, came from France, the dianggapsebagai initial opening of the development of the animated film technique (Encyclopedia AmericanavoLV1, 1976:740) Ten years later after the film developed at a rapid pace of life was in the late 19th century. In 1908, Emile Cohl beginners of the French to make a simple animation of a matchstick figure. The series of images of black blabar (black line) made on a white sheet, was photographed with film negative so that the visible figure of a white and a black background. While in the United States Winsor McCay (see picture beside) animated film "Gertie the Dinosaur" in 1909. Blabar figures drawn in black with a white background. Followed in subsequent years the United States began to develop techniques animator animated films in around 1913 until the early 1920's; Max Fleischer developed a "Ko Ko The Clown" and Pat Sullivan made "Felix The Cat". The series of drawings made as simple as possible, where the figure is drawn blabar black or black shadow background blabar united with the base made of black or vice versa. McCay made a movie with the calculation formula of time, 16 times per second in motion pictures. Fleischer and Sullivan have made use of animation techniques sell, which is transparent sheets of celluloid material (Celluloid) called "cell". Other beginners in German, Lotte Reineger, in 1919 developed the animated shadows, and Bertosch of France, in 1930 to experiment with a piece of animated figures derived from pieces of wood. The following image is the character "Gertie The Dinosaurs", and "Felix the Cat" George Pal started using the doll as a figure in a short animated film, in 1934 in the Netherlands. And Alexsander Ptushko of Russian dolls length animated film "The New Gulliver" in 1935. In 1935 Len Lye from Canada, started drawing directly on the film after entering the renewal of color film through the film "Colour of Box". Technical development of the most important animated film, which is around the 1930's. Arise where the animated film voiced by Walt Disney pioneered from the United States, through the film "Mickey Mouse", "Donald Duck" and "Silly Symphony" made during the years 1928 to 1940. In 1931 Disney animated film is the first color in the film "Flowers and Trees". Cartoons and animated films Disney made the first term in 1938, the film "Snow White and Seven Dwarfs". Thus the origin of the development of animated film techniques continue to evolve with the style and characteristics of each manufacturer in various countries in Europe, the Americas and spread to countries in Asia. Especially in Japan, a cartoon developed rapidly there, until this year in the decade of animated cartoon films to master the market here with a distinctive character and style. Attitude Principle Animation Animated films come from two disciplines, namely that the film is rooted in the world of photography and animation that has its roots in the world picture. The word comes from English films that have been in Indonesianising, meaning we can see the Indonesian general dictionary: "A thin items like membrane made of celluloid portrait of four negative image (which will be played in portrait or cinema); 2 story (stories) picture of life;" (Poerwadarminfa 1984) Fundamentally a thorough understanding of the film is difficult to explain. Will be interpreted when viewed from the context: for example be used for portrait negatives or plates, the film conveys a celluloid sheet is chemically treated before it can be seen the results; or in connection with a story or play, the film conveys a picture of life or set of images moving-image into a storyline that people watch, the film that contains the basic elements of light, sound and time. While the understanding of animation we can specifically refer to the encyclopedia "Americana": "Animated, motion picture consisting of a series of hand-drawn sketches invidual, in the which the positions or gestures of the figures are varied slightly from one sketch to another. Generally, the series is the movie and, when projected on a screen, That suggest the figures are moving "(Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. V1, 1976). Animation techniques, just as alive as the film, made possible the calculation of the film that runs sequentially keceaptan between 18 to 24 images per second. Images are projected onto the screen are not actually moving, which visible is false movement, going on our senses due to small changes from one picture to another, adanaya a phenomenon that occurs when we look at, called Persistence of Vision, thereby producing an illusion of motion from our view. Unlike the movie life, the picture is taken from a photo shoot moving objects, and then analyzed one by one into a still image on every frame of celluloid. While animated films, motion pictures are created by analyzing images per image or frame by frame by the animator, and recorded images for motion pictures or motion by using stop-frame camera, a camera that uses a machine tool drive frame by frame, which is the driving tool celluloid frame by frame, the computation time required for each one second frame aperture 24 cameras to record images, motion to celluloid. Some Types of Animation Techniques Based on the material or materials used basic object animation, the general types of animation techniques are classified two major parts, bi-dimension animation (flat animation) and animated films tridimensional (object animation). Dwi-dimension animated film (flat animation) This type of animated film is entirely explained using materials that can be drawn on the surface. Called also the type of animated film image, because almost all animated objects through an image job after another. All kinds of work after another animated film is done in the field of flat or explained. Several types of bi-dimension animation films are: a. Film animation cells (Cel Technique) This animated film is the type of the basic techniques of cartoon animation (cartoon animation). This animation technique utilizing a series of images made on the sheet of transparent plastic, called a cell. Animated figures drawn on their own in the cell for each moving image change, but it is a silent part, the background (background), made for each scene, drawn larger than a sheet of elongated cells. Sheets of cells and background were given an aperture on one side, for mounting a standard page on the table when the picture animator, and a table stand when photographed. b. Direct depiction on film Unlike in other animated films, animated films this type of drawing objects using animation techniques created directly on celluloid either positive or negative, without camera stops shooting after another frame, for an artwork needs to be disclosure. Or that are experimental, look for something new. Tri-dimension animation movie (Object Animation) Overall, the type of tri-dimension animation using the same techniques work after another with a kind of bi-dimension animated film, the difference between animated objects used in the form of tri- dimension. Taking into account the character animation of objects, properties of materials used, time, light and space. To work the tri-dimension objects, although it is possible, but quite difficult to implement, because of the nature of the materials used have a limited space. Unlike other types., Animated images, free melakukanberbagai the desired movement. Based on the shape and materials used, including the type of animated films are: a. Puppet Animation (Puppet Animation) Object animation used in this animated film is the kind of dolls and other figures, is a simplification of natural forms of existing objects, made of materials that have a nature pliable (plastic) and easy to move when taking the picture frame by frame, such as wood is easily carved or engraved, cloth, paper, wax, clay, etc., to be able to create characters that are not rigid and too simple. b. Film Animation Model Tri-dimension object animation in this movie kind of macammacam form ayng not a puppet animation and the like, such as forms abstark; blocks, spheres, prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and others. Or the shape model, a pilot form of actual size, such as the shape of molecules in chemical compounds, of the globe. Form of simple animated objects, its use is not too complicated and does not require much movement, the material used consisted of wood, hard plastic and other hard materials that conformed to the character of the material properties that are owned, but by no means pliable materials are not used. Also called non-animated figure, because the whole story does not need leaders or other figures. Type of film technique that utilizes the cell sheet is a consideration of saving the image, with a separate part of the moving object animation, created several drawings as needed, and no moving parts, just made it once. c. Animation Film Cuts (Cut-out Animation) This type of animation films, including the use of the technique is simple and easy. Animated figure or object designed, drawn on a sheet of paper and then cut to the shape that has been created, and placed on a flat plane in the background. Shooting is done by directly analyzing each movement by hand, according to the demands denagn story. With simple techniques, motion animated figures or objects to be limited so limited karakternyapun anyway. Character made a separate figure, typically, consists of seven distinct parts: head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. To stimulate and animate characters, the separation is adjusted to the demands of story bias, can be made less than the earlier or more. d. Animated Shadow (Silhoutte Animation) Like the puppet show, kind of animated film uses much the same way, figure or object animation in the form of a shadow with a bright background, because the lighting is behind the layer. Used the same technique with a piece of animated film, the figure is drawn and then cut to the shape drawn and placed on a table setting in the camera holder to be photographed. The difference here, the paper used is not as animated pieces, colored paper or materials are colored according to need, while the shadow of the animated film uses all paper materials, dark or black in color, be it figure or other animated objects. e. Film Animation Collage (Collage Animation) Which is always associated with this type of film animation is a technique that is free to develop our desire to move objects at will in the table animation camera stand. The technique is simple and easy with few ingredients that can be used; pieces of paper, portrait, pictures, letters or combination of these. Images and a variety of materials used, arranged in such a way as last amended by berangsurangsur to form a new arrangement, with each change in embedding photographed by the camera into a form of animated films that are free. Development of an enterprise, a network diagram in the body of organisms, making the film credits roll in a story and so forth. Use of Animation Film The use of animated movies as a form of pantara way impaired (audio visual medium), is quite an important role in spreading the message or idea to be conveyed to the public. Animated films are used in: A. Commercial television; Film animation is used for commercial purposes, such as Wan films on television, as an insert in between the events television program, a short message to the viewer as the film and entertainment. 2. Cinema; film animation as a movie can be a long story, short films, and film inserts for the Man in the cinema. 3. Government Services; Film animation is used as a propaganda film, film information and education. 4. Company; animated films are used as a public relations (PR) such as: film lighting, film education and propaganda films or film Man product introductions. Types of Animation Animation that used to have a simple principle, has now evolved into several types, namely: 2D animation, 3D animation, clay animation (Clay Animation), Japanese Animation (Anime). a. Animation 2D (2 Dimension) Animation is the most familiar with our daily life. Usually called the cartoons. Cartoon Cartoon word itself comes from, which means the image is funny. Indeed, most of the cartoons was a funny movie. For example many, both on TV and in cinema. For example: Looney Tunes, Pink Panther, Tom and Jerry, Scooby Doo, Doraemon, Mulan, Lion King, Brother Bear, Spirit, and more. Although most of the popular Disney movie, but rather as the father of Walt Disney animated cartoon. Another example is Felix The Cat, the black cat. Age of the cat was already quite old, he was created by Otto Messmer in 1919. But unfortunately, due to poor distribution, so it is hard to find movies. Compare with Walt Disney that still exist such as Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs (1937) and Pinocchio (1940). b. Animation 3D (3 dimensions) Development of computer technology and 3D animation makes the technique is growing and thriving. 3D animation is the development of 2D animation. With 3D animation, the characters are shown more vivid and real, close to the original human form. Made since Toy Story Disney (Pixar Studios), the world's film studio berlombalombalah produce similar films. Sprang up, Bugs Life, AntZ, Dinosaurs, Final Fantasy, Toy Story 2, Monsters Inc., Up to Finding Nemo, The Incredible, Shark Tale. Cars, Valian. All of them also called 3D animation or CGI (Computer Generated Imagery). c. Clay animation (Clay Animation) Said the man, though now its time Pizza and Steak, but sometimes we still miss with traditional dishes such as vegetable tamarind. The phrase is suitable for Clay Animation animation. This species is most often we have heard and found among other types. Though this is not animation techniques including new techniques such as Toy Story 3D animation opens a new era. In fact, arguably animated ancestors. Because the first animation in the form of CIayAnimation. Although the name clay (clay), which used clay is not unusual. This animation using plasticin, pliable material such as bubble gum found in 1897. Figures in Clay animation is created by using a special frame to frame her body, then the framework is covered with figures plasficine appropriate form to be made. Body parts of this framework, such as heads, hands, feet, sinfulness removed and installed again. Once the characters are ready, and then photographed movements per movement. The images are then combined into an image that moves as we watch the film. Clay animation is one type of Stop-motion picture. First Clay Animation movie was released in February 1908 titled, A Welsh Rarebit Nightmare sculptors. For quite some time ago also, outstanding clay films titled Chicken Run. d. Japanese animation (Anime) The films discussed above are mostly made in America and Europe. However, Japan was no less a matter of animation. Japan has a lot to produce anime (Japanese term for animation). In contrast to American animation, Japanese anime is not all destined for the children, there is even a special adult. Talk about anime, there is a legendary figure, namely Dr. Osamu Tezuka. He created Tetsuwan Atom or better known as Astro Boy. Such as American or European animation, Anime is also composed of several types, but the difference is not how to make it, but the format, the television series, OVA, and movie theaters. Animation Maker Software In the market now has many outstanding softwarwe animation maker, be it 2D or 3D. For more details see the list below which is based on the criteria. 2 Dimensional Animation Software: Macromedia Flash, CoRETAS, Corel RAVE, After Effects, Moho, CreaToon, ToonBoom, Autodesk Animaton (1990) etc. 3-D Animation Software: Maya, 3D Studio Max, Maxon Cinema 4 D, Lightwave, Softlmage, Poser, Motion Builder, Hash Animation Master, Wings 3D, Carrara, Infini-D, d Canoma Developments In Indonesia Animation What about the development of animation in Indonesia alone? In the 1980s, there are animated films Indonesian products so that the Huma television series that became a favorite of children in those days. In 2004, a history of per-Animasian Indonesia with length feature film made the first 3D animation by Studio invisible Jogja in collaboration with The Children's Vision Pimp Nation. Garin Nugroho, a 3D animated film "Homeland" with director Gangsar Waskito.