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The Rise of Realism (PowerPoint download)

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					The Civil
  War
   to
  1914
A break from Romanticism is any
effort to portray life as it truly is. In
the middle of the 19th century, kings
and queens, warriors and knights,
demonic cats, ghosts, sea creatures,
and monsters gave way to farmers,
merchants, lawyers, laborers, and
bakers.
Future years will never know the
 seething hell and the black infernal
 background of the countless minor
 scenes and interiors… and it is best
 they should not– the real war will
 never get in the books.
                  --Walt Whitman
   Born into slavery, coast of Maryland

   Separated from his mother soon after birth

   Did not know how old he really was (since
    birth records were not kept for children
    born into slavery

   Learned how to read with help of the
    members of the household he served

   Became furious when they caught him
    reading a newspaper (they decided that
    education was incompatible with being
    enslaved

   Escaped to Massachusetts, got married
   In 1845, Douglass went to England, b/c of the danger he faced as a
    fugitive, especially after the publication of his autobiography
    “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave”

   In England, mobilized antislavery sentiment (attitudes or feelings
    toward an opinion)

   British bought his freedom for $700

   1847, returned to U.S., founded a newspaper “North Star” -Name
    was chosen because escapees used this star as a guide north

   In 1855, revised his life story called “My Bondage and My
    Freedom”
   Wrote escape narratives, which were
    influential in the abolitionist cause

   When the Civil War began, he worked
    hard for the Underground Railroad (the
    secret network of abolitionists that helped
    many people held in slavery escape to the
    North)

   Helped recruit black soldiers for the Union
    Armies

   Continuing to write and lecture after the
    war, he argued that the surest way to
    rehabilitate his tragically scarred people
    was through education
   Lived an extraordinary life, was a slave,
    fugitive, abolitionist, author and mother

   Born into slavery, in Edenton, NC

   Orphaned at 6, and her 1st mistress took her
    into her home and trained as a house servant

   Learned how to read and write (vital skills
    usually forbidden to slaves)

   1st mistress died-”willed” to the niece and sent
    to home of Dr. Norcom

   Refused Dr. Norcom’s (repeated harassment)
    advances, so sent her to a plantation for hard
    labor and he threatened to send her 2 children
    as well.
   Escaped from the plantation, went to
    grandmother’s house in Edenton

   Hid in a tiny crawl space above the
    storeroom, for 7 years

   Occupied her time by reading (mainly the
    Bible), writing, sewing and catching
    treasured glimpses of her children

   All she wanted was freedom-escaped to
    NY in 1842, worked as a nursemaid and
    eventually reunited with her children

   Spent next 10 years as a fugitive

   In 1852, finally gained her freedom-her
    employer and friend bought it for $300
    In 1861, published her life story
     “Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl,
     Written by Herself” under the pen name
     Linda Brent

    Cover page said:
    “Northerners know nothing at all about Slavery.
     They think it is perpetual bondage only. They
     have no conception of the depth of degradation
     involved in that word, Slavery; if they had, they
     would never cease their efforts until so horrible a
     system was overthrown”


    Its raw facts of experience told with skill
     and honesty, with chilling firsthand look
     at the particular plight of someone who
     was both a woman and a slave.
   After publication of her book, became active in
    the abolitionist movement

   During the Civil War, she worked to relieve the
    poverty and suffering of other former slaves

   Distributed clothes and supplies, and raised
    money

   Helped establish schools and orphanages in
    Philadelphia, New York, Washington, D.C.,
    Alexandria, and Savannah.

   Died on March 7, 1897-she was about 80 years
    old- in Washington D.C.
   Born in 1842, in Ohio, 10th of 13
    children, with an unsuccessful farmer
    for a father

   Educated himself through exploring
    his father’s small library

   At 19, joined the 9th Indiana
    Volunteers, and saw the bloody Civil
    War battles of Shiloh and
    Chickamauga.

   He was severely wounded and cited
    for bravery no fewer than 15 times

   After the war ended, he reenlisted, but
    several years of peacetime left him
    discouraged about his prospects
   Wrote witty short pieces to the city’s weeklies

   Lived in England for 4 years where he edited and contributed
    to humor magazines

   Was a harsh critic, his disillusionment with the deceit and
    greed of his times continued to spur his pen and earned him
    the nickname “Bitter Bierce”

   Wrote with an attitude of scorn for all the sentimental
    illusions human beings cling to

   His dark vision of life centers on warfare and the cruel joke it
    plays on humanity
   Wrote “The Devil’s Dictionary” (First
    published in 1906 as “The Cynic’s
    Word Book”)
    -Defined war as a “byproduct of the arts of
    peace” and defined peace as “a period of
    cheating between two periods of fighting”

   Best known for his short story “An
    Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge”

   Had distinctive style of writing: a cold
    open, use of dark imagery, vague
    references to time, limited description,
    war-themed pieces, and use of
    impossible events
    Wasn’t satisfied with life, so in 1913
     went to Mexico to report on or join the
     revolution

    Wrote to his friends:
    “Goodbye, If you hear of my being stood up
     against a Mexican stone wall and shot to
     rags please know that I think it a pretty
     good way to depart this life. It beats old age,
     disease, or falling down the cellar stairs.”

    No further word was ever heard from
     him again; becoming one of the most
     famous disappearances in American
     literary history
   Grew up in up-state NJ, youngest of 14
    children, of a Methodist minister and his
    devout wife.

   Attended Lafayette College and Syracuse
    University

   At 16, took a job at his brother’s news
    agency in NJ; later, working as a reporter
    in NYC

   Drawn to the city’s underside; he called
    it his “artistic education” on Skid Row;
    left him hungry and often ill
   First significant fiction, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) was a
    somber, shocking novel based on his explorations of the city’s
    slums and saloons

   Maggie: A Girl of the Streets did not sell well- too grim of a novel

   Considered pioneer of Naturalism

   Wrote the short novel “The Red Badge of Courage” published
    in 1895– filtered the events of the novel through the eyes of
    Henry Fleming, a young soldier in the Civil War; made him a
    celebrity and a national expert on war, even though he had
    never been in battle
   He traveled often and had many
    adventures; 1896, sailed from FL to Cuba
    and shipwrecked and endured a 30 hour
    struggle at sea

   Took up with a hotel waitress; went to
    Greece as war correspondents, and settled
    in England

   In 1899, produced 2nd volume of poems
    “War is Kind”

   Tuberculosis was sapping his strength

                                                Crane in Greece, 1897
   Died in June 1900, at the age of 28
   Born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, in the
    backwoods of Missouri

   Family moved to Hannibal, Missouri (the
    Mississippi River town that would later
    be the setting of the most renowned
    boyhood of American literature, that of
    Tom Sawyer)

   His father died when Samuel was 12,
    went to work setting type and editing
    copy for newspaper started by his older
    brother

   At 18, he spent the next 15 years working
    as a printer in various towns
   Smitten by Mississippi's magical
    steamboats; he apprenticed himself to the
    great steamboat pilot Horace Bixby

   Steamboat’s leadsman’s cry of “Mark
    Twain”-announcing a water depth of 2
    fathoms (12 ft)-provided Sam with a pen
    name

   Served in the Civil War with a company of
    Confederate irregulars, soon abandoned
    the military and became a gold prospector.

   Found little gold, but discovered the rich
                                                 Mississippi steamboats 1902
    mine of storytelling within himself

   With his Missouri drawl and relaxed
    manner, captivated audiences; coarseness
    and absurdity was embedded in his
    material (storytelling)
   He is the most celebrated humorist in American history

   The great humorist is also, ironically, our great realist

   First major author to come from the interior of the country; he
    captured its distinctive and humorous slang

   Wrote Tom Sawyer

   Wrote Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which behind the
    backwoods humor there is a revelation of the illusions that exist in
    American life.
     -Huck’s journey on the raft with the escaped slave Jim is not a
     “hymn to boyhood,” but a dramatization of the grim realities of a
      slaveholding society
   His style, based on vigorous, realistic,
    colloquial American speech, gave
    American writers a new application of
    their national voice

   Although he became remarkably
    successful, his later life was shadowed
    by disappointment and tragedy.

   As he grew older, he turned into a
    bitter man

   He once said “Everyone is a moon and
    has a dark side which he never shows
                                               Twain in 1909
    to anybody”
   Born Katherine O’Flaherty in St. Louis,
    Missouri, to Irish immigrant father and
    a mother descended from French Creole
    aristocrats.

   Her parents encouraged her early
    interest in music and reading

   Married Oscar Chopin; settled in
    Louisiana and reared their 6 kids

   Oscar died of swamp fever, when she
    was 31

   Published a poem at age 38; In 1890,
    published her first novel
   Short stories, published in national magazines and collected in two volumes
    called Bayou Folk (1894) and A Night in Acadie (1897) were about the life of
    French Creoles in Louisiana

   Was praised for their accurate portrayal of the French Creole strand in
    American culture

   Dominant theme, the repression of women in Victorian America, was a
    controversial matter; this theme presented in her novel The Awakening (1899)
       -In this novel, a dissatisfied New Orleans wife breaks from the
       confines of her marriage and, in her quest for freedom, flagrantly
       defies the Victorian ideals of motherhood and domesticity;


   Friends shunned her and local art clubs denied her membership

   Novel remove from circulation in St. Louis, American critics condemned it as
    sordid and vulgar; her writing languished and she produced very little before
    her death in 1904
   After her death, her books were
    hard to find

   The Awakening and many of her
    other works were rediscovered
    decades after her death

   Never lived to see her work
    vindicated

   With the help of discerning critics
    and the women’s movement of the
    1960s and 1970s, she is now
    recognized as a novelist of skill and
    perception, whose work appeared
    half a century before its time
   Born in what is now Oregon

   Became the symbol of heroic spirit of the Nez
    Perce of the Pacific Northwest

   Became renowned as a humanitarian and
    peacemaker

   In 1850, U.S. officials drew up treaties removing
    American Indians from their lands and resettling
    them on small reservations

   He refused to sign; U.S. responded with force;
    Chief Joseph and people were drawn into battle

   Eventually and reluctantly agreed, hoping to
    avoid bloodshed, moved from their native
    Wallowa Valley in Oregon to the Lapwai
    Reservation in Idaho
   Learned 3 of his men killed a group of white settlers; feared retaliation;
    Attempted to escape to Canada with a few hundred warriors and their
    families

   Led a retreat of more than a 1000 miles through Oregon, Washington,
    Idaho, and Montana; within 40 of the Canadian border before
    exhaustion and near starvation forced them to stop.

   The Nez Perce surrendered and taken to a barren reservation in Indian
    Territory (now a part of Oklahoma) where many became sick and died.

   Chief went to Washington D.C. twice to plead to President Roosevelt
    for the return of his people to their ancestral home.

   In 1885, the Nez Perce were moved to Colville Reservation in
    Washington State, but they were never allowed to return to the
    Wallowa Valley; Chief Joseph died in Colville on Sept. 21, 1904
                 “I Will Fight No More Forever”

Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before, I have in
my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is
dead. Toohoolhoolzote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young
men who say yes and no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold
and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My
people, some of them, have run away to the hills and have no blankets, no
food; no one knows where they are– perhaps freezing to death. I want to
have time to look for my children and see how many I can find. Maybe I
shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs, I am tired; my heart
is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more
forever
                                Chief Joseph

				
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