World War II The Road to War by yurtgc548

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									World War II: The
  Road to War
   The Rise of Dictators




                           1
    Warm - up
Who was known as “Der Führer ”?

 Define the National Socialist
  German Workers’ Party -




                                  2
        Warm - up
             Match the following;
1.Hitler                 a. Britain
2. Stalin                b. Spain
3. Mussolini             c. Germany
4. Chamberlain           d. USSR
5. Franco                e. Italy
6. Churchill             f. US




                                      3
         Totalitarinism
►Government     exerts total
 control over a nation
►Dominates every aspect
 of life – using terror
   Examples: Hitler,
    Mussolini, and Stalin



                               4
               Fascism
► Emphasizes    the importance of the nation
  or an ethnic group and supreme authority
  of the leader
► Vicious form of communism
► Relies upon a strong, dictatorial
  government
► Doesn’t respect individual rights and
  freedoms
► Historically, Fascism and Communism are
  fierce enemies
                                               5
Stalin’s Mass Genocide




                         6
Joseph Stalin - Soviet Union
►Took power after Lenin’s death (1924)
►Launched plan to modernize
 agriculture and the building of new
 industries
   Encouraged family farms to combine
    and a huge collective of farms (owned
    and run by the state)
   Faced resistance – forced peasants off
    their land in the 1920’s
                                             7
Stalin – More resistance
►Punished   resistant farmers
  Confiscated much or all their food
  Millions die from starvation or move to
   the cities
  Millions are forced to work in labor
   camps in Siberia (Brrrrr…50 below)
  Consequence: production fell
   dramatically, food shortages, forced
   rationing                                 8
 Stalin – Reign of Terror
►Efforts   to gain political domination
   Purges: process of removing enemies
    and undesirables from power
   “Purified” the Communist Party by
    getting rid of all of his opponents
   The Great Purge (1934-1939): 7 million
    arrested, 1 million executed, millions
    ended up in labor camps
   Very Successful
                                             9
Mussolini – Italy




                    10
       Mussolini - Italy
►WWI   wounded vet
►Believed strongly that the Versailles
 Treaty should have granted Italy
 more territory
►Attracted support from dissatisfied
 war vets, opponents of the monarchy,
 Socialists, and anarchists
►Formed Fascist party
                                     11
    Mussolini – Il Duce
►Relied  on gangs, blackshirts, to
 terrorize those who opposed him
►Threatened to march on Rome … king
 panicked and appointed him prime
 minister
  Vowed to end Italy’s economic
   problems
  Suspended elections, outlawed political
   parties, and established dictatorship
                                             12
    Mussolini’s Empire
►Ultimate  dream was to restore the
 Roman Empire
►“The country is nothing w/o
 conquest”
►October 1935: invaded Ethiopia using
 warplanes and poison gas
►“Italy finally has its empire”
                                    13
Hitler – Germany




                   14
      Hitler - Germany
►Austrianpainter & WWI wounded vet
►Enraged by terms of WWI peace
 settlement
  Stripped Germany of land and colonies
  Burden of debt
  War-guilt clause – Germany had to take
   blame for WWI

                                            15
     Hitler – Nazi Party
►1919  joined National Socialist German
 Workers’ Party (Nazi Party)
►Nazism: form of fascism shaped by
 Hitler’s fanatical ideas about
 Germany nationalism and racial
 superiority


                                      16
  Hitler – The Charismatic
            Leader
►Powerful  speaker
►1923: tried to overthrow gov’t. …
 Sentenced to 5 yrs. in prison
   Wrote Mein Kampf, an autobiography,
    views on Germany’s problems and
    plans for the nation
   Wanted to purify Germany – removing
    the undesirables
   Promised to stabilize the economy after
    depression                                17
       Hitler becomes
         Chancellor
►1932: Nazi party is largest group in
 the Reichstag
►1932: Hitler placed 2nd in presidential
 race
►1933: made chancellor – head of
 German government
   Suspended freedom of speech an press
   Used storm troopers to wage violent
    campaign
                                           18
    Hitler – Der Führer
►Nazi Party dominates the Reichstag in
 the March elections
  3 weeks later Reichstag mysteriously
   burns down – Hitler blames the
   Communists
  Parliament passes an Enabling Bill to
   give him dictatorial powers
  August 1934: becomes both chancellor
   and president
   ►Gave   himself the title of Der Führer
                                             19
Reichstag
 German
 Capital




       20
      Germany Rearms
►Secretly started spending money on
 rearmament and expansion army
 (violated Treaty of Versailles)
►Put unemployed back to work
   Autobahn and massive public buildings
             prospered and
►1936: Industry
 brought Germany out of the
 Depression

                                            21
   Increasing National
          Pride
►Lebenstraum: “Living   Space”
   Belief that Germans needed more
    territory
   Goal: conquer Eastern Europe and
    Soviet Union
   March 7, 1936: German Troops entered
    the Rhineland (Violated Treaty of
    Versailles)
                                           22
   Breakin’ the Law & No
        Response
►Reality: Germany isn’t
 ready for war
►France & G.B. didn’t
 respond to his violations
►1936: Hitler signs an
 alliance w/Mussolini (Axis
 Powers)
                              23
        Germany Expands
►1938: Hitler   invades “Auschluss”
 (Austria)
   Austrian chancellor refused to surrender
   Most Austrians warmly welcome Nazis
►Oct.1938: Hitler demands the
 Sudetenland (Western Czechoslovakia)
   Munich Council: France & G.B. pursued a policy
    of appeasement to maintain peace
   France was bound to protect Czech. – Problem:
    No one consulted them about the takeover
                                                 24
25
Sudetenland




              26
Franco – Spain




                 27
  Franco - Spanish Civil
           War
►General  Francisco Franco led
 Nationalists (rebels) vs. Republicans
 (newly elected gov’t.)
►Franco creates military dictatorship
►Germany provided planes, tanks, and
 soldiers to the Nationalists
►Soviet Union sent arms and supplies
 to the Republicans
                                     28

								
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