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Whats All The Fuss About


									 What Caused It?
A singularity formed by a previous
 collapsed Universe?
Multiple Universes?
We just don’t know… YET
    What Happened?
        AND How?
 96% of our universe seems to be
 We don’t know what it’s made from?
 Dark Matter? It seems to exist but
  scientists have no idea what it
  actually is.
Scientists Believe They Can
        Look Back To

 seconds after the moment of creation

   You would have needed a
     microscope to see it!
What is this…?
What is it…?
 A theory of how the universe works.
 A description of how the fundamental
  particles that make up all matter interact
  with each other.
 12 fundamental particles
 4 fundamental forces
Fundamental Forces
Force             Range      Strength           Acts between:
STRONG FORCE      10-15 m    Strongest          Quarks

ELECTROMAGNETIC No limit     Stronger than WF   Charged
WEAK FORCE        10-18 m    Stronger than G    Fundamental
GRAVITY           No limit   Weakest            All objects
 According to the SM, matter can be divided
 into 3 blocks:
         FERMIONS

         BOSONS

         HADRONS
• Subatomic particles that make known
matter and antimatter.

• Consists of QUARKS and LEPTONS.

  • Found in the nuclei of atoms   • Not found in nuclei
  • Mainly make up protons and     • e.g. electrons
 Bosons are particles that carry forces.

•There are 4 known bosons:
         • GLUON: strong force
         • W & Z: weak force
         • PHOTON: electromagnetic force, and
           operates over an infinite distance.

operates over an infinite distance.
 Hadrons are composite particles made up
  of quarks, e.g. protons and neutrons.
 These can be found in the nucleus of an
Large Hadron collider
What's All The Fuss

• Was built to help scientists answer
  key questions
• May reveal some unexpected results
What Are these “Unresolved
1) What is mass?
• What is the origin of mass?
• Why do tiny particles weigh the amount they
• Why do some particles have no mass at all?
• The most likely explanation could be the
  Higgs boson
• First hypothesized in 1964,
• It has yet to be observed.
An Invisible Problem...

2) What is 96% of the universe made of?
• Matter forms 4% of the Universe.
• The rest, Dark matter and dark energy?
• Investigating this 96% is one of the biggest
  challenges today in the fields of particle
  physics and cosmology.
Nature's Favoritism...
3) Why is there no more antimatter?
• Everything we see in the Universe is made of
• Antimatter has opposite electric charge, but
  identical in every other way.
• At the birth of the Universe, more matter than
  antimatter was produced in the Big Bang.


 Why does Nature appear to have this bias for
           matter over antimatter?
Secrets of the Big Bang
4) What was matter like within the first second
  of the Universe’s life?
• Matter is believed to have originated from
  fundamental particles.
• Today, the composition of matter comes down to
• During the first microseconds after the Big Bang
  the Universe would have contained quark–gluon
Large Hadron Collider
•   The world’s largest and most powerful particle
•   38,000 tonnes
•   27 km ring of superconducting magnets
•   Number of accelerating structures to boost the energy
    of the particles along the way
•   9300 magnets
•   Trillions of protons racing around the LHC ring at over
    11000 times a second.
•   Traveling at 99.99% of the speed of light.
•   600 million collisions every second
What Goes On Inside???
 Inside the accelerator,
   • Two beams close to the speed of light
   • Very high energies
   • Beams travel in opposite directions
   • Guided by a strong magnetic field.
   • Chilling the magnets to about -271°C
              A temperature colder than outer
   • Temperatures up to 1000 times hotter than the
     centre of the Sun!
The accelerator complex
When will it Launch?
• First need to cool the machine down to almost
  absolute zero
• If there is a problem with the machine can cause
  a delay of up to 3 months.

LHC is on course for a start-up as early as this
World Ending?
 Concerns about the safety of the high
 energy particle collisions.
     • Mini black holes
     • Mini Big Bangs

Overall no reasons for concern!
The key to Mass
What Is Higgs?
 A few years ago scientists hit a problem, they
  could not explain how mass exists!
 They came up with the Higgs mechanism
 The Higgs mechanism is the unproven
  quantum phenomenon that gives massless
  particles mass.
The Higgs Field– a simple explanation
In this explanation the famous person is a particle and the
people are the Higgs field.
Imagine a Hollywood party. In the
beginning the people are evenly
distributed in the room.

                                    When someone famous walks into the
                                    room the people are attracted to them.

 As the famous person moves through the
 room they gain momentum, this is an
 indication of mass.
The Higgs Particle– A Simple Explanation
In this explanation the people in the room are Higgs Bosons

                            Imagine the same Hollywood party. In
                            the beginning everyone is spread
                            evenly in the room.

   Then someone starts a rumour at the
   door and a few people hear it and
   group together.

                         As the rumour moves through the
                         room it gains momentum and
                         therefore it has gained mass.
     Higgs at the LHC
If the Higgs exists,
the LHC can
transfer more than
enough energy to
detect it.

Even if the Higgs
is proven incorrect,
the LHC will find
Whatever the LHC
finds will be

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