AIDS and Educational Drama by mohasoha8




                                                 By Soile Salo

National Institute for Educational Development
                                                                 REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA
         HIV / AIDS



Resource material for teachers
        Grades 4 - 12
National Institute for Educational Development (NIED)
Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture
Private Bag 2034

© Copyright NIED, Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture, 2001.
Soile Salo has right to translate this material into Finnish and has copyright for the Finnish

ISBN 99916-58-29-7

Printed by NIED

Publication date: May 2001

Acknowledgements:            Author:              Soile Salo
                             Language editor: Karen Berger and Carolyn Lewis
                             Illustrater:         Amali Maritz (not pages 11 and 13) and Rita Maritz
                                                  (ribbon frames)
                             Layout:              Maggie Gawanas
                             Cover:               Maggie Gawanas and Elsie Hendricks

Any part of this manual may be copied for teaching purposes in Namibia, as long as clear indication
of the source is given and it is not used for commercial purposes.

Thanks to:
      * Skillshare International and Embassy of Finland for economical support.
      * Lifeline / Childline for borrowing their staff for the piloting project.
      * Learners from Okahandja for piloting the material.
      * Erkki Laakso and Karen Berger for giving comments and ideas.
      * Hertha Pomuti for giving pedagogical feedback and comments.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................1

PART I: Basic Info ................................................................................................................4
  BASIC FACTS ABOUT HIV/AIDS...............................................................................4
    * What is HIV ................................................................................................................4
    * What is AIDS..............................................................................................................4
    * How do you get HIV/AIDS?....................................................................................5
    * How can I prevent HIV infection? .........................................................................5
    *What can I do if I think I have HIV or AIDS?...................................................6
    ... and if you find out that you have HIV or AIDS ... ............................................6
    * How do I know that somebody has HIV or AIDS? ............................................7
    * Taking care of somebody who has HIV /AIDS...................................................7

PART II: Warm ups...............................................................................................................8
  WARM UP EXERCISES....................................................................................................8
   Learn to know each other ............................................................................................9
   Seeing .............................................................................................................................10
   Feeling ............................................................................................................................11
   Imagine that... ..............................................................................................................11

PART III: Drama ideas ......................................................................................................12
  BEFORE YOU START... ..................................................................................................12
  “SOMETIMES THE BEST ANSWER IS “NO!” ........................................................14
    “MY OPINION IS IMPORTANT” ...........................................................................17
    “NEED TO SAY NO” ...................................................................................................22
    ”MARIA” ........................................................................................................................36
    “HELP ME, PLEASE” ....................................................................................................41

PART IV: Drama forms.......................................................................................................45
  DIFFERENT WAYS TO DO DRAMA ..........................................................................45

PART V: Something extra..................................................................................................49
  ASSERTIVE, AGGRESSIVE OR PASSIVE................................................................49
  HOW TO MAKE A MIND-MAP? ..................................................................................51

                   Teaching HIV/AIDS related issues are a big challenge to all teachers.

                   Sometimes it is easy, but then there are days when you feel that you do
                   not know what to do next. This book will give you some ideas on how to
                   teach HIV/AIDS related issues. It will not focus on the basic facts only.

                   The aim is to go a little bit deeper with a few HIV/AIDS related issues.
                   For example exploring the issues around having someone in your

                   neighbourhood with HIV/AIDS. If you feel that you would like to have
                   more information about teaching the basic facts of HIV/AIDS, there

                   are lots of books available, e.g. NIED’s publication       “Teaching About

                   AIDS Made Easy”.

Aims of the book   The first aim of this book is to provide tools for teachers to use

                   educational drama in their classroom. We use HIV/AIDS as the subject,
                   but the technique is transferable to other subjects. It is possible to use
                   educational drama to explore many issues and subjects. The material in

                   this book is suitable for grade 4 -12 learners.

                   The other aim of this book is to offer information and experiences on
                   HIV/AIDS. If your learners already know the basic information about
                   HIV/AIDS, the exercises in this book will help them to deepen their

I Basic info       This book consists of five different parts. The first part contains very
                   basic information about HIV/AIDS. This is very important information

                   for you as a teacher to know before you set up a drama situation that
                   relates to AIDS issues. Maybe you already know the information, but it
                   is still good to revise the Basic Info pages. When you are doing

                   educational drama about HIV/AIDS it is important to come back to the
                   info pages every now and then. If you feel that you need more
                   information than you can find in this book, try a local clinic or counselling

                   organisation or books and magazines.

II Warm ups        The second part gives directions for warm up exercises. It is essential to

                   do warm up exercises before the actual drama, especially if educational

                   drama is new to your learners.

 III Drama scripts   The third part consists of scripts for different kinds of drama
                     situations. The scripts include objectives for the lesson, a script for the
                     drama and some guidelines for the discussion. The themes in the drama
                     scripts are different but all of them teach something about HIV/AIDS.

 IV Drama forms      The fourth part of the book provides more information about the
                     different kind of drama forms.

 V Something extra   The last part provides extra information which might help you when you
                     are preparing lessons. You can use this information during the drama

                     situations and during the discussions.

EDUCATIONAL          Educational drama is a form of drama where everybody can participate.
DRAMA AS A           Role-playing is maybe the best-known form of educational drama, but
                     there are other drama methods. Drama situations in this book are not
                     only for an audience, but also for those who are doing the acting.

                     Educational drama is not drama as performance art, it is drama used as a
                     learning tool. To produce educational drama one does not need to be an
                     actor, actress or artist.

 How do we learn?    People learn things in different ways: Some learn by listening, some by
                     reading, some by seeing and some by doing. How could we organise

                     something for all these different kinds of learners?
                     Educational drama may be one answer.

                     Educational drama can be an effective way of learning. It provides

                     opportunities to listen, speak, think, feel, find out and be in the middle of
                     the situations. It provides an opportunity to learn by feeling. Learning
                     takes place during the drama process and after the process.

                     Especially with sensitive issues it is fruitful to have a “hands on” way of
                     dealing with the issue and drama provides a way to have that experience.
                     If you don’t know a lot about being very sick or being very afraid,

                     educational drama can provide situations where you can feel and

                   experience something like that. But you can do it safely in the drama,

                   because it is not real life, it is imagined.

Discussion         Discussion is an important component of drama. It is important to
                   remember that discussion after a drama reinforces what has been

                   experienced during the drama process. You cannot skip over the
                   discussion. The discussion helps learners to learn something about the
                   issue. It helps learners to understand the drama they were just

                   participating   in   better.   Discussion      allows   hearing   about   others’
                   experiences and one can always learn from others.

                   I hope that you and your learners will enjoy doing some drama and, at the

                   same time, learn something important about HIV/AIDS, and maybe even
                   something about life.

How to read this   One way to read this book is from the beginning to the end. It is possible
                   that it is not the best way. It is possible that while you are reading, say
                   part three you want to jump to some other parts to check something. You
                   will probably discover for yourself what is the best way to read this

                 PART I: Basic Info

                 This chapter contains basic information about HIV/AIDS.        You could

                 spend some time with your class to study this information. Throughout
                 the following drama sessions you will need to know some of this
                 information, you will learn more about issues and you will gain a deeper

                 understanding of them. As a teacher you can use this information,

                 especially during discussions after drama sessions.

* What is HIV

                 HIV is a virus; its full name is Human Immunodefficiency Virus. There
                 are lots and lots of viruses in the world. A virus is a small “germ” which
                 you cannot see without a powerful microscope. Viruses cause different
                 diseases. Some viruses cause flu and some cause diarrhoea. HIV is the
                 virus that causes AIDS.

                 HIV fights the body’s immune system. It gradually makes the immune
                 system weaker and weaker. It can take years before the immune system
                 is so weak that it breaks down. The immune system is the body’s security

                 guard. It makes sure that the body can fight against disease. There is no
                 medicine or treatment to remove HIV when it is inside the body. There
                 are no medical doctors, no herbalists, no witchdoctors, no traditional
                 healers or anybody else who can take the virus away. Currently there is

                 nothing you can do to get rid of it!

                 A person who has got HIV can look and feel perfectly healthy for

                 many years. However, s/he is still carrying the virus and can transmit it
                 to others.

* What is AIDS

                 When the immune system breaks down, HIV causes the disease called

                 AIDS. When a person has AIDS, the immune system cannot protect the
                 body against any diseases. AIDS is a fatal disease. There are no
                 medicines or treatment to cure AIDS. If you have AIDS you will die

                  from it. There are no medical doctors, no herbalists, no witchdoctors, no

                  traditional healers or anyone else who can cure AIDS.

                  AIDS is a disease that makes regular flu or other common sicknesses
                  very dangerous. Somebody who has got AIDS might die from the flu. The

                  body’s immune system is too weak to fight against flu, therefore regular
                  flu turns to pneumonia and it is very dangerous for the weakened body.

* How do you get HIV/AIDS?

                  In short, AIDS is the result of HIV levels reaching a certain height.

                  You can get the HIV virus from HIV-infected people. These infected
                  people could be anyone: poor or rich, white, coloured or black, a Namibian
                  or a foreigner, your friend, a stranger or a family member.

                  HIV lives in the body fluids of an infected person. You should avoid
                  contact with those body fluids. The three ways of getting HIV are:

                              a) Through unprotected sex with an infected person - this
                              means sex without a condom. If the condom breaks it is
                              possible for the virus to be transferred.

                              b) Through infected blood. A needle containing infected
                              blood, a razor or another sharp object that has been used by
                              an infected person can prick you. It is also possible to get
                              HIV from a blood transfusion, though nowadays donated

                              blood is thoroughly screened in Namibia.

                              c) Mother to child. HIV infected woman can infect their
                              baby during birth or through breast milk.

* How can I prevent HIV infection?

                  Most things in everyday life are safe to do with somebody who has
                  HIV. We can live in the same house and we can touch and hold. We can
                  cook together, we can eat the same food and we can share cups and
                  plates. We can use the same toilet and the same swimming pool. We can

                  play sport and we can work together. We cannot get infected from
                  sneeze or cough. We do not get HIV from insect bites either.

                   By avoiding HIV you will also avoid AIDS.

                   The most common way to get HIV is through sexual contact.
                   You can avoid HIV infection if you:
                   a) Avoid sex, abstain. This means that you do not have sex at all.
                   b) Both should be faithful. Have sex with only one partner who is

                   uninfected with HIV and who is faithful. Both of you should go for a HIV
                   test.   Do not have casual sex. Do not have sex with many different
                   partners. Do not have sex with somebody who has different partners.

                   c) Safer sex. This means that each time you have sex, you should use a
                   condom properly. Condoms are not 100% safe. Remember sometimes
                   condoms can break or they can sometimes be faulty.

                   d) Do not share razors, ear-piercing devices, needles or any other
                   equipment that may carry somebody’s blood.

*What can I do if I think I have HIV or AIDS?

                   The only way to find out if you have HIV is to have a HIV test. Go to
                   your doctor, clinic or HIV/AIDS counsellor and have a test. Remember to
                   go back for your test results. There is a so called “window period” when
                   the test result might be false. The virus needs to be in the body for
                   some time before it can be detected by a test. The “window period” can

                   be up to 3 months. Sometimes you need to go for another test after 3

... and if you find out that you have HIV or AIDS ...

                   If you are infected, it is important that you do not transmit the virus to
                   somebody else. Do not have sex or, if you do, always use a condom and
                   tell your partner that you are HIV positive (which means that you are

                   HIV infected). Do not force your partner if s/he does not want to take
                   the risk. Do not share razors, needles or other sharp objects with
                   anybody. Do not donate blood. Think very carefully before you get


                   If you are infected, it is important to get information from a doctor or

                   counsellor. You can do many things to stay healthy for as long as possible.

                   If you take good care of yourself you will have more healthy days. You
                   should stop smoking and stop drinking alcohol. You should eat healthy
                   foods and take good care of your hygiene.

                 You should take time for rest and for exercise. You should continue with
                 your job and also do things you enjoy. You should try to avoid other
                 infections like flu and you should go for medical check ups regularly.

* How do I know that somebody has HIV or AIDS?

                 The only way to find out if somebody is HIV positive is by taking a blood

                 test. An infected person can look and feel perfectly healthy. If this
                 healthy looking person has HIV in his/her blood s/he can pass on the
                 virus to other people.

                                             A HIV positive person will be really sick when
                                             AIDS develops. Still, it is not easy to tell that
                                             somebody has AIDS and only a doctor can do

                                             that. There are many kinds of common illnesses
                                             associated with AIDS like TB, diarrhoea, flu
                                             and others. People with AIDS usually die from

                                             these common illnesses.

* Taking care of somebody who has HIV /AIDS

                 A person with HIV/AIDS is going to die. It is not easy to come to terms
                 with the knowledge that you will die and additionally know that you will be
                 very sick before you die.

                 You should try to give as much support and help as you can to the
                 infected person. You can help with everyday things like cooking and

                 cleaning. You may make time for conversation. You may try to find
                 something to cheer up the sick person. You could do your best to make
                 somebody’s last days comfortable.

                 Remember, HIV cannot be transmitted through everyday contact. You
                 need to be in contact with blood, semen or vaginal fluids to get the

                 infection or a baby can get HIV from breast milk. So there is no risk in

                 being a good friend or a good neighbour to a sick person. Do not isolate
                 those who have HIV/AIDS, they need your help and support.

               PART II: Warm ups

              WARM UP EXERCISES


       Some experts say that you always need to do warm up exercises before

       you start “real drama”. Others say that you need use them only if you
       feel that it is necessary. In this book you will find instructions for some
       warm up exercises. It is good to do some of them to make the drama

       method more familiar to learners. It will enable the learners to feel
       more comfortable during the drama sessions.

       The purpose of warm up exercises is to make the learners feel safer and

       more familiar with one another in the group. If they learn to trust each
       other and know each other it will be easier for them to play in a role
       situation later during the drama situations.

       Some of the following exercises are for getting to know each other,
       some are for building trust and some are to heighten our senses. Some of
       the exercises will use the imagination and work with things that are not

       real. You do not need to do all the exercises. Do some of those that you
       think are important for your group. When you are doing the exercises
       you do not need to tell your learners that now we are using our hearing
       sense etc. It is enough that you guide the exercise and learners will
       notice something themselves. Maybe you can ask something about their
       experiences after the exercise.

       We will use pairs and groups during the next exercises. Take care that
       learners are not always working with the same people, change pairs,
       create different groups. If there is not an even number of learners you
       may join in yourself.

       You can do the exercises in your classroom, but it is good to make some
       space by moving desks and chairs.

                      These exercises are not meant to be used only before drama. You can do

                      them in your classroom in other situations as well. These kinds of
                      exercises can often build the community spirit of the group.

Learn to know each other

                      You only need these exercises if your learners do not know each other.

                      Names. Stand all together in a big circle. Somebody starts by saying
                      one’s own first name. The second one says the name s/he just heard and

                      adds her/his own name. Everyone should say all the names that were
                      before and then add their own name to the end of the list. “David,
                      Magdalena, William, Maria and I am Julia”. The last person should

                      remember all the names in the group. There can be even 20 - 30 learners
                      in the group. Ask learners to concentrate well during the exercise. If

                      someone makes a mistake during the exercise you will always start again.

                      Name and description. Everyone says their own first name and a word to
                      describe themselves which should start with the same letter as their
                      name and should tell something about that person. Things s/he likes,
                      things s/he is good at: Sally the sailor, Freddy the farmer or Laughing
                      Lisa. After the first round you can make another one and ask learners to
                      tell why they want to describe themselves as they did.


                      The mirror. This exercise needs to be done in pairs. Partners face each
                      other and silently copy their partner’s movements. If A moves her/his
                      left arm, B should copy the movement like a mirror does. If A is

                      performing that s/he is writing something B should do the same. Just like
                      watching from a mirror. B can be the mirror first and try to copy A’s

                      movements and after a while you may ask them to change parts. During
                      this exercise learners are not allowed to say anything and they are not
                      supposed to touch each other. Slow movements are preferable.

                      Guiding. This exercise will be for both confidence-building and feeling.
                      It will be done in pairs. First A will close her/his eyes and will put a hand
                      on B’s shoulder and B will guide A around the room. The guidance must be

                      soft and friendly and slow enough so that A feels that it is safe to follow

            B’s guidance. After a while you can ask A and B to change parts: B will

            close her/his eyes and A will guide.


            Sounds. Ask learners to lie on the floor or sit down quietly. Ask them to
            close their eyes and listen. Give the first instruction: Just listen to all
            the sounds you can hear. Give some time for listening. The next step is to

            listen to the sounds from outside the building. Follow all the steps slowly
            and give enough time for listening.
            a) Just listen.

            b) Listen to the sounds from outside the building.

            c) Listen to the sounds from inside the room.
            d) Listen to the sounds from yourself.

            Where are you? Divide the learners in pairs. Each pair (A and B) should
            decide on a short sound or signal. It can be a smack, a snap, a whistle, a
            hum or what ever. What’s important is that both of the pairs are able to
            make the sound. After all the pairs have decided on a sound ask them to

            go far from their partner, as far as possible in the classroom. Ask all the
            learners to close their eyes. Then everyone in the class starts to make
            their sound and try to find their partner by listening to all the sounds
            and trying to find the right one. If you are able to use a school hall or

            outside space it will make the exercise more interesting. When they find
            their pairs, they can stop making the sound.


            The pose was like this... Divide in groups of 5-6 learners. One from
            each group stays inside and the others go outside. The one (from each
            group) who stays inside takes a chair and takes some kind of sitting pose
            on the chair. Head, legs, arms... not too simple, but nothing acrobatic

            either. S/he needs to remember the pose so that s/he is able to repeat

            it later. One (from each group) from outside may come inside. S/he looks
            at the person on the chair for couple of seconds, then that person will
            stand up and the one who came outside will sit-down and take the same

            kind of pose. The same will go on until the last person from outside is
            sitting on the chair in the pose. Then the first person will take a chair
            and take the original pose. Others may see what changes had happened

                  during the game. All the groups are working at the same time and in the

                  same room, but still they are doing their own work.


                  Follow me. For this exercise you need to divide your learners into pairs.
                  The idea is the same as the Guiding exercise earlier in this chapter.
                              The difference is that during this exercise learners need to

                              touch each other very lightly, they need to feel the light
                              touch and follow it.

                              Instead holding each others shoulders A and B will touch the

                              tips of the index fingers together and then one needs to
                              follow the other. They are touching each other very lightly.
                              It is important to start moving slowly during this exercise. If

                              you want they can also try nose-to-nose, shoulder to shoulder
                              etc.   Advise your learners to move different ways and
                              different paces: fast / slow, straight / curved, up /down.

Imagine that...

                  Circulating things.    Ask the learners to sit in a circle and sit there

                  yourself as well. You will circulate imaginary things around the circle. And
                  you should react to the thing you receive. You may start by giving a
                  kitten to the learner sitting next to you. Say that here is a small kitten
                  for you so that every one knows what you are going to circulate. The
                  kitten will pass around the circle. You allow learners to create the next
                  things or you create some more yourself. You can use for example, a

                  heavy stone, an empty, but big box, a jewellery ring, a little bit of sand, a
                  hot cup etc. You can do the same exercise without saying what is the
                  object that you are circulating. It is more difficult version and need

                  more concentration. At the end the other may try to guess what was the

                    PART III: Drama ideas

                   BEFORE YOU START...
             Drama is a way to make some things more understandable and more

             concrete for learners. You can give your learners an opportunity to
             experience something themselves and learn something from this
             experience. Even those learners who have difficulties with reading and

             writing can do well in drama.

             Drama is one of the best methods if there is a lack of books or other
             teaching materials. All you need for drama is a teacher, learners and

             some imagination. You may use equipment as an aid but you can make
             perfect drama without it.

             Before you start doing any drama with learners it is important that you

             prepare yourself thoroughly for the situation. You need to read the
             script, think about your own role during the drama, think how you will

             solve possible difficulties and plan some questions, ideas and topics for
             the discussion. Prepare some basic facts about HIV/AIDS by reading
             the chapter about basic facts.

             At the end of each script you will find some guidelines for discussion.

             There are some questions and ideas for discussion. You are not supposed

             to follow them rigidly; they should provide some ideas for you to find
             your own way to guide the discussion. With different learners there may
             be different kinds of discussions and different kinds of topics which

             seem to be important.
Help icon
             At the end of some scripts you will find following symbol

             After this symbol you will find some ideas to solve difficult situations.

             Most of the time educational drama goes fine without problems, but
             there is always the possibility of misunderstandings or other things that

can cause problems. You can read those ideas beforehand to get tools for

possible difficult situations.

Now you have some background information about HIV/AIDS and some
ideas for drama work. It is time to move to the drama scripts and start

teaching and learning through drama method. In the first script the main
purpose is to practise saying “no”. Saying “no” is often the best skill to
protect oneself against HIV or other risks and that is why it comes as

the first exercise in this book.

                      “SOMETIMES THE BEST ANSWER IS “NO!”


               After this drama session, learners should be able to:
               - recognise the importance of saying “no”

               - practise saying “no” in their own lives

               You will need about 45 - 60 minutes for this period.

               There are two different lessons on the same issue with the same
               objectives. The methods used during this lesson are different from in

               the “Need to say “No” that occurs later. One can also say that this lesson

               is the first step and the other one is the second step in practising “no”.
Still images
               During the next lesson you are going to make still images (see more on

               page 57) in your classroom. Learners will make images using their bodies.
               They will take a position and remain still. A still image does not include
               any movements or speaking.

               During the first phase of the lesson you will ask your learners some
               questions. Learners need to answer “NO” after each question. Even if
               their real opinion is something else, in this exercise they need to say no.

               They are not only saying NO, they will also practise making a still image
               about it. It means that they will use their bodies to answer “NO” as

               well. Sometimes learners need lot of encouragement to be able to say

               strong NO.
               Give the learners the introduction and then ask the following questions.
               After each question they should make a still image and at the same

               time say “NO”. The still image should give non-verbal support to verbal
               “NO”. The body is saying NO in its own way. Your classroom will be full
               of statues saying “NO”. Leave some time for the learners to stay in the

               still pictures after each question.


                     * “Do you want to eat sand?“
                     * “Do you speak the Lappish language?“
                     * “May I borrow your bicycle?”
                     * “Is love the same as sex?”

                     * ”Is it good to have sexual relationships before adulthood?”

                     The next step of this lesson is to make still images in groups. Divide

                     learners in groups.       A group of 4-6 learners is desirable. Ask your
                     learners to make a still image together in their group. Remind them that

                     the image does not move or speak. It should tell the message by other
                     means. Each group is telling a story, the image is the story. It is good to
                     think about a situation and to create an image about that situation. The

                     idea in the image, what they should show in the image is as follow:
Idea for the NO image:
                     “I can say NO. I have the right to say NO. I can say NO
                     without anger, I do not want to hurt anybody by saying NO.
                     Sometimes NO is the best answer.”

                     So this message should be in the image, but these can be other kinds of
                     figures included in the image.

                     Allow some time (5-10 minutes) for the groups to plan what kind of image
                     they would like to do. Ask each group to show their image separately. You
                     may allow some discussion or you may ask something.           You can for

                     example touch a learner’s shoulder to tell her /him that she/he can

                     answer. You do not need to ask everybody questions. Here are a few
                     examples of how you can ask learners to say something about the
                     situation: “When I touch your shoulder, I want you to tell us why you are

                     pushing him away” “Why are you holding his hand?” “ What happens to
                     this picture if you leave it?” Ask about the situations that you are able to

                     see in the still image.

                     “What you would like to say?” “How do you feel?” You may ask a few

                     questions to let the group members put some thoughts or words to

                    their still image. Do the same with all the groups one after another if
                    you feel that it give same information.

                    The last still images of the lesson will be made in groups. The way to do it
                    is the same as above; only the idea of the picture is different. Allow

                    about 5 minutes to plan the image.
Idea for the YES image:

                    “I can say YES. I have right to say yes. I may decide when I want to say yes. I

                    can say yes when it is the best answer.”

                    You are ready when all the groups have had a chance to show their still
                    images and say something about them.
                    Allow your learners to relate their feelings after working with still
                    images. How was it to make still images? How did they feel when they
                    were saying no? Was it different from saying yes?

                    Ask learners opinions about saying “no”. When it is easy? When it is a

                    must? When it is difficult? How do you feel if you do not say it even if
                    you feel that you should say it? How do you feel if somebody says “no” to
                    you? During this discussion it’s good to refer to HIV and other STDs.

                    You can also ask questions that will help learners to relate the images to
                    HIV and STDs issues.

                    Encourage learners to speak about the different sides of saying no. It is
                    important to understand that everyone needs to know how to say no.
                    Sometimes it is the best way to protect yourself from dangerous or

                    unpleasant situations.

                    Also speak about saying yes. Remind the learners that it is a person’s
                    right to decide if s/he wants to say “NO” or “YES”.

                    Now we have studied the basics about saying “NO”.                       During the next
                    lesson we will practise different ways to express our opinions. The

                    method will be different: learners will do same playmaking.

                         After this lesson, learners should be able to:
                         –   Identify passive, aggressive and assertive behaviour
                         –   List the positive and the negative aspects of passive, aggressive and

                             assertive behaviours

                         You will need about 60 minutes for this period.

                         The theme of this lesson is assertive, aggressive and passive behaviour.

                         The next drama deals with these issues. You can read more about the
                         theme on page 59-60. You may use the information during the discussion.
Small group playmaking

                         During the following lesson you are going to use small group playmaking
                         in your class. It is a form of prepared improvisation. The idea is that you
                         set the task for the groups and they are going to plan short (a few

                         minutes is enough) improvisations about the task. Groups will enact their

                         improvisations for the rest of the class to see. You can do all this in your
                         own classroom. (See more on page 56)
                         A good size for each group could be about 5 learners. When groups are

                         planning their improvisations they should decide on the situation and have
                         they are going to start and plan roles for all of them. They may plan the
                         main idea of the story but there is no need to write anything down or

                         practise beforehand. There should be some space for improvisation.
                         Others in the class do not know the story from their card so the group

                         needs to give the others enough information.

                         The tasks are detailed below on the cards (see pages 23-25).           Give
                         one story to each group. Ask them to do the planning so quietly that
                         others will not know their story beforehand. If needed, you can

                         write more or you can give the same task to several groups. If you
                         do not have enough learners for all of these 6 stories, you may leave

                         some stories out. Do not leave out C or F. They are the most
                         important, because in those stories the acting is assertive.

             Allow time (about 10-15 min.) for the groups to prepare the

             improvisations. When they are ready, you may ask them to act out their
             stories for the others. Thank and encourage each group after their

             When all the groups have done their improvisations, it is time for
             discussion. It is important to keep the objectives of the session in your
             mind during the discussion.

             Allow your learners to express how they felt about the playmaking. How
             was it? What were their feelings when somebody was angry? What were
             their feelings when somebody was passive? What were their feelings

             when somebody was assertive? Which way was the most effective?
             Which way was the best if you want to consider others, not only yourself.

             Encourage your learners to compare different kinds of behaviour. Try to

             find reasons why assertive behaviour is often the most effective.

             Encourage your learners to learn and test assertive behaviour. Encourage
             them to express their opinions and stand up for themselves.

             Explain something about passive, aggressive and assertive behaviour. You
             can get some information from pages 59-60.

             And how is this dealing with HIV/AIDS? Relate the theme of this
             session to HIV/AIDS issues. People make decisions about their sexual
             behaviour and they need to explain their opinions and decisions to others.
             There are times when “NO” is the best answer. The most effective way

             to express opinions is assertively.


        Story A / “My opinion is important”

        A situation in a post office. It is the end of the month. There are lots of people waiting. A clerk is doing the
        best he can. Mathias has been waiting for a while already. It is almost his turn now.
          Then suddenly somebody just moves in front of him in the queue without asking or saying anything.
        Mathias is a shy and passive person. He does not say or do anything, but you can see that he is not

        happy. Do the other people in the queue notice anything? Does the clerk react in some way?

          Prepare a short improvisation about the situation.

        Story B / “My opinion is important”
        A situation in a post office. It is the end of the month. There are lots of people waiting. A clerk is doing
        the best he can. Magdalena has been waiting for a while already. It is almost her turn now.

          Then suddenly somebody just moves in front of her in the queue without asking or saying anything.
        Magdalena is an aggressive person. She will react to the situation with a loud voice. She does everything
        to keep her place in the queue. She can easily blame and humiliate others. Do the other people in the

        queue do anything? Does the clerk react in some way?

          Prepare a short improvisation about the situation.

Story C / “My opinion is important”
A situation in a post office. It is the end of the month. There are lots of people waiting. A clerk is doing

the best he can. Magdalena has been waiting for a while already. It is almost her turn now.
  Then suddenly somebody just moves in front of her in the queue without asking or saying anything. M.
knows that she was there first and it is her turn. M. is very assertive. It means that she stands up for her

rights and says what she wants. She can provide arguments for the situation. She can do this in a
friendly way and she still respects other people. So she does not need to be aggressive. Do the other
people in the queue do anything? Does the clerk react in some way?

  Prepare a short improvisation about the situation.

Story D / “ My opinion is important”
Your class is planning a visit to the children’s ward of a hospital. Veronica (one of the learners) says that
it could be more useful and fun for the children if you made some kind of program to present to the

children. You could read, sing or do something else to give these sick children a better day. Some noisy
pupils from the class say “NO!”.
  Veronica is a shy person and she is too passive to provide an argument for the idea. How will the

situation develop? Will there be a program for the children?
  Prepare a short improvisation about the situation.

Story E / “My opinion is important”
Your class is planning a visit to the children’s ward of a hospital. Henry (one of the learners) says that it

could be more useful and fun for the children if you made some kind of program to present to the
children. You could read, sing or do something else to give these sick children a better day. Some noisy
pupils from the class say “NO!”.

  Henry is a very aggressive person and he begins to shout to the others and tell them they are lazy. He
wants to say that he knows what is best and others do not know anything. How will the situation develop?

Will there be a program for the children?
  Prepare a short improvisation about the situation.

Story F / “My opinion is important”

Your class is planning a visit to the children’s ward of a hospital. Helga (one of the learners) says that it
could be more useful and fun for the children if you made some kind of program to present to the
children. You could read, sing or do something else to give these sick children a better day. Some noisy

pupils from the class say “NO!”.
  Helga knows that she has got a good idea and does not want to give up easily. She respects others,
but insists on expressing her opinion and provides arguments for the idea. She is assertive, but not

aggressive. How will the situation develop? Will there be a program for the children?
  Prepare a short improvisation about the situation.

            During the next session we will use this same method to do drama. The

            theme is saying NO effectively. There you will be able to combine saying
            no and being assertive.

Objectives:          After this drama session, learners should be able to:
                     - recognise the importance of saying “no”
                     - practise saying “no” in their own lives
                     You will need about 60 minutes for this period.

Small group playmaking:
                     During the next lesson you are going to do small group playmaking in
                     your classroom. The cards on pages 29-31 describe situations where

                     learners can practise saying “no” and responding to it as well. One may

                     accept the no answer or one may try to do everything to get another

                     Learners work in groups of about 5 learners. Each group gets one of the
                     imaginary stories (on pages 29-31) and plans a short (not more than 2-3
                     minute) improvisation about the situation. Remind them that it is good to
                     decide roles and the starting point during the planning session. In the

                     cards there will be roles for 2 or 3 learners, but each group needs to
                     create more roles so that all the members of the group have a role. They
                     do not need to rehearse or write scripts. This is supposed to be a
                     prepared improvisation, so you do not need to plan it too much. Remind
                     the learners that the audience will not know what the story in their card

                     is, so they need to give enough information about the situation for others
                     to follow the presentation.

                     The groups take turns to present their improvisations after planning.
                     You could give comments after each presentation, but in order to save

                     time it might be better to have the discussion after all the
                     improvisations. Do not forget to thank and encourage each group after
                     their presentation.

                     After all groups have presented their stories, provide time for
                     discussion. Make opportunities to share different kinds of experiences
                     and ideas experienced during and after the playmaking. How did it feel to

                     say “no”? How did it feel to try to get another person to change her/his

mind after s/he said “no”? What are the risks in saying no? What are the

benefits of saying ”no”? Is there something else you feel is important?

Try to study different sides of the situations presented. What could
each of you learn that’s relevant to your own life? Remind your learners

that it is a matter of protecting yourself if you can say “no” in certain
situations. Relate the discussion to HIV and other STD issues.

Try to remember the objectives of this lesson. Encourage them to
practise saying no and say that sometimes ‘no’ is the only appropriate

The following are the starting points for improvisation.

Story A / “Need to say NO”
Emmy’s friends are going camping over the weekend. They ask Emmy to join them but

she does not want to go. There will be both girls and boys. She does not want to go
because she knows that Josef will be there. Josef likes her lot, but Emmy does not
know him very well. Emmy feels that it is not the time for camping together.
          Emmy’s friends are asking her to join them. Josef is asking her to come,

others try to find reasons to make her join them. Emmy says no and does not want to
change her opinion. She says “no” assertively without hurting anybody.

Plan a short improvisation about the above situation.

Story B / “Need to say NO”
Some friends are camping over the weekend. Debora is one of them. They are having

a good time together. Debora shares a tent with her friend Julia. When night comes
Julia tells Debora that she would like to sleep together with her boyfriend. That means
that Debora would sleep in the same tent as Barnabas. Debora likes Barnabas a lot,

but she does not want to share a tent with him.
           Debora says “no” and she tries to do it without anger. How will the others
react? Debora is not going to change her opinion.

           Plan a short improvisation about the above situation.

Story C / “Need to say NO’
Nicholas has a new bicycle. There are lots of people who would like to borrow it. He

has decided not to lend it to anyone because his old bike was stolen when one of his
friends borrowed it.
Many people come to ask for his bike. Somebody wants to go to the post office before
it closes. Somebody needs to visit a grandmother a long way away. There are

different reasons. Nicholas is happy to help somebody in an emergency, but he is not
going to lend his bike.
Some people don’t understand his decision. Nicholas needs to be strong but not

aggressive when he says “no”.

Plan a short improvisation about the above situation.

Story D / “Need to say NO”

It is the last day of a school year. Iris is planning to have a party for her friends to start
the holiday. She does not want alcohol to be used at her home and her parents don’t
want it either.

           Some of her friends asked if alcohol will be served at the party. Some of
them say that they will take beer with them when they come. Iris says that there will be
no alcohol served and they are not allowed to bring alcohol to her home. Some of her
friends disagree, but Iris says “no”. She argues and tries to be very assertive. She

does not want to change her opinion.

           Plan a short improvisation about the above situation.

Story E / “Need to say NO”

Some pupils were going to smoke behind the school building. They ask David to come

with them even if he does not smoke. David does not want to go because it is not
allowed to smoke in the schoolyard. Some of those who were going to smoke are still

young and they should not smoke at all.

          David says that he is not going to join them and he also tells the others that
they should not go either.
Plan a short improvisation about the above situation.

Story F / “Need to say NO”
Lisa is a grade 8 learner. She asks for some help from her teacher during a break. Her

teacher, Mr Angula, answers Lisa’s question but at the same time holds Lisa’s
shoulder in a way that does not feel comfortable. Lisa feels that the teacher is invading
her private space. Lisa tells her teacher that she does not want to be touched. Lisa is
not going to change her opinion or say that she is sorry. Lisa knows that she is right

and that she has the right to protect herself.

Until now we have learnt some skills that are good to know if one wants

to protect oneself from some risks in life. From the next session we will
start working more with the HIV/AIDS issues. The following session will
be about the basic facts about HIV/AIDS. You will need those basic
facts during other sessions later in the book.


OBJECTIVES:          After this lesson, learners should be able to provide answers to the
                     following questions:
                     - What is HIV/AIDS?

                     - How can you get HIV?
                     - How can you avoid getting HIV?
                     - How can I prevent HIV infection?

                     - Learners may also be able to give examples of false statements

                     about HIV/AIDS.

                     It is possible to complete this session in an hour, or you may spend three

                     hours on it. You will find different ways to do this exercise and some of
                     them need more time than others.
Teacher-in-role strategy
                     You as a teacher should read this Homecoming drama as a whole by

                     yourself at first. In this drama episode you and your class will role-play a
                     situation in a village. The whole class of learners will be villagers and you
                     will be a person who arrives at the village after many years of absence.

                     The main aim of this drama is to learn some basic facts about HIV/AIDS
                     by using role play in a village situation, by having a discussion afterwards

                     and by writing something about the experience. You will use the so called
                     teacher-in-role strategy during the role-play (see more on page 54).

                     You can do this drama in your classroom and all the learners can
                     participate. It might be good to move the desks and chairs so that you
                     have some empty space. You can also do this drama outside if you won’t

                     be disturbed.

                     In this drama your role is to show the fact that you do not know much

                     about HIV/AIDS issue. In this drama the teacher’s role is to be the one
                     who does not know - who is wondering and asking questions. Learners in
                     their roles will tell you what they know and what they think about the
                     HIV/AIDS issue.

All kinds of answers may help the learning process.
                     It might happen that learners are relating incorrect information about

                     HIV/AIDS. During the drama situation there is no such thing as a wrong
                     answer. You can make the needed corrections during discussion after the
                     drama but not in the middle of the drama. All you may do in your role is

                     to ask more questions or explain your feelings and opinions when you are
                     role-playing with learners. You may react like your character would react.

Prepare your role
                     You should prepare yourself for your role. You have left your village 10-

                     15 years ago and came back yesterday. You have lived alone in a solitary
                     place for the last 15 years. You met some people briefly every now and
                     then, but you did not follow any news of the world. HIV/AIDS was not an

                     important issue at the time you left your village.
                                  You can remember that you have heard something about it.
                                  You remember that it is a sickness that cannot be healed by

                                  any means. You remember that HIV/AIDS has something to
                                  do with sex. You have noticed many people from your village
                                  have passed away during the 15 years and some of them
                                  were not very old. You have noticed that the letters

                                  HIV/AIDS can be seen in many places: newspapers and walls.
                                  You heard advice on the radio yesterday soon after you

                                  came to the village: “Take care. Don’t play with your life.

                                  AIDS can take your future.”

                     You should decide some basic things about your character to make it

                     clear for yourself.

                     How old are you?
                     Do you have a profession?
                     What kind of character are you?
                     What do you feel is important in life?

                     What do you like /dislike?

                     What do you know and think about HIV/AIDS?
                     Something else?
                     You may also think of some questions to ask the villagers about

                     HIV/AIDS. To follow the objectives of this lesson there should be
                     discussion around the following themes:

- What is HIV/AIDS?

- How can you get HIV?
- How do you avoid getting HIV?
- How can you prevent HIV infection?
It might be fruitful not to ask the questions as they are. You need to

rephrase the questions in order to start a discussion. Maybe you could
wonder if you can get HIV if you use the same cup as somebody who is
sick. Maybe you could be worried that you do not know how to protect

yourself from the sickness. It will be easier for the learners if you

pretend that it is a discussion in a village, not a quiz in the classroom.

It is important to remember that you do not wait for the right answers -

you are asking these questions because in your role you do not know
the answers. You should not and cannot plan all your words beforehand
because you should react to the situation in the village, but it is good to
plan how you are going to start the situation. Villagers (learners) will

react to your words and your behaviour.

When you start with your class, tell your learners what they should know

before you go into the drama situation. It is helpful to do it slowly, and
let learners think about the situation and their own roles.

You (learners) are people in a village. It is a regular village today, so you can imagine

what life is like in a village nowadays. What kind of villagers are there? You may
choose who you would like to be in the village. You can be whoever you want to but
you cannot be younger than your own age. You may be older than you are, but not

younger. The drama will be more interesting if there are both old and young people

and both males and females.

The next step is to help learners create their own character by giving

them the following instructions. This is a very important period of the
session. Give it time and try to support the learners to be character, i.e.
feel like the character and act like the character.

You can decide your role yourself. During the drama you should
act in the same way that you think that your character acts in

her/his every day life. So if you decide that you would like to be a

45 year-old shopkeeper, then you should act in the way you think
s/he would act in the situation.

- Think who you would like to be.
- Have you got a family?

- Who are you in your family?       Grandfather, mother, husband,
Somebody else?
- How old are you? (Not younger than you own age, but older is

- Do you have a profession? Teacher, nurse, farmer? Something

- What kind of personality do you have?
You can decide yourself who you want to be. There is no wrong
decision here. All the roles are fine. You can choose to be from
same family or the same workplace as someone else if you like.

Who would like to be the headperson in the village or in this
community? It is good to have somebody who takes this role.
(Now as a teacher you should take care that somebody will be the

headman or head-woman. If there are no volunteers, you could ask
one of your learners if s/he would like to be the headman/woman.)
You, as a headperson, may find solutions, may act as chairperson

if needed.

The following is an experience for character building. Ask each learner
to close his/her eyes and listen to your questions and answer for
themselves only, so you do not need to hear the answers. This is so
learners become more familiar with their character.

                       Think of the following situations and try to imagine how you would
                       act in these situations as your character:

                       - What do you eat for breakfast?
                       - Do you cook your breakfast yourself?
                       - What clothes are you wearing? What are your favourite

                       - You are going to post office today. Why do you go there?
                       How do you behave in the office?
                       - You are going shopping. What are you going to buy?
                       - You are visiting a friend. Who is it and why are you visiting?

                       - What is your biggest reason to be happy?
                       - What is the most difficult problem in your life?

                       Ask your learners to open their eyes and be ready to start the drama.

                       The following is an imaginary story about the village and what is going on


Situation in the village
                       Something special has happened. Someone from your village left 10-15

                       years ago to live alone in a solitary place far from here. Out of the blue
                       s/he came back yesterday.
                                               S/he    spent    most   of   her/his   time   by

                                               her/himself after s/he left. S/he met people
                                               every now and then, but s/he did not have any
                                               contact with newspapers, radio or TV. The

                                               person who arrived in your village knows that
                                               there was something called HIV/AIDS before
                                               s/he left your village. S/he does not know

                                               basic things about HIV/AIDS. S/he has
                       noticed that it is a big issue nowadays and s/he is interested to know
                       something about it. I (teacher) will be in that role. You will know that I

                       (teacher) am in character when I put my glasses on /put my hat on / put
                       a scarf on my shoulders like this.

                    Show it. You as a teacher may decide what your symbol will be. Just make

                    it clear that everybody knows the symbol and what it means.

                    When I take this symbol off, I am a teacher again and may do some things teachers
                    need to do. When I put this symbol on again, I am in the role and the life in the village

                    will go on.

Different option:
                    The following are different options that you can choose from to do the

                    drama in the village with your learners.
Option 1
                    The first option is that the whole village has gathered together.

                    Everyone is included in the drama at the same time. All the people in the
                    village are taking part in this discussion. Everybody can ask questions,
                    provide answers or react the way they want to react. Even if there is a
                    teacher-in-role and a headperson, everybody can participate.
Option 2
                    The second option provides more peaceful time to speak with all the
                    villagers. Ask (as a teacher) all the learners to come “on the stage” in
                    turn. Take small groups at a time. Maybe you have 4 teenagers and they
                    can come together. Maybe you have 7 from the local church and they will
                    come together. Maybe there are parents, grandparents or doctors and

                    witchdoctors. Ask a few students to come at a time and go and speak
                    with them in character. Talk about HIV/AIDS with all of them and try to
                    find answers to the questions you still have. You may think that you are in
                    a village and you go from house to house, from group to group to find the
                    truth about HIV/AIDS.

Option 3
                    The third option is almost like option two, but we add there forum
                    theatre (see more on page 57). This is not the easiest way to do that
                    exercise, but if you feel that your learners are able to do this kind of

                    drama, it might be worth trying. For forum theatre you need to ask some
                    of your learners to be the audience and some of them to chose a role for
                    the village situation. The teacher-in-role goes and meets different

                    people from the village. The difference is that the audience has an
                    important role. If someone from the audience thinks that something is

                       not going right on the stage s/he can say “Stop” and take on one of the

                       roles on the stage. If there is a witchdoctor saying something and
                       someone from the audience does not like that, s/he can say “Stop” and go
                       and take witchdoctor’s role and try to be the kind of witchdoctor who
                       gives the right answers. The important idea in forum theatre is that the

                       audience can effect the situations. The role of the audience is to try to
                       find solutions for the problem. They may provide new ideas on the stage.

                       After you choose one of the above options you will continue from the

                       following instructions. The situation is the same for all the options; only
                       the way to do it differs.

 For learners

                        Are you ready to move in your roles? When we go to our village you need to
                        remember to act like that person you have decided to be.

Ready to start the      OK. Time to move to the village. Maybe you would like to sit down on the floor /
drama in the village
                        ground like some people who have come to meet each other. You may start. When

                        I came it is a “long time no see moment”.

                                                                    Your class should be ready to start
                                                                    the drama now.

                                                                    Here are some examples of how to
                                                                    star the discussion in the village:
                                                                    “I   have    seen     this    HIV/AIDS

                                                                    everywhere. What is it? What does it
                                                                    “I heard on radio that AIDS could kill

                                                                    you. Why did they say that?”
                       “Somebody says that HIV is dangerous and somebody else says that
                       AIDS is dangerous. What should I believe?” When you are ready to

                       start, put your symbol on and jump into your role.

                       Remember: Keep the aim of the session in mind! The aim of the session
                       is to enable learners to discuss facts about HIV/AIDS. You as a teacher

             can work towards the aim using your responses and questions. Try to

             remember that everything you do should in one way or other help lead
             the situation towards the aim of the session.

             You are in the village situation with the villagers (learners). You can

             finish the situation when you as a teacher think that there has been
             enough discussion about the subject. Your character can say something
             to finish the situation. The following can serve as clues to indicate that

             you want to finish: Maybe s/he says s/he is happy about this information.

             Maybe s/he is even more confused or whatever might be the feelings of
             the role person after the situation in the village. S/he might say that she
             needs to go now.

             Take your symbol off and you are the teacher again. Ask your learners
             to be learners again and start a discussion with them.

             This is the most important part of a good educational drama, so do not
             forget this. This is still a time for learning. In the discussion you may ask

             learners’ feelings and thoughts about the situation you just had in the
             village. You may relate your feelings and thoughts as well. You may ask
             learners if they feel that they have learnt something. What? You may
             speak about the basic facts of HIV/AIDS. If there was some wrong

             information about HIV/AIDS now is the time to correct it. Make it
             very clear that the wrong information is not true. Provide the
             correct information. It might be good to write the right facts on the

             You may use the following as homework for the learners: This writing
             task will finish the “Homecoming” episode.

Instructions for your homework

                     Put yourself back in the character you played during the session. Your character
                     wants to write something in her/his diary about the situation you just had in the village.
                     The diary is her/his private book that s/he writes for her/himself. S/he would like to
                     write down some things s/he feels are important. Maybe something s/he can not

                     understand, something she is happy or afraid about or something s/he will remember
                     from this day. Remember: the writer is not you, s/he is your character. Just remind
                     yourself who you were in the village today. Write one page in your exercise book,

                     which will now play the role of a diary.

                     This writing task could involve cross curriculum approach so that as a
                     writing task it could be part of language education as well as HIV-
                     education. Characters might have wrong information about HIV/AIDS.
                     Ask your learners to correct that. They can do it by writing something

                     as learners (not characters anymore) or they can do it during discussion.
                     At the very end you as a teacher have the responsibility that all the
                     mistakes will be corrected.

                     Now you have finished this session. You did some role-plays, discussion
                     and writing. Your class has heard a little more about the very basics of
                     HIV/AIDS. At the end of this session you will find some ideas for solving
                     difficult situations during drama. The following session uses the basic
                     information about HIV/AIDS. The next session will deal with attitudes

                     and values.

                     What to do if your learners are relating incorrect information about

                     - In this drama incorrect answers are important for drama and for

                     - You should encourage other learners to provide correct answers after
                     the incorrect ones.
                     - You (your character) may wonder if that answer is true and hope that

                     some other learner will tell you the truth.
                     - You (your character) may remember that you heard something about

                     the same thing yesterday and you have a feeling that the information was

- You (as a teacher) have to be really careful and precise with the facts

when you are having a discussion with learners after the drama session.
Discussion is a very important part of a good drama!

What to do if your learners do not start answering your questions:

- Try to ask your question in a different way.
- Try to ask a different kind of question.
- Try to wonder “ I have heard that ...Do you know if it is true or not?” “

Have you heard that... What is your opinion about it?... ”

- Try to direct your question to an individual if the whole group does not
- Leave enough space and time for the learners to react.

- If needed, you should take off your role symbol and, as a teacher, tell
the learners that they do not need to know the right answers to your
questions. They can say the answers that they know or think their
character might reply. You can also check if learners have some other

difficulties with the task. When the situation seems to be clear you can

replace your role sign again and jump back to the village.

OBJECTIVES:      After this drama session, learners should be able to:
                 - Describe some of the feelings people have when someone close to them
                 gets HIV/AIDS.
                 - Give examples of different attitudes towards an “HIV family”.

                 - Give examples of different problems an HIV-positive person will meet

                 in her/his social life.
                 You will need about 60 - 90 minutes for this period.

How to meet an   The aim of this drama session is to give learners an experience of the
HIV infected
                 situation when someone close to you has HIV.          Many teachers and
                 learners may know this from real life already. There can be different

                 kinds of reactions to suit the situation. Your learners will not need to
                 have the “right” and the “best” reactions in this drama.
                                           They can react in the way they imagine their

                                           character would react.

                                           In this drama you will divide your class into

                                           groups, about 5 learners per group is fine.
                                           There are five different groups in this script.
                                           Maybe you will need to make more than five

                                           groups if you have a lot of learners. You just
                                           need to create the background for the extra

                 You need to make small pieces of paper with + and - symbols in advance.

                 Make enough so that there will be one for each learner. Make half of the
                 symbols + and half -.

Read this story
                            Maria is a 16 year-old school girl. She lives a normal life with her family and
to the learners
                            relatives. She loves to sing and enjoys time with her family and friends. She

                            can be a little shy at first, but when you get to know her, she is very nice and
                            friendly. Maria lives in a small town with her parents, one brother and two

                            sisters. She is a grade 10 student at the local school.

Groups               Now do the following to prepare your learners for the drama session:

- family
                     Tell the learners that they will hear more about Maria later. First, they

                     need to get into their groups. Divide your class into small groups.

- neighbours
                     One group will be Maria’s family: parents, sisters, brother, aunt,
                     grandmother etc. What is the nature of the relationship between Maria

                     and her family?
- friends

                     One of the groups will be Maria’s neighbours from the same street.

                     Someone lives next door to Maria’s family, someone does not know
                     Maria’s family.

                                                                           One        group   will   be    Maria’s

                                                                           friends from the church choir,
                                                                           Someone is a very close friend
                                                                           of Maria, someone sings next
                                                                           to her, someone could be the

                                                                           choir leader etc.

 - fellow learners   One group will be fellow learners from the school. They study together

                     with her every day.

   - teachers        The last group will be Maria’s teachers and headmaster from the school.
                     Some of them might think that Maria is a good learner and some of them

                     have just the opposite opinion.

                   Let each learner take one of + / - papers. Those who get + will have a

                   positive attitude towards Maria and those who get - will have a negative
                   attitude towards Maria. Ask your learners not to reveal their symbol to
                   anyone.      A person can change his/her attitude during the drama
                   situation if something happens to bring about change. There needs to

                   be a reason for changing one’s attitude.

 Read this story   Now your learners should know the group where they belong. Ask them to
 to the learners   have a discussion in each group and decide on their roles.                      One can be

                   Maria’s mother, one can be her best friend etc. Ask them to listen to the
                   next story as if they are their characters. How does this story sound to
                   a neighbour or a friend?

                     A few weeks ago Maria noticed that she was pregnant. She is due in 5 months.

                     Maria also found out that she is HIV positive and will have AIDS one day. She got
                     the virus from her boyfriend. Maria wants to live positively with HIV. She told her

                     neighbours, family, friends and people from her school that she is HIV infected.

                   Ask your learners to meet in their small groups. The task is to plan a
                   short play about the situation. Each group will react differently to

                   Maria’s news that she is HIV positive and she is pregnant. After a short
                   planning time all groups will have a turn to act out the situation.

                   Remind your learners that they do not need to plan the situation too
                   thoroughly. It is enough if they have an idea where to start and they
                   know their roles. To make the story interesting there should be some

                   elements of conflict. If the conflict lasts too long it is not interesting
                   any more. It means that some kind of solution needs to come out as well,
                   but it does not need to be a happy ending.

With or without    Maria is purposefully left out of the story, no one will play Maria’s role.
Maria?             The idea is to give more freedom to say all kind of things about Maria
                   when she is not present. If you see that this is too difficult for your
                   learners, then ask one person in each group to be Maria and enter while

                   the others are discussing her. Each member of the group will react in

                   the way they think their character would react.

 Another option     You have another way to do this drama. It is possible to do this as an

                    improvisation. Improvisation is interesting if your learners are ready to
                    do it. For improvisation you will just give the background information as
                    you do anyway. The difference is that learners do not get any time to
                    plan. They will just have the information about Maria’s situation and they

                    know their group (neighbour etc.) information. They will go to the stage
                    and start to act out the situation as a group.

 DISCUSSION         The second phase of this lesson is to summarise the previous drama. You
 Mind-maps          could make two mind-maps to summarise the previous situations. You can
                    have the discussion as a whole class. You may ask some learners to make
                    the mind-map on the board or on a poster. See some information about

                    mind-mapping on page 61 if needed.

Maria’s situation   Make one mind-map about Maria’s situation. Write down the problems
                    that Maria will meet in her life now. The middle idea in the mind-map

                    could be Maria, Maria’s problems, Maria’s life or something like that.

Other main          Make another mind-map about others’ points of view as relatives, fellow
points of view      workers etc. Try to find feelings, attitudes and opinions that emerged in
                    groups during the drama situation. The idea in the middle of the mind-
                    map could be something like Others Opinions or something else that
                    seems to be relevant for the situation.

                    You need to remember the objectives of the drama during the discussion.
                    You still have an opportunity to say something about people’s feelings
                    when they hear that a friend has HIV - something about their attitudes

                    and think about some of the problems you might have because of HIV.

                    It is possible that there will also be a discussion about orphans. It is an

                    important issue. You just need to remember that it might be a difficult
                    issue for some of the learners and you need to guide the discussion


                    In this session it was possible to show all kinds of attitudes towards HIV

                    and a HIV-positive person. Following are ideas handling difficult

situations drama script. In the last script the idea is to think about

helping a sick person. The drama form in the last script is a bit different
from those we used until now.

What to do if the planning in the groups does not go on?

- If you see that some of the groups do not know what to do, you can ask
if they need clarification and you may repeat the instructions so that the
group will understand.

- Sometimes you need to help the group by asking questions about the

situation “ Do you have some ideas already?” “ Do any of you have an idea
about your own role?”    “ What do you think about the neighbours? What
kind of reactions might they have?”

- If the group is really stuck you can give some ideas, but do it in the
form of questions as well or some other “hidden” way. If you give too
clear ideas the group will not be able to create their own situation.
“Would you like to do the situation at home or somewhere else?” “Maybe

some of you could be friends of Maria and some others could have a

negative relationship with Maria.”    “Try to imagine the situation at the
school.”   “Someone might say that we must expel Maria. What might

happen then?”

What to do if the improvisation in the groups does not work?
- Like before, you can ask if they need some clarification and you may

repeat the instructions so the group understands.
- You can take a role for yourself and step into the group situation for a
moment. If you decide to use this teacher-in-role strategy, you have to
think carefully what you are going to do in the group. If you see that the

group of neighbours are getting stuck, you may be one neighbour for a
while. You may ask questions about the situation, you may express your

opinions, you may ask others’ opinions. You may step in for a moment and

try to act so that group can go on without you. If you see that the
teachers do not know what to do in their meeting, you may come to the

meeting for a while. Maybe you know an example from an other school in
the same kind of situation or maybe you want to recall some facts about



OBJECTIVES:      After this lesson, learners should be able to:
                 - List some problems which a sick person might encounter in every day
                 - Give examples of different ways to help a sick person

                 - Recognise ways learner’s could help someone who is sick
                 - Realise that if the sickness is HIV/AIDS or some other serious illness,
                 the situation of the sick person is more or less the same.

                 - 45 - 60 minutes is enough for this period.

Drama on paper   During this lesson your are going to do drama on paper. (see page 55)

                 You need a very big sheet of paper. If you do not have that you can make
                 a big sheet from smaller papers or you can use backgrounds of posters or
                 use a blackboard or something else where you can draw a big picture of a
                 person. You can ask one learner to lie down on the paper and a few others

                 to draw around her/him.

Create a new     Now you have a picture of a person. Ask your learners to create a name
person                                for that person. You can also create a character
                                      (fiery, calm, quiet etc.) and think about what this

                                      person likes to do (sing, dance, read etc.). You can
                                      write the person’s name and some characteristics
                                      inside the person on the big picture you just made.

                 Now you have a new person in your classroom. Tell everybody that the
                 name of that new person is ______________. You can tell a story to
                 your class about this new person.

X’s story   X (use the name your learners created) is 28 years old. S/he (use the pronoun which
            is correct according to the name) has a regular job. S/he lives with her/his family. X
            has a spouse and three children, age 10, 8 and 2 years. X’s mother and younger

            brother live in the same house.

            About one year ago X find out that s/he is HIV positive. It changed her/his life. S/he

            knows that s/he will die from AIDS. X is still healthy, but s/he needs to be careful and
            take good care of herself/himself. S/he needs to eat healthy food and do some

            exercise. X needs to see a doctor regularly.

            It is not easy to take good care of oneself. Sometimes X is too lazy to do any
            exercise. Sometimes s/he does not have time to rest enough or do some things s/he

            enjoys. X knows what kind of things are important to do to be as healthy for as long
            as possible, but it is not always easy to do the right things.

            X is also worried about the future. There will be days when s/he will be very sick. X
            will not be able to go to work or take care of the family. There will come a time when
            s/he will not be able to eat or walk by herself / himself. Then there will be the day

            when X is not here anymore.

            That was something about X’s life. Now ask your learners to divide in

            smaller groups, about 5 learners per group is good. Each group will have a
            discussion about one of the following issues. You can give the same task
            to several groups.

            Group A: How could you help X and her/his family now when X has HIV,

            but not yet AIDS?

            Group B: How could you help X and her/his family when X is sick because
            of AIDS?

            Group C: How could you help X’s family after X passes away?

            Group D: How could you help especially X’s children after X passes away.

             Allow time for the groups to discuss the answers. Then you could gather
             together next to X (the person on the paper). Ask your learners to
             answer the question: “How can we help X?” You can ask learners to write
             the answers all around X. Or you can write answers on small papers and

             then stick the papers on the wall or next to X. You will see different
             ways of helping.

DISCUSSION   After all the ideas you can stay around X and start the discussion.

             You need to remember the objectives of the session clearly when you are
             leading this discussion section. Some important things should be learnt

             during this discussion. In a way the drama situation was an introduction.
             You should prepare yourself by reading the following chapters of this
             - “Basic facts about HIV/AIDS”

             - ... and if you find out that you have HIV or AIDS...

             - Taking care about somebody who has HIV/AIDS.

             It is important that your learners know the main points of those
             chapters. Maybe they know them already after the drama session
             otherwise you will need to tell them the main points during discussion.

                                Start by saying something about the drama on paper
                                you just finished. Let the learners relate their
                                experiences, what was easy, what was difficult. How do
                                they feel when they think about X’s life.

                                Let the learners relate their experiences if they ever

                                helped someone who was sick. Speak about the sick

                                person’s difficulties and different ways to help them.
                                Someone feels lonely, someone is not able to do every

                                day things and somebody might be afraid. Remind your
                                learners that a sick person needs help. HIV/AIDS does

                                no make any difference. Somebody with HIV/AIDS

                                needs your help and support in daily life.

It’s Important   X is somebody from your neighbourhood. S/he could be from next door.
that ….          S/he could be part of your family. S/he could be from your house. S/he
                 could be yourself. How do you want others to react if you are very sick?
                 Don’t you want them to support and help you? Don’t you want them to

                 stay with you when you have difficult times?

                 This was the last drama session in the book. The following is some extra

                 information to help you with your teaching. All the ideas in the book can

                 be used in different ways. Try to find the ways which are best for you
                 and best for your learners.

                          PART IV: Drama forms

                  Here you will get some basic information about the drama forms used in
                  this manual. After reading this chapter you will understand something

                  about the drama forms even if you have not used drama before.

                  Sometimes you (teacher) may take part in the drama by taking a role for
                  yourself. You will step into someone else’s shoes like learners do.

                                                       We     call    that    “teacher-in-role
                                                       strategy”. You can join the drama
                                                       for a short moment or you can be in

                                                       from the beginning to the end.

                                                       One good role for the teacher is to
                                                       be   someone    with   low   status   -

                                                       someone who needs help, who has
                                                       problem or difficulty. This kind of
                                                       role provides more opportunities for
                                                       the learners. They may find solutions
                                                       and ideas to help that person in a
                                                       difficult situation.

                  The teacher can also be somebody with high status or an authority role
                  like headmaster of the school or king. Sometimes the teacher can be in
                  an opposition role, a person with oposition opinions, someone who lies or
                  acts unfairly. The messenger’s role is also useful for the teacher. S/he
                  can visit the drama situation and say something that is important for the

                  situation. The messenger can communicate with everybody and s/he can

                  take orders from others. Messengers can be, for example, a policeman or
                  a journalist.

                  The teacher needs some distinct/clear symbol to show to the learners

                  when s/he is in-role. The symbol needs to be something that is easily
                  seen and it’s helpful if the symbol gives some information about the role

                  person. The teacher uses this symbol when s/he is in role and when s/he
                  takes it off, s/he is the teacher again. The symbol could be a hat,

                 glasses, coat, bag or something else simple. A post bag for a postman, a

                 white coat for a nurse or a doctor, or a tool for a carpenter.
                 When you are in role, you need to remember the aim of the drama at all
                 times. Everything you say or do should help the situation to move towards
                 the aim. Otherwise it might end up that you all enjoy the experience, but

                 do not learn anything about the issue.

                 You can always stop the drama - you can take your hat or other symbol
                 off and be the teacher again if needed. If you notice some discipline
                 problems in your classroom, you need to stop the drama for a while and
                 get the situation in order. There is no value in drama done in chaos! Or, if

                 you see that learners do not know what to do, it is better to stop the

                 situation for clarification. When you are ready, put your symbol on again
                 and the drama will continue.

                 Writing and drawing can be a part of drama. It is possible to draw
Drama on paper
                 pictures, maps, plans, write letters, diaries and scripts during drama.
                                                          Some of the papers can be private
                                                          and some of them can be kept on
                                                          the wall. Sometimes drama on paper

                                                          is an aid for the story or for the
                                                          planning and plays a small role in
                                                          the lesson. Sometimes lots of the

                                                          story happens on paper.

                                                          In this manual you will find one

                                                          common way to do drama on paper.
                                                          You will need a large sheet of paper
                                                          where you can make a figure of a


                 You can ask one learner to lie down on the paper and others to draw
                 around her/him. This person on paper is somebody important. In this
                 manual the person on the paper is HIV positive. If you want to learn
                 something about what it’s like to be a blind person, fireman, monster or

                 what ever, you can use the person on the paper for that role.

              Your duty is to encourage the learners to create answers and provide

              ideas. You may relate some facts about the person or you may ask your
              learners to create all of them. You need to encourage the learners to
              think about the work and life of a fireman for example. Let your learners
              write the answers around the character on the paper. You can also let

              the learners write or draw something about the person on smaller papers
              and then you can stick them on the wall.

Small Group   Sometimes learners want to present something to others. Small group
Playmaking    playmaking is one way to do that, but the idea is also to learn something
              at the same time. This is a form of prepared improvisation. You do not
              write any scripts. Nobody needs to learn any lines.

              It’s important in small group playmaking to give a clear task to the group.
              Learners need to know what they are supposed to do, otherwise there
              might be problems. The idea is to make a short play, usually just one


              When you are giving instructions say that it is good to decide two things:

              the starting point and roles for everybody. They can discuss the whole
              situation and make some plans for it, but those plans should not be too
              binding. It is important to leave opportunities for improvisation.

              With small group playmaking it is possible to study many kinds of every
              day things. They may try to react if something terrible / strange / funny
              / etc. happens. They may try to find quick solutions to a problem.

              Your duty is to give them background information, a problem that needs
              to be solved, or other needed information for the playmaking.

              It is possible to make still images in groups or individually. The idea is to
              tell something through one’s body, without movement and without words.

              A learner or a group will plan a pose and then hold it. They will physically
              represent some situation, idea, feeling, skill or whatever is needed to

              reach the objectives.     It is better that learners try to imagine a

              situation and the image is a story about the situation.

A good still image includes different heights and directions. If you do

still images in groups it is good practise for learners to work together
and make decisions together. They need to agree on what kind of image
they want to show. They need to agree on the best way to tell the

message they are supposed to tell and sometimes they also need to
decide on the message that they want to send. You can finish into the
still image or you can develop them further. It is possible to give

thoughts, words and movements to these images. Still images are often

used before some other kind of drama form.

You can go to the group, touch someone’s shoulder and ask them to

express their thoughts as a character in the situation. “Why are you
looking in the other direction from the others?” “Why are you holding
her hand?” Or you can ask more general question: “What you are planning
to say?” “To whom would you like to speak and what would you like to


In forum theatre the audience has a very important role, they are active
participants. The audience can stop the drama, ask characters questions,

give ideas to the character and even go and play the role themselves. The
idea is that the audience is trying to help find a solution to the
problematic situation in the drama. Forum theatre is most useful when

you have a problem waiting to be solved.

Try to make the audience feel free to disturb the drama. It is the most

difficult part of forum theatre. It helps if they are physically rear. You
can create your own scenarios and use all precious methods for those.
You can teach many different subjects using these method.

                      PART V: Something extra


              You lent your book to a friend a month ago. S/he promised to give it back

              after three weeks. You will need the book yourself soon. What to do?
              You can be passive, aggressive or assertive, when asking for your book

              You want your book, but you don’t do anything or you just mention
              something briefly about the book and hope that s/he remembers to give
              it back to you.

              “Have you read my book already?”

              A passive person does not say what s/he wants. They put themselves
              down. They hesitate and often don’t get what they want. A passive

              person can become frustrated because s/he does not get what s/he
              wants. Others do not respect him/her or may feel pity for her/him.

              You want your book back now and you want to make that clear. You do not
              care about others’ opinions, questions or anything else they say.
              “ You there. I want my book back. You promised to give it back a week
              ago! Where is it? Go and get it! Are you trying to steal my book? I want
              it back now!”

              An aggressive person isn’t concerned about others if s/he wants

              something. S/he may shout to others. S/he may humiliate, ridicule and
              blame. An aggressive person is often disliked and feared. Conflicts often
              happen with an aggressive person.

              You want your book back and you are going to ask for it. You have good
              reasons. You know what you want and you can say it honestly.
              “Have you read my book already? I need it myself soon. Would you please

              give it back to me tomorrow. I’m sorry if you did not have time to finish

it, but I lent it for three weeks only. I need to get it back now, so that I

can start reading it.”

An assertive person is honest. S/he can stand up for her/himself. S/he is
confident and says what s/he wants. S/he can do this while still

respecting others. An assertive person is likely to be respected.
Assertiveness leads to positive relationships.

Saying “NO” assertively may be one of the best ways to protect yourself

against HIV/AIDS and other risks in your life.

             A mind-map may look something like this...

             The idea in mind map is to write the problem, the main idea or the
             keyword in the middle.      Then move outwards writing sub-headings

             and adding details.     Only important points need to be included.
             When you have finished mind-mapping you can easily see different
             aspects of the issue. From a mind-map you can see something about
             the thinking process of the person who made the map.


Davies, G.: Practical Primary Drama. Heinemann Educational Books LTD. Great Britain. 1983.

Dixon, H.: Yes, AIDS Again. A Handbook for Teachers. LDA. Wisbech, Cambs. 1993.

Grönholm, I. (edit.): Ilmaisun monet kielet. Opetushallitus. Painatuskeskus OY. Helsinki 1995.

Line, A.: Drama Lessons in Action. A Resource Book. Dramatic Lines, Twickenham, England.


Matjila, J.: The Gamsberg Macmillan AIDS Awareness Programme. Teacher’s Guide. Senior

Primary Level. Namibian Edition Gambergs Macmillan and Macmillan Boleswa. Windhoek. 1995.

McCaslin, N.: Creative Drama in the Classroom. Fifth Edition. Longman. New York. 1990.

My Future is My Choice. “Protecting our Peers From HIV Infection”. Training Manual. The

Youth Health and Development Programme. Goverment of the Republic of Namibia and UNICEF.

March 1999.

Namibians SPEAK OUT on HIV/AIDS. UN Bulletin. United Nations System in Namibia.

December 1998.

Neelands, J.: Making Sense of Drama. Heinemann. Oxford. 1989.

Neelands, J.: Learning Through Imagined Experience. Hodder & Stoughton. London. 1992.

Readman, G. & Lamount, G.: Drama. A handbook for primary teachers. BBC Education.

London. 1994.

Teaching About AIDS Made Easy. A Manual for Teachers of Grades 5, 6 and 7.

National Institute for Educational Development. Florida State University. Windhoek. 1996.

Somers, J.: Drama in the Curriculum. Cassell Educational Limited. London. 1994.

Wessels, C.: Drama. Resource Books For Teachers. Oxford University Press. 1991.

Learning by doing. Learning by feeling.
 Learning through educational drama.

   This book is meant to be resource
   material for HIV/AIDS education in
 Namibian schools. From this book you
    will find different kinds of drama
   sessions and different ways to do
  educational drama in the classroom.
The material is suitable for learners from
              Grades 4 – 12.

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