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HIV/AIDS EDUCATIONAL DRAMA By Soile Salo National Institute for Educational Development REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA HIV / AIDS & EDUCATIONAL DRAMA Resource material for teachers Grades 4 - 12 National Institute for Educational Development (NIED) Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture Private Bag 2034 Okahandja Namibia © Copyright NIED, Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture, 2001. Soile Salo has right to translate this material into Finnish and has copyright for the Finnish publication. ISBN 99916-58-29-7 Printed by NIED Publication date: May 2001 Acknowledgements: Author: Soile Salo Language editor: Karen Berger and Carolyn Lewis Illustrater: Amali Maritz (not pages 11 and 13) and Rita Maritz (ribbon frames) Layout: Maggie Gawanas Cover: Maggie Gawanas and Elsie Hendricks Any part of this manual may be copied for teaching purposes in Namibia, as long as clear indication of the source is given and it is not used for commercial purposes. Thanks to: * Skillshare International and Embassy of Finland for economical support. * Lifeline / Childline for borrowing their staff for the piloting project. * Learners from Okahandja for piloting the material. * Erkki Laakso and Karen Berger for giving comments and ideas. * Hertha Pomuti for giving pedagogical feedback and comments. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................1 PART I: Basic Info ................................................................................................................4 BASIC FACTS ABOUT HIV/AIDS...............................................................................4 * What is HIV ................................................................................................................4 * What is AIDS..............................................................................................................4 * How do you get HIV/AIDS?....................................................................................5 * How can I prevent HIV infection? .........................................................................5 *What can I do if I think I have HIV or AIDS?...................................................6 ... and if you find out that you have HIV or AIDS ... ............................................6 * How do I know that somebody has HIV or AIDS? ............................................7 * Taking care of somebody who has HIV /AIDS...................................................7 PART II: Warm ups...............................................................................................................8 WARM UP EXERCISES....................................................................................................8 Why?.................................................................................................................................8 Learn to know each other ............................................................................................9 Confidence-building.......................................................................................................9 Listening.........................................................................................................................10 Seeing .............................................................................................................................10 Feeling ............................................................................................................................11 Imagine that... ..............................................................................................................11 PART III: Drama ideas ......................................................................................................12 BEFORE YOU START... ..................................................................................................12 “SOMETIMES THE BEST ANSWER IS “NO!” ........................................................14 “MY OPINION IS IMPORTANT” ...........................................................................17 “NEED TO SAY NO” ...................................................................................................22 “HOMECOMING”.........................................................................................................26 ”MARIA” ........................................................................................................................36 “HELP ME, PLEASE” ....................................................................................................41 PART IV: Drama forms.......................................................................................................45 DIFFERENT WAYS TO DO DRAMA ..........................................................................45 PART V: Something extra..................................................................................................49 ASSERTIVE, AGGRESSIVE OR PASSIVE................................................................49 HOW TO MAKE A MIND-MAP? ..................................................................................51 BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................52 INTRODUCTION Teaching HIV/AIDS related issues are a big challenge to all teachers. Sometimes it is easy, but then there are days when you feel that you do not know what to do next. This book will give you some ideas on how to teach HIV/AIDS related issues. It will not focus on the basic facts only. The aim is to go a little bit deeper with a few HIV/AIDS related issues. For example exploring the issues around having someone in your neighbourhood with HIV/AIDS. If you feel that you would like to have more information about teaching the basic facts of HIV/AIDS, there are lots of books available, e.g. NIED’s publication “Teaching About AIDS Made Easy”. Aims of the book The first aim of this book is to provide tools for teachers to use educational drama in their classroom. We use HIV/AIDS as the subject, but the technique is transferable to other subjects. It is possible to use educational drama to explore many issues and subjects. The material in this book is suitable for grade 4 -12 learners. The other aim of this book is to offer information and experiences on HIV/AIDS. If your learners already know the basic information about HIV/AIDS, the exercises in this book will help them to deepen their understanding. I Basic info This book consists of five different parts. The first part contains very basic information about HIV/AIDS. This is very important information for you as a teacher to know before you set up a drama situation that relates to AIDS issues. Maybe you already know the information, but it is still good to revise the Basic Info pages. When you are doing educational drama about HIV/AIDS it is important to come back to the info pages every now and then. If you feel that you need more information than you can find in this book, try a local clinic or counselling organisation or books and magazines. II Warm ups The second part gives directions for warm up exercises. It is essential to do warm up exercises before the actual drama, especially if educational drama is new to your learners. 1 III Drama scripts The third part consists of scripts for different kinds of drama situations. The scripts include objectives for the lesson, a script for the drama and some guidelines for the discussion. The themes in the drama scripts are different but all of them teach something about HIV/AIDS. IV Drama forms The fourth part of the book provides more information about the different kind of drama forms. V Something extra The last part provides extra information which might help you when you are preparing lessons. You can use this information during the drama situations and during the discussions. EDUCATIONAL Educational drama is a form of drama where everybody can participate. DRAMA AS A Role-playing is maybe the best-known form of educational drama, but TEACHING / there are other drama methods. Drama situations in this book are not LEARNING TOOL only for an audience, but also for those who are doing the acting. Educational drama is not drama as performance art, it is drama used as a learning tool. To produce educational drama one does not need to be an actor, actress or artist. How do we learn? People learn things in different ways: Some learn by listening, some by reading, some by seeing and some by doing. How could we organise something for all these different kinds of learners? Educational drama may be one answer. Educational drama can be an effective way of learning. It provides opportunities to listen, speak, think, feel, find out and be in the middle of the situations. It provides an opportunity to learn by feeling. Learning takes place during the drama process and after the process. Especially with sensitive issues it is fruitful to have a “hands on” way of dealing with the issue and drama provides a way to have that experience. If you don’t know a lot about being very sick or being very afraid, educational drama can provide situations where you can feel and 2 experience something like that. But you can do it safely in the drama, because it is not real life, it is imagined. Discussion Discussion is an important component of drama. It is important to remember that discussion after a drama reinforces what has been experienced during the drama process. You cannot skip over the discussion. The discussion helps learners to learn something about the issue. It helps learners to understand the drama they were just participating in better. Discussion allows hearing about others’ experiences and one can always learn from others. I hope that you and your learners will enjoy doing some drama and, at the same time, learn something important about HIV/AIDS, and maybe even something about life. How to read this One way to read this book is from the beginning to the end. It is possible book? that it is not the best way. It is possible that while you are reading, say part three you want to jump to some other parts to check something. You will probably discover for yourself what is the best way to read this book. 3 PART I: Basic Info BASIC FACTS ABOUT HIV/AIDS This chapter contains basic information about HIV/AIDS. You could spend some time with your class to study this information. Throughout the following drama sessions you will need to know some of this information, you will learn more about issues and you will gain a deeper understanding of them. As a teacher you can use this information, especially during discussions after drama sessions. * What is HIV HIV is a virus; its full name is Human Immunodefficiency Virus. There are lots and lots of viruses in the world. A virus is a small “germ” which you cannot see without a powerful microscope. Viruses cause different diseases. Some viruses cause flu and some cause diarrhoea. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV fights the body’s immune system. It gradually makes the immune system weaker and weaker. It can take years before the immune system is so weak that it breaks down. The immune system is the body’s security guard. It makes sure that the body can fight against disease. There is no medicine or treatment to remove HIV when it is inside the body. There are no medical doctors, no herbalists, no witchdoctors, no traditional healers or anybody else who can take the virus away. Currently there is nothing you can do to get rid of it! A person who has got HIV can look and feel perfectly healthy for many years. However, s/he is still carrying the virus and can transmit it to others. * What is AIDS When the immune system breaks down, HIV causes the disease called AIDS. When a person has AIDS, the immune system cannot protect the body against any diseases. AIDS is a fatal disease. There are no medicines or treatment to cure AIDS. If you have AIDS you will die 4 from it. There are no medical doctors, no herbalists, no witchdoctors, no traditional healers or anyone else who can cure AIDS. AIDS is a disease that makes regular flu or other common sicknesses very dangerous. Somebody who has got AIDS might die from the flu. The body’s immune system is too weak to fight against flu, therefore regular flu turns to pneumonia and it is very dangerous for the weakened body. * How do you get HIV/AIDS? In short, AIDS is the result of HIV levels reaching a certain height. You can get the HIV virus from HIV-infected people. These infected people could be anyone: poor or rich, white, coloured or black, a Namibian or a foreigner, your friend, a stranger or a family member. HIV lives in the body fluids of an infected person. You should avoid contact with those body fluids. The three ways of getting HIV are: a) Through unprotected sex with an infected person - this means sex without a condom. If the condom breaks it is possible for the virus to be transferred. b) Through infected blood. A needle containing infected blood, a razor or another sharp object that has been used by an infected person can prick you. It is also possible to get HIV from a blood transfusion, though nowadays donated blood is thoroughly screened in Namibia. c) Mother to child. HIV infected woman can infect their baby during birth or through breast milk. * How can I prevent HIV infection? Most things in everyday life are safe to do with somebody who has HIV. We can live in the same house and we can touch and hold. We can cook together, we can eat the same food and we can share cups and plates. We can use the same toilet and the same swimming pool. We can play sport and we can work together. We cannot get infected from sneeze or cough. We do not get HIV from insect bites either. 5 By avoiding HIV you will also avoid AIDS. The most common way to get HIV is through sexual contact. You can avoid HIV infection if you: a) Avoid sex, abstain. This means that you do not have sex at all. b) Both should be faithful. Have sex with only one partner who is uninfected with HIV and who is faithful. Both of you should go for a HIV test. Do not have casual sex. Do not have sex with many different partners. Do not have sex with somebody who has different partners. c) Safer sex. This means that each time you have sex, you should use a condom properly. Condoms are not 100% safe. Remember sometimes condoms can break or they can sometimes be faulty. d) Do not share razors, ear-piercing devices, needles or any other equipment that may carry somebody’s blood. *What can I do if I think I have HIV or AIDS? The only way to find out if you have HIV is to have a HIV test. Go to your doctor, clinic or HIV/AIDS counsellor and have a test. Remember to go back for your test results. There is a so called “window period” when the test result might be false. The virus needs to be in the body for some time before it can be detected by a test. The “window period” can be up to 3 months. Sometimes you need to go for another test after 3 months. ... and if you find out that you have HIV or AIDS ... If you are infected, it is important that you do not transmit the virus to somebody else. Do not have sex or, if you do, always use a condom and tell your partner that you are HIV positive (which means that you are HIV infected). Do not force your partner if s/he does not want to take the risk. Do not share razors, needles or other sharp objects with anybody. Do not donate blood. Think very carefully before you get pregnant. If you are infected, it is important to get information from a doctor or counsellor. You can do many things to stay healthy for as long as possible. If you take good care of yourself you will have more healthy days. You should stop smoking and stop drinking alcohol. You should eat healthy foods and take good care of your hygiene. 6 You should take time for rest and for exercise. You should continue with your job and also do things you enjoy. You should try to avoid other infections like flu and you should go for medical check ups regularly. * How do I know that somebody has HIV or AIDS? The only way to find out if somebody is HIV positive is by taking a blood test. An infected person can look and feel perfectly healthy. If this healthy looking person has HIV in his/her blood s/he can pass on the virus to other people. A HIV positive person will be really sick when AIDS develops. Still, it is not easy to tell that somebody has AIDS and only a doctor can do that. There are many kinds of common illnesses associated with AIDS like TB, diarrhoea, flu and others. People with AIDS usually die from these common illnesses. * Taking care of somebody who has HIV /AIDS A person with HIV/AIDS is going to die. It is not easy to come to terms with the knowledge that you will die and additionally know that you will be very sick before you die. You should try to give as much support and help as you can to the infected person. You can help with everyday things like cooking and cleaning. You may make time for conversation. You may try to find something to cheer up the sick person. You could do your best to make somebody’s last days comfortable. Remember, HIV cannot be transmitted through everyday contact. You need to be in contact with blood, semen or vaginal fluids to get the infection or a baby can get HIV from breast milk. So there is no risk in being a good friend or a good neighbour to a sick person. Do not isolate those who have HIV/AIDS, they need your help and support. 7 PART II: Warm ups WARM UP EXERCISES Why? Some experts say that you always need to do warm up exercises before you start “real drama”. Others say that you need use them only if you feel that it is necessary. In this book you will find instructions for some warm up exercises. It is good to do some of them to make the drama method more familiar to learners. It will enable the learners to feel more comfortable during the drama sessions. The purpose of warm up exercises is to make the learners feel safer and more familiar with one another in the group. If they learn to trust each other and know each other it will be easier for them to play in a role situation later during the drama situations. Some of the following exercises are for getting to know each other, some are for building trust and some are to heighten our senses. Some of the exercises will use the imagination and work with things that are not real. You do not need to do all the exercises. Do some of those that you think are important for your group. When you are doing the exercises you do not need to tell your learners that now we are using our hearing sense etc. It is enough that you guide the exercise and learners will notice something themselves. Maybe you can ask something about their experiences after the exercise. We will use pairs and groups during the next exercises. Take care that learners are not always working with the same people, change pairs, create different groups. If there is not an even number of learners you may join in yourself. You can do the exercises in your classroom, but it is good to make some space by moving desks and chairs. 8 These exercises are not meant to be used only before drama. You can do them in your classroom in other situations as well. These kinds of exercises can often build the community spirit of the group. Learn to know each other You only need these exercises if your learners do not know each other. Names. Stand all together in a big circle. Somebody starts by saying one’s own first name. The second one says the name s/he just heard and adds her/his own name. Everyone should say all the names that were before and then add their own name to the end of the list. “David, Magdalena, William, Maria and I am Julia”. The last person should remember all the names in the group. There can be even 20 - 30 learners in the group. Ask learners to concentrate well during the exercise. If someone makes a mistake during the exercise you will always start again. Name and description. Everyone says their own first name and a word to describe themselves which should start with the same letter as their name and should tell something about that person. Things s/he likes, things s/he is good at: Sally the sailor, Freddy the farmer or Laughing Lisa. After the first round you can make another one and ask learners to tell why they want to describe themselves as they did. Confidence-building The mirror. This exercise needs to be done in pairs. Partners face each other and silently copy their partner’s movements. If A moves her/his left arm, B should copy the movement like a mirror does. If A is performing that s/he is writing something B should do the same. Just like watching from a mirror. B can be the mirror first and try to copy A’s movements and after a while you may ask them to change parts. During this exercise learners are not allowed to say anything and they are not supposed to touch each other. Slow movements are preferable. Guiding. This exercise will be for both confidence-building and feeling. It will be done in pairs. First A will close her/his eyes and will put a hand on B’s shoulder and B will guide A around the room. The guidance must be soft and friendly and slow enough so that A feels that it is safe to follow 9 B’s guidance. After a while you can ask A and B to change parts: B will close her/his eyes and A will guide. Listening Sounds. Ask learners to lie on the floor or sit down quietly. Ask them to close their eyes and listen. Give the first instruction: Just listen to all the sounds you can hear. Give some time for listening. The next step is to listen to the sounds from outside the building. Follow all the steps slowly and give enough time for listening. a) Just listen. b) Listen to the sounds from outside the building. c) Listen to the sounds from inside the room. d) Listen to the sounds from yourself. Where are you? Divide the learners in pairs. Each pair (A and B) should decide on a short sound or signal. It can be a smack, a snap, a whistle, a hum or what ever. What’s important is that both of the pairs are able to make the sound. After all the pairs have decided on a sound ask them to go far from their partner, as far as possible in the classroom. Ask all the learners to close their eyes. Then everyone in the class starts to make their sound and try to find their partner by listening to all the sounds and trying to find the right one. If you are able to use a school hall or outside space it will make the exercise more interesting. When they find their pairs, they can stop making the sound. Seeing The pose was like this... Divide in groups of 5-6 learners. One from each group stays inside and the others go outside. The one (from each group) who stays inside takes a chair and takes some kind of sitting pose on the chair. Head, legs, arms... not too simple, but nothing acrobatic either. S/he needs to remember the pose so that s/he is able to repeat it later. One (from each group) from outside may come inside. S/he looks at the person on the chair for couple of seconds, then that person will stand up and the one who came outside will sit-down and take the same kind of pose. The same will go on until the last person from outside is sitting on the chair in the pose. Then the first person will take a chair and take the original pose. Others may see what changes had happened 10 during the game. All the groups are working at the same time and in the same room, but still they are doing their own work. Feeling Follow me. For this exercise you need to divide your learners into pairs. The idea is the same as the Guiding exercise earlier in this chapter. The difference is that during this exercise learners need to touch each other very lightly, they need to feel the light touch and follow it. Instead holding each others shoulders A and B will touch the tips of the index fingers together and then one needs to follow the other. They are touching each other very lightly. It is important to start moving slowly during this exercise. If you want they can also try nose-to-nose, shoulder to shoulder etc. Advise your learners to move different ways and different paces: fast / slow, straight / curved, up /down. Imagine that... Circulating things. Ask the learners to sit in a circle and sit there yourself as well. You will circulate imaginary things around the circle. And you should react to the thing you receive. You may start by giving a kitten to the learner sitting next to you. Say that here is a small kitten for you so that every one knows what you are going to circulate. The kitten will pass around the circle. You allow learners to create the next things or you create some more yourself. You can use for example, a heavy stone, an empty, but big box, a jewellery ring, a little bit of sand, a hot cup etc. You can do the same exercise without saying what is the object that you are circulating. It is more difficult version and need more concentration. At the end the other may try to guess what was the object. 11 PART III: Drama ideas BEFORE YOU START... Drama is a way to make some things more understandable and more concrete for learners. You can give your learners an opportunity to experience something themselves and learn something from this experience. Even those learners who have difficulties with reading and writing can do well in drama. Drama is one of the best methods if there is a lack of books or other teaching materials. All you need for drama is a teacher, learners and some imagination. You may use equipment as an aid but you can make perfect drama without it. Prepare Before you start doing any drama with learners it is important that you prepare yourself thoroughly for the situation. You need to read the script, think about your own role during the drama, think how you will solve possible difficulties and plan some questions, ideas and topics for the discussion. Prepare some basic facts about HIV/AIDS by reading the chapter about basic facts. Discussion At the end of each script you will find some guidelines for discussion. There are some questions and ideas for discussion. You are not supposed to follow them rigidly; they should provide some ideas for you to find your own way to guide the discussion. With different learners there may be different kinds of discussions and different kinds of topics which seem to be important. Help icon At the end of some scripts you will find following symbol ??? After this symbol you will find some ideas to solve difficult situations. Most of the time educational drama goes fine without problems, but there is always the possibility of misunderstandings or other things that 12 can cause problems. You can read those ideas beforehand to get tools for possible difficult situations. Now you have some background information about HIV/AIDS and some ideas for drama work. It is time to move to the drama scripts and start teaching and learning through drama method. In the first script the main purpose is to practise saying “no”. Saying “no” is often the best skill to protect oneself against HIV or other risks and that is why it comes as the first exercise in this book. 13 “SOMETIMES THE BEST ANSWER IS “NO!” Objectives: After this drama session, learners should be able to: - recognise the importance of saying “no” - practise saying “no” in their own lives You will need about 45 - 60 minutes for this period. There are two different lessons on the same issue with the same objectives. The methods used during this lesson are different from in the “Need to say “No” that occurs later. One can also say that this lesson is the first step and the other one is the second step in practising “no”. Still images During the next lesson you are going to make still images (see more on page 57) in your classroom. Learners will make images using their bodies. They will take a position and remain still. A still image does not include any movements or speaking. During the first phase of the lesson you will ask your learners some questions. Learners need to answer “NO” after each question. Even if their real opinion is something else, in this exercise they need to say no. They are not only saying NO, they will also practise making a still image about it. It means that they will use their bodies to answer “NO” as well. Sometimes learners need lot of encouragement to be able to say strong NO. Individuals Give the learners the introduction and then ask the following questions. After each question they should make a still image and at the same time say “NO”. The still image should give non-verbal support to verbal “NO”. The body is saying NO in its own way. Your classroom will be full of statues saying “NO”. Leave some time for the learners to stay in the still pictures after each question. 14 Questions: * “Do you want to eat sand?“ * “Do you speak the Lappish language?“ * “May I borrow your bicycle?” * “Is love the same as sex?” * ”Is it good to have sexual relationships before adulthood?” Groups The next step of this lesson is to make still images in groups. Divide learners in groups. A group of 4-6 learners is desirable. Ask your learners to make a still image together in their group. Remind them that the image does not move or speak. It should tell the message by other means. Each group is telling a story, the image is the story. It is good to think about a situation and to create an image about that situation. The idea in the image, what they should show in the image is as follow: Idea for the NO image: “I can say NO. I have the right to say NO. I can say NO without anger, I do not want to hurt anybody by saying NO. Sometimes NO is the best answer.” So this message should be in the image, but these can be other kinds of figures included in the image. Allow some time (5-10 minutes) for the groups to plan what kind of image they would like to do. Ask each group to show their image separately. You may allow some discussion or you may ask something. You can for example touch a learner’s shoulder to tell her /him that she/he can answer. You do not need to ask everybody questions. Here are a few examples of how you can ask learners to say something about the situation: “When I touch your shoulder, I want you to tell us why you are pushing him away” “Why are you holding his hand?” “ What happens to this picture if you leave it?” Ask about the situations that you are able to see in the still image. “What you would like to say?” “How do you feel?” You may ask a few questions to let the group members put some thoughts or words to 15 their still image. Do the same with all the groups one after another if you feel that it give same information. The last still images of the lesson will be made in groups. The way to do it is the same as above; only the idea of the picture is different. Allow about 5 minutes to plan the image. Idea for the YES image: “I can say YES. I have right to say yes. I may decide when I want to say yes. I can say yes when it is the best answer.” You are ready when all the groups have had a chance to show their still images and say something about them. DISCUSSION Allow your learners to relate their feelings after working with still images. How was it to make still images? How did they feel when they were saying no? Was it different from saying yes? Ask learners opinions about saying “no”. When it is easy? When it is a must? When it is difficult? How do you feel if you do not say it even if you feel that you should say it? How do you feel if somebody says “no” to you? During this discussion it’s good to refer to HIV and other STDs. You can also ask questions that will help learners to relate the images to HIV and STDs issues. Encourage learners to speak about the different sides of saying no. It is important to understand that everyone needs to know how to say no. Sometimes it is the best way to protect yourself from dangerous or unpleasant situations. Also speak about saying yes. Remind the learners that it is a person’s right to decide if s/he wants to say “NO” or “YES”. Now we have studied the basics about saying “NO”. During the next lesson we will practise different ways to express our opinions. The method will be different: learners will do same playmaking. 16 “MY OPINION IS IMPORTANT” Objectives: After this lesson, learners should be able to: – Identify passive, aggressive and assertive behaviour – List the positive and the negative aspects of passive, aggressive and assertive behaviours You will need about 60 minutes for this period. The theme of this lesson is assertive, aggressive and passive behaviour. The next drama deals with these issues. You can read more about the theme on page 59-60. You may use the information during the discussion. Small group playmaking During the following lesson you are going to use small group playmaking in your class. It is a form of prepared improvisation. The idea is that you set the task for the groups and they are going to plan short (a few minutes is enough) improvisations about the task. Groups will enact their improvisations for the rest of the class to see. You can do all this in your own classroom. (See more on page 56) Planning A good size for each group could be about 5 learners. When groups are planning their improvisations they should decide on the situation and have they are going to start and plan roles for all of them. They may plan the main idea of the story but there is no need to write anything down or practise beforehand. There should be some space for improvisation. Others in the class do not know the story from their card so the group needs to give the others enough information. The tasks are detailed below on the cards (see pages 23-25). Give one story to each group. Ask them to do the planning so quietly that others will not know their story beforehand. If needed, you can write more or you can give the same task to several groups. If you do not have enough learners for all of these 6 stories, you may leave some stories out. Do not leave out C or F. They are the most important, because in those stories the acting is assertive. 17 Allow time (about 10-15 min.) for the groups to prepare the improvisations. When they are ready, you may ask them to act out their stories for the others. Thank and encourage each group after their presentation. DISCUSSION When all the groups have done their improvisations, it is time for discussion. It is important to keep the objectives of the session in your mind during the discussion. Allow your learners to express how they felt about the playmaking. How was it? What were their feelings when somebody was angry? What were their feelings when somebody was passive? What were their feelings when somebody was assertive? Which way was the most effective? Which way was the best if you want to consider others, not only yourself. Encourage your learners to compare different kinds of behaviour. Try to find reasons why assertive behaviour is often the most effective. Encourage your learners to learn and test assertive behaviour. Encourage them to express their opinions and stand up for themselves. Explain something about passive, aggressive and assertive behaviour. You can get some information from pages 59-60. And how is this dealing with HIV/AIDS? Relate the theme of this session to HIV/AIDS issues. People make decisions about their sexual behaviour and they need to explain their opinions and decisions to others. There are times when “NO” is the best answer. The most effective way to express opinions is assertively. 18 CARDS Story A / “My opinion is important” A situation in a post office. It is the end of the month. There are lots of people waiting. A clerk is doing the best he can. Mathias has been waiting for a while already. It is almost his turn now. Then suddenly somebody just moves in front of him in the queue without asking or saying anything. Mathias is a shy and passive person. He does not say or do anything, but you can see that he is not happy. Do the other people in the queue notice anything? Does the clerk react in some way? Prepare a short improvisation about the situation. Story B / “My opinion is important” A situation in a post office. It is the end of the month. There are lots of people waiting. A clerk is doing the best he can. Magdalena has been waiting for a while already. It is almost her turn now. Then suddenly somebody just moves in front of her in the queue without asking or saying anything. Magdalena is an aggressive person. She will react to the situation with a loud voice. She does everything to keep her place in the queue. She can easily blame and humiliate others. Do the other people in the queue do anything? Does the clerk react in some way? Prepare a short improvisation about the situation. 19 Story C / “My opinion is important” A situation in a post office. It is the end of the month. There are lots of people waiting. A clerk is doing the best he can. Magdalena has been waiting for a while already. It is almost her turn now. Then suddenly somebody just moves in front of her in the queue without asking or saying anything. M. knows that she was there first and it is her turn. M. is very assertive. It means that she stands up for her rights and says what she wants. She can provide arguments for the situation. She can do this in a friendly way and she still respects other people. So she does not need to be aggressive. Do the other people in the queue do anything? Does the clerk react in some way? Prepare a short improvisation about the situation. Story D / “ My opinion is important” Your class is planning a visit to the children’s ward of a hospital. Veronica (one of the learners) says that it could be more useful and fun for the children if you made some kind of program to present to the children. You could read, sing or do something else to give these sick children a better day. Some noisy pupils from the class say “NO!”. Veronica is a shy person and she is too passive to provide an argument for the idea. How will the situation develop? Will there be a program for the children? Prepare a short improvisation about the situation. Story E / “My opinion is important” Your class is planning a visit to the children’s ward of a hospital. Henry (one of the learners) says that it could be more useful and fun for the children if you made some kind of program to present to the children. You could read, sing or do something else to give these sick children a better day. Some noisy pupils from the class say “NO!”. Henry is a very aggressive person and he begins to shout to the others and tell them they are lazy. He wants to say that he knows what is best and others do not know anything. How will the situation develop? Will there be a program for the children? Prepare a short improvisation about the situation. 20 Story F / “My opinion is important” Your class is planning a visit to the children’s ward of a hospital. Helga (one of the learners) says that it could be more useful and fun for the children if you made some kind of program to present to the children. You could read, sing or do something else to give these sick children a better day. Some noisy pupils from the class say “NO!”. Helga knows that she has got a good idea and does not want to give up easily. She respects others, but insists on expressing her opinion and provides arguments for the idea. She is assertive, but not aggressive. How will the situation develop? Will there be a program for the children? Prepare a short improvisation about the situation. During the next session we will use this same method to do drama. The theme is saying NO effectively. There you will be able to combine saying no and being assertive. 21 “NEED TO SAY NO” Objectives: After this drama session, learners should be able to: - recognise the importance of saying “no” - practise saying “no” in their own lives You will need about 60 minutes for this period. Small group playmaking: During the next lesson you are going to do small group playmaking in your classroom. The cards on pages 29-31 describe situations where learners can practise saying “no” and responding to it as well. One may accept the no answer or one may try to do everything to get another answer. Planning Learners work in groups of about 5 learners. Each group gets one of the imaginary stories (on pages 29-31) and plans a short (not more than 2-3 minute) improvisation about the situation. Remind them that it is good to decide roles and the starting point during the planning session. In the cards there will be roles for 2 or 3 learners, but each group needs to create more roles so that all the members of the group have a role. They do not need to rehearse or write scripts. This is supposed to be a prepared improvisation, so you do not need to plan it too much. Remind the learners that the audience will not know what the story in their card is, so they need to give enough information about the situation for others to follow the presentation. Presentation The groups take turns to present their improvisations after planning. You could give comments after each presentation, but in order to save time it might be better to have the discussion after all the improvisations. Do not forget to thank and encourage each group after their presentation. DISCUSSION After all groups have presented their stories, provide time for discussion. Make opportunities to share different kinds of experiences and ideas experienced during and after the playmaking. How did it feel to say “no”? How did it feel to try to get another person to change her/his 22 mind after s/he said “no”? What are the risks in saying no? What are the benefits of saying ”no”? Is there something else you feel is important? Try to study different sides of the situations presented. What could each of you learn that’s relevant to your own life? Remind your learners that it is a matter of protecting yourself if you can say “no” in certain situations. Relate the discussion to HIV and other STD issues. Try to remember the objectives of this lesson. Encourage them to practise saying no and say that sometimes ‘no’ is the only appropriate answer. The following are the starting points for improvisation. Story A / “Need to say NO” Emmy’s friends are going camping over the weekend. They ask Emmy to join them but she does not want to go. There will be both girls and boys. She does not want to go because she knows that Josef will be there. Josef likes her lot, but Emmy does not know him very well. Emmy feels that it is not the time for camping together. Emmy’s friends are asking her to join them. Josef is asking her to come, others try to find reasons to make her join them. Emmy says no and does not want to change her opinion. She says “no” assertively without hurting anybody. Plan a short improvisation about the above situation. 23 Story B / “Need to say NO” Some friends are camping over the weekend. Debora is one of them. They are having a good time together. Debora shares a tent with her friend Julia. When night comes Julia tells Debora that she would like to sleep together with her boyfriend. That means that Debora would sleep in the same tent as Barnabas. Debora likes Barnabas a lot, but she does not want to share a tent with him. Debora says “no” and she tries to do it without anger. How will the others react? Debora is not going to change her opinion. Plan a short improvisation about the above situation. Story C / “Need to say NO’ Nicholas has a new bicycle. There are lots of people who would like to borrow it. He has decided not to lend it to anyone because his old bike was stolen when one of his friends borrowed it. Many people come to ask for his bike. Somebody wants to go to the post office before it closes. Somebody needs to visit a grandmother a long way away. There are different reasons. Nicholas is happy to help somebody in an emergency, but he is not going to lend his bike. Some people don’t understand his decision. Nicholas needs to be strong but not aggressive when he says “no”. Plan a short improvisation about the above situation. Story D / “Need to say NO” It is the last day of a school year. Iris is planning to have a party for her friends to start the holiday. She does not want alcohol to be used at her home and her parents don’t want it either. Some of her friends asked if alcohol will be served at the party. Some of them say that they will take beer with them when they come. Iris says that there will be no alcohol served and they are not allowed to bring alcohol to her home. Some of her friends disagree, but Iris says “no”. She argues and tries to be very assertive. She does not want to change her opinion. Plan a short improvisation about the above situation. 24 Story E / “Need to say NO” Some pupils were going to smoke behind the school building. They ask David to come with them even if he does not smoke. David does not want to go because it is not allowed to smoke in the schoolyard. Some of those who were going to smoke are still young and they should not smoke at all. David says that he is not going to join them and he also tells the others that they should not go either. Plan a short improvisation about the above situation. Story F / “Need to say NO” Lisa is a grade 8 learner. She asks for some help from her teacher during a break. Her teacher, Mr Angula, answers Lisa’s question but at the same time holds Lisa’s shoulder in a way that does not feel comfortable. Lisa feels that the teacher is invading her private space. Lisa tells her teacher that she does not want to be touched. Lisa is not going to change her opinion or say that she is sorry. Lisa knows that she is right and that she has the right to protect herself. Until now we have learnt some skills that are good to know if one wants to protect oneself from some risks in life. From the next session we will start working more with the HIV/AIDS issues. The following session will be about the basic facts about HIV/AIDS. You will need those basic facts during other sessions later in the book. 25 “HOMECOMING” OBJECTIVES: After this lesson, learners should be able to provide answers to the following questions: - What is HIV/AIDS? - How can you get HIV? - How can you avoid getting HIV? - How can I prevent HIV infection? - Learners may also be able to give examples of false statements about HIV/AIDS. It is possible to complete this session in an hour, or you may spend three hours on it. You will find different ways to do this exercise and some of them need more time than others. Teacher-in-role strategy You as a teacher should read this Homecoming drama as a whole by yourself at first. In this drama episode you and your class will role-play a situation in a village. The whole class of learners will be villagers and you will be a person who arrives at the village after many years of absence. The main aim of this drama is to learn some basic facts about HIV/AIDS by using role play in a village situation, by having a discussion afterwards and by writing something about the experience. You will use the so called teacher-in-role strategy during the role-play (see more on page 54). You can do this drama in your classroom and all the learners can participate. It might be good to move the desks and chairs so that you have some empty space. You can also do this drama outside if you won’t be disturbed. In this drama your role is to show the fact that you do not know much about HIV/AIDS issue. In this drama the teacher’s role is to be the one who does not know - who is wondering and asking questions. Learners in their roles will tell you what they know and what they think about the HIV/AIDS issue. 26 All kinds of answers may help the learning process. It might happen that learners are relating incorrect information about HIV/AIDS. During the drama situation there is no such thing as a wrong answer. You can make the needed corrections during discussion after the drama but not in the middle of the drama. All you may do in your role is to ask more questions or explain your feelings and opinions when you are role-playing with learners. You may react like your character would react. Prepare your role You should prepare yourself for your role. You have left your village 10- 15 years ago and came back yesterday. You have lived alone in a solitary place for the last 15 years. You met some people briefly every now and then, but you did not follow any news of the world. HIV/AIDS was not an important issue at the time you left your village. You can remember that you have heard something about it. You remember that it is a sickness that cannot be healed by any means. You remember that HIV/AIDS has something to do with sex. You have noticed many people from your village have passed away during the 15 years and some of them were not very old. You have noticed that the letters HIV/AIDS can be seen in many places: newspapers and walls. You heard advice on the radio yesterday soon after you came to the village: “Take care. Don’t play with your life. AIDS can take your future.” You should decide some basic things about your character to make it clear for yourself. How old are you? Do you have a profession? What kind of character are you? What do you feel is important in life? What do you like /dislike? What do you know and think about HIV/AIDS? Something else? You may also think of some questions to ask the villagers about HIV/AIDS. To follow the objectives of this lesson there should be discussion around the following themes: 27 - What is HIV/AIDS? - How can you get HIV? - How do you avoid getting HIV? - How can you prevent HIV infection? It might be fruitful not to ask the questions as they are. You need to rephrase the questions in order to start a discussion. Maybe you could wonder if you can get HIV if you use the same cup as somebody who is sick. Maybe you could be worried that you do not know how to protect yourself from the sickness. It will be easier for the learners if you pretend that it is a discussion in a village, not a quiz in the classroom. It is important to remember that you do not wait for the right answers - you are asking these questions because in your role you do not know the answers. You should not and cannot plan all your words beforehand because you should react to the situation in the village, but it is good to plan how you are going to start the situation. Villagers (learners) will react to your words and your behaviour. When you start with your class, tell your learners what they should know before you go into the drama situation. It is helpful to do it slowly, and let learners think about the situation and their own roles. You (learners) are people in a village. It is a regular village today, so you can imagine what life is like in a village nowadays. What kind of villagers are there? You may choose who you would like to be in the village. You can be whoever you want to but you cannot be younger than your own age. You may be older than you are, but not younger. The drama will be more interesting if there are both old and young people and both males and females. The next step is to help learners create their own character by giving them the following instructions. This is a very important period of the session. Give it time and try to support the learners to be character, i.e. feel like the character and act like the character. 28 You can decide your role yourself. During the drama you should act in the same way that you think that your character acts in her/his every day life. So if you decide that you would like to be a 45 year-old shopkeeper, then you should act in the way you think s/he would act in the situation. - Think who you would like to be. - Have you got a family? - Who are you in your family? Grandfather, mother, husband, child? Somebody else? - How old are you? (Not younger than you own age, but older is OK.) - Do you have a profession? Teacher, nurse, farmer? Something else? - What kind of personality do you have? You can decide yourself who you want to be. There is no wrong decision here. All the roles are fine. You can choose to be from same family or the same workplace as someone else if you like. Who would like to be the headperson in the village or in this community? It is good to have somebody who takes this role. (Now as a teacher you should take care that somebody will be the headman or head-woman. If there are no volunteers, you could ask one of your learners if s/he would like to be the headman/woman.) You, as a headperson, may find solutions, may act as chairperson if needed. The following is an experience for character building. Ask each learner to close his/her eyes and listen to your questions and answer for themselves only, so you do not need to hear the answers. This is so learners become more familiar with their character. 29 Think of the following situations and try to imagine how you would act in these situations as your character: - What do you eat for breakfast? - Do you cook your breakfast yourself? - What clothes are you wearing? What are your favourite clothes? - You are going to post office today. Why do you go there? How do you behave in the office? - You are going shopping. What are you going to buy? - You are visiting a friend. Who is it and why are you visiting? - What is your biggest reason to be happy? - What is the most difficult problem in your life? Ask your learners to open their eyes and be ready to start the drama. The following is an imaginary story about the village and what is going on there. Situation in the village Something special has happened. Someone from your village left 10-15 years ago to live alone in a solitary place far from here. Out of the blue s/he came back yesterday. S/he spent most of her/his time by her/himself after s/he left. S/he met people every now and then, but s/he did not have any contact with newspapers, radio or TV. The person who arrived in your village knows that there was something called HIV/AIDS before s/he left your village. S/he does not know basic things about HIV/AIDS. S/he has noticed that it is a big issue nowadays and s/he is interested to know something about it. I (teacher) will be in that role. You will know that I (teacher) am in character when I put my glasses on /put my hat on / put a scarf on my shoulders like this. 30 Show it. You as a teacher may decide what your symbol will be. Just make it clear that everybody knows the symbol and what it means. When I take this symbol off, I am a teacher again and may do some things teachers need to do. When I put this symbol on again, I am in the role and the life in the village will go on. Different option: The following are different options that you can choose from to do the drama in the village with your learners. Option 1 The first option is that the whole village has gathered together. Everyone is included in the drama at the same time. All the people in the village are taking part in this discussion. Everybody can ask questions, provide answers or react the way they want to react. Even if there is a teacher-in-role and a headperson, everybody can participate. Option 2 The second option provides more peaceful time to speak with all the villagers. Ask (as a teacher) all the learners to come “on the stage” in turn. Take small groups at a time. Maybe you have 4 teenagers and they can come together. Maybe you have 7 from the local church and they will come together. Maybe there are parents, grandparents or doctors and witchdoctors. Ask a few students to come at a time and go and speak with them in character. Talk about HIV/AIDS with all of them and try to find answers to the questions you still have. You may think that you are in a village and you go from house to house, from group to group to find the truth about HIV/AIDS. Option 3 The third option is almost like option two, but we add there forum theatre (see more on page 57). This is not the easiest way to do that exercise, but if you feel that your learners are able to do this kind of drama, it might be worth trying. For forum theatre you need to ask some of your learners to be the audience and some of them to chose a role for the village situation. The teacher-in-role goes and meets different people from the village. The difference is that the audience has an important role. If someone from the audience thinks that something is 31 not going right on the stage s/he can say “Stop” and take on one of the roles on the stage. If there is a witchdoctor saying something and someone from the audience does not like that, s/he can say “Stop” and go and take witchdoctor’s role and try to be the kind of witchdoctor who gives the right answers. The important idea in forum theatre is that the audience can effect the situations. The role of the audience is to try to find solutions for the problem. They may provide new ideas on the stage. After you choose one of the above options you will continue from the following instructions. The situation is the same for all the options; only the way to do it differs. For learners Are you ready to move in your roles? When we go to our village you need to remember to act like that person you have decided to be. Ready to start the OK. Time to move to the village. Maybe you would like to sit down on the floor / drama in the village ground like some people who have come to meet each other. You may start. When I came it is a “long time no see moment”. Your class should be ready to start the drama now. Here are some examples of how to star the discussion in the village: “I have seen this HIV/AIDS everywhere. What is it? What does it mean?” “I heard on radio that AIDS could kill you. Why did they say that?” “Somebody says that HIV is dangerous and somebody else says that AIDS is dangerous. What should I believe?” When you are ready to start, put your symbol on and jump into your role. Remember: Keep the aim of the session in mind! The aim of the session is to enable learners to discuss facts about HIV/AIDS. You as a teacher 32 can work towards the aim using your responses and questions. Try to remember that everything you do should in one way or other help lead the situation towards the aim of the session. You are in the village situation with the villagers (learners). You can finish the situation when you as a teacher think that there has been enough discussion about the subject. Your character can say something to finish the situation. The following can serve as clues to indicate that you want to finish: Maybe s/he says s/he is happy about this information. Maybe s/he is even more confused or whatever might be the feelings of the role person after the situation in the village. S/he might say that she needs to go now. Take your symbol off and you are the teacher again. Ask your learners to be learners again and start a discussion with them. DISCUSSION This is the most important part of a good educational drama, so do not forget this. This is still a time for learning. In the discussion you may ask learners’ feelings and thoughts about the situation you just had in the village. You may relate your feelings and thoughts as well. You may ask learners if they feel that they have learnt something. What? You may speak about the basic facts of HIV/AIDS. If there was some wrong information about HIV/AIDS now is the time to correct it. Make it very clear that the wrong information is not true. Provide the correct information. It might be good to write the right facts on the blackboard. HOMEWORK You may use the following as homework for the learners: This writing task will finish the “Homecoming” episode. 33 Instructions for your homework Put yourself back in the character you played during the session. Your character wants to write something in her/his diary about the situation you just had in the village. The diary is her/his private book that s/he writes for her/himself. S/he would like to write down some things s/he feels are important. Maybe something s/he can not understand, something she is happy or afraid about or something s/he will remember from this day. Remember: the writer is not you, s/he is your character. Just remind yourself who you were in the village today. Write one page in your exercise book, which will now play the role of a diary. This writing task could involve cross curriculum approach so that as a writing task it could be part of language education as well as HIV- education. Characters might have wrong information about HIV/AIDS. Ask your learners to correct that. They can do it by writing something as learners (not characters anymore) or they can do it during discussion. At the very end you as a teacher have the responsibility that all the mistakes will be corrected. Now you have finished this session. You did some role-plays, discussion and writing. Your class has heard a little more about the very basics of HIV/AIDS. At the end of this session you will find some ideas for solving difficult situations during drama. The following session uses the basic information about HIV/AIDS. The next session will deal with attitudes and values. What to do if your learners are relating incorrect information about HIV/AIDS: - In this drama incorrect answers are important for drama and for learning. - You should encourage other learners to provide correct answers after the incorrect ones. - You (your character) may wonder if that answer is true and hope that some other learner will tell you the truth. - You (your character) may remember that you heard something about the same thing yesterday and you have a feeling that the information was different. 34 - You (as a teacher) have to be really careful and precise with the facts when you are having a discussion with learners after the drama session. Discussion is a very important part of a good drama! What to do if your learners do not start answering your questions: - Try to ask your question in a different way. - Try to ask a different kind of question. - Try to wonder “ I have heard that ...Do you know if it is true or not?” “ Have you heard that... What is your opinion about it?... ” - Try to direct your question to an individual if the whole group does not react. - Leave enough space and time for the learners to react. - If needed, you should take off your role symbol and, as a teacher, tell the learners that they do not need to know the right answers to your questions. They can say the answers that they know or think their character might reply. You can also check if learners have some other difficulties with the task. When the situation seems to be clear you can replace your role sign again and jump back to the village. 35 ”MARIA” OBJECTIVES: After this drama session, learners should be able to: - Describe some of the feelings people have when someone close to them gets HIV/AIDS. - Give examples of different attitudes towards an “HIV family”. - Give examples of different problems an HIV-positive person will meet in her/his social life. You will need about 60 - 90 minutes for this period. How to meet an The aim of this drama session is to give learners an experience of the HIV infected situation when someone close to you has HIV. Many teachers and person learners may know this from real life already. There can be different kinds of reactions to suit the situation. Your learners will not need to have the “right” and the “best” reactions in this drama. They can react in the way they imagine their character would react. In this drama you will divide your class into groups, about 5 learners per group is fine. There are five different groups in this script. Maybe you will need to make more than five groups if you have a lot of learners. You just need to create the background for the extra groups. You need to make small pieces of paper with + and - symbols in advance. Make enough so that there will be one for each learner. Make half of the symbols + and half -. 36 Read this story Maria is a 16 year-old school girl. She lives a normal life with her family and to the learners relatives. She loves to sing and enjoys time with her family and friends. She can be a little shy at first, but when you get to know her, she is very nice and friendly. Maria lives in a small town with her parents, one brother and two sisters. She is a grade 10 student at the local school. Groups Now do the following to prepare your learners for the drama session: - family Tell the learners that they will hear more about Maria later. First, they need to get into their groups. Divide your class into small groups. - neighbours One group will be Maria’s family: parents, sisters, brother, aunt, grandmother etc. What is the nature of the relationship between Maria and her family? - friends One of the groups will be Maria’s neighbours from the same street. Someone lives next door to Maria’s family, someone does not know Maria’s family. One group will be Maria’s friends from the church choir, Someone is a very close friend of Maria, someone sings next to her, someone could be the choir leader etc. - fellow learners One group will be fellow learners from the school. They study together with her every day. - teachers The last group will be Maria’s teachers and headmaster from the school. Some of them might think that Maria is a good learner and some of them have just the opposite opinion. 37 Let each learner take one of + / - papers. Those who get + will have a positive attitude towards Maria and those who get - will have a negative attitude towards Maria. Ask your learners not to reveal their symbol to anyone. A person can change his/her attitude during the drama situation if something happens to bring about change. There needs to be a reason for changing one’s attitude. Read this story Now your learners should know the group where they belong. Ask them to to the learners have a discussion in each group and decide on their roles. One can be Maria’s mother, one can be her best friend etc. Ask them to listen to the next story as if they are their characters. How does this story sound to a neighbour or a friend? A few weeks ago Maria noticed that she was pregnant. She is due in 5 months. Maria also found out that she is HIV positive and will have AIDS one day. She got the virus from her boyfriend. Maria wants to live positively with HIV. She told her neighbours, family, friends and people from her school that she is HIV infected. Ask your learners to meet in their small groups. The task is to plan a short play about the situation. Each group will react differently to Maria’s news that she is HIV positive and she is pregnant. After a short planning time all groups will have a turn to act out the situation. Remind your learners that they do not need to plan the situation too thoroughly. It is enough if they have an idea where to start and they know their roles. To make the story interesting there should be some elements of conflict. If the conflict lasts too long it is not interesting any more. It means that some kind of solution needs to come out as well, but it does not need to be a happy ending. With or without Maria is purposefully left out of the story, no one will play Maria’s role. Maria? The idea is to give more freedom to say all kind of things about Maria when she is not present. If you see that this is too difficult for your learners, then ask one person in each group to be Maria and enter while the others are discussing her. Each member of the group will react in the way they think their character would react. 38 Another option You have another way to do this drama. It is possible to do this as an improvisation. Improvisation is interesting if your learners are ready to do it. For improvisation you will just give the background information as you do anyway. The difference is that learners do not get any time to plan. They will just have the information about Maria’s situation and they know their group (neighbour etc.) information. They will go to the stage and start to act out the situation as a group. DISCUSSION The second phase of this lesson is to summarise the previous drama. You Mind-maps could make two mind-maps to summarise the previous situations. You can have the discussion as a whole class. You may ask some learners to make the mind-map on the board or on a poster. See some information about mind-mapping on page 61 if needed. Maria’s situation Make one mind-map about Maria’s situation. Write down the problems that Maria will meet in her life now. The middle idea in the mind-map could be Maria, Maria’s problems, Maria’s life or something like that. Other main Make another mind-map about others’ points of view as relatives, fellow points of view workers etc. Try to find feelings, attitudes and opinions that emerged in groups during the drama situation. The idea in the middle of the mind- map could be something like Others Opinions or something else that seems to be relevant for the situation. You need to remember the objectives of the drama during the discussion. You still have an opportunity to say something about people’s feelings when they hear that a friend has HIV - something about their attitudes and think about some of the problems you might have because of HIV. It is possible that there will also be a discussion about orphans. It is an important issue. You just need to remember that it might be a difficult issue for some of the learners and you need to guide the discussion carefully. In this session it was possible to show all kinds of attitudes towards HIV and a HIV-positive person. Following are ideas handling difficult 39 situations drama script. In the last script the idea is to think about helping a sick person. The drama form in the last script is a bit different from those we used until now. What to do if the planning in the groups does not go on? - If you see that some of the groups do not know what to do, you can ask if they need clarification and you may repeat the instructions so that the group will understand. - Sometimes you need to help the group by asking questions about the situation “ Do you have some ideas already?” “ Do any of you have an idea about your own role?” “ What do you think about the neighbours? What kind of reactions might they have?” - If the group is really stuck you can give some ideas, but do it in the form of questions as well or some other “hidden” way. If you give too clear ideas the group will not be able to create their own situation. “Would you like to do the situation at home or somewhere else?” “Maybe some of you could be friends of Maria and some others could have a negative relationship with Maria.” “Try to imagine the situation at the school.” “Someone might say that we must expel Maria. What might happen then?” What to do if the improvisation in the groups does not work? - Like before, you can ask if they need some clarification and you may repeat the instructions so the group understands. - You can take a role for yourself and step into the group situation for a moment. If you decide to use this teacher-in-role strategy, you have to think carefully what you are going to do in the group. If you see that the group of neighbours are getting stuck, you may be one neighbour for a while. You may ask questions about the situation, you may express your opinions, you may ask others’ opinions. You may step in for a moment and try to act so that group can go on without you. If you see that the teachers do not know what to do in their meeting, you may come to the meeting for a while. Maybe you know an example from an other school in the same kind of situation or maybe you want to recall some facts about HIV/AIDS. 40 “HELP ME, PLEASE” OBJECTIVES: After this lesson, learners should be able to: - List some problems which a sick person might encounter in every day life - Give examples of different ways to help a sick person - Recognise ways learner’s could help someone who is sick - Realise that if the sickness is HIV/AIDS or some other serious illness, the situation of the sick person is more or less the same. - 45 - 60 minutes is enough for this period. Drama on paper During this lesson your are going to do drama on paper. (see page 55) You need a very big sheet of paper. If you do not have that you can make a big sheet from smaller papers or you can use backgrounds of posters or use a blackboard or something else where you can draw a big picture of a person. You can ask one learner to lie down on the paper and a few others to draw around her/him. Create a new Now you have a picture of a person. Ask your learners to create a name person for that person. You can also create a character (fiery, calm, quiet etc.) and think about what this person likes to do (sing, dance, read etc.). You can write the person’s name and some characteristics inside the person on the big picture you just made. Now you have a new person in your classroom. Tell everybody that the name of that new person is ______________. You can tell a story to your class about this new person. 41 X’s story X (use the name your learners created) is 28 years old. S/he (use the pronoun which is correct according to the name) has a regular job. S/he lives with her/his family. X has a spouse and three children, age 10, 8 and 2 years. X’s mother and younger brother live in the same house. About one year ago X find out that s/he is HIV positive. It changed her/his life. S/he knows that s/he will die from AIDS. X is still healthy, but s/he needs to be careful and take good care of herself/himself. S/he needs to eat healthy food and do some exercise. X needs to see a doctor regularly. It is not easy to take good care of oneself. Sometimes X is too lazy to do any exercise. Sometimes s/he does not have time to rest enough or do some things s/he enjoys. X knows what kind of things are important to do to be as healthy for as long as possible, but it is not always easy to do the right things. X is also worried about the future. There will be days when s/he will be very sick. X will not be able to go to work or take care of the family. There will come a time when s/he will not be able to eat or walk by herself / himself. Then there will be the day when X is not here anymore. That was something about X’s life. Now ask your learners to divide in smaller groups, about 5 learners per group is good. Each group will have a discussion about one of the following issues. You can give the same task to several groups. Group A: How could you help X and her/his family now when X has HIV, but not yet AIDS? Group B: How could you help X and her/his family when X is sick because of AIDS? Group C: How could you help X’s family after X passes away? Group D: How could you help especially X’s children after X passes away. 42 Allow time for the groups to discuss the answers. Then you could gather together next to X (the person on the paper). Ask your learners to answer the question: “How can we help X?” You can ask learners to write the answers all around X. Or you can write answers on small papers and then stick the papers on the wall or next to X. You will see different ways of helping. DISCUSSION After all the ideas you can stay around X and start the discussion. You need to remember the objectives of the session clearly when you are leading this discussion section. Some important things should be learnt during this discussion. In a way the drama situation was an introduction. You should prepare yourself by reading the following chapters of this book: - “Basic facts about HIV/AIDS” - ... and if you find out that you have HIV or AIDS... - Taking care about somebody who has HIV/AIDS. It is important that your learners know the main points of those chapters. Maybe they know them already after the drama session otherwise you will need to tell them the main points during discussion. Start by saying something about the drama on paper you just finished. Let the learners relate their experiences, what was easy, what was difficult. How do they feel when they think about X’s life. Let the learners relate their experiences if they ever helped someone who was sick. Speak about the sick person’s difficulties and different ways to help them. Someone feels lonely, someone is not able to do every day things and somebody might be afraid. Remind your learners that a sick person needs help. HIV/AIDS does no make any difference. Somebody with HIV/AIDS needs your help and support in daily life. 43 It’s Important X is somebody from your neighbourhood. S/he could be from next door. that …. S/he could be part of your family. S/he could be from your house. S/he could be yourself. How do you want others to react if you are very sick? Don’t you want them to support and help you? Don’t you want them to stay with you when you have difficult times? This was the last drama session in the book. The following is some extra information to help you with your teaching. All the ideas in the book can be used in different ways. Try to find the ways which are best for you and best for your learners. 44 PART IV: Drama forms DIFFERENT WAYS TO DO DRAMA Here you will get some basic information about the drama forms used in this manual. After reading this chapter you will understand something about the drama forms even if you have not used drama before. Sometimes you (teacher) may take part in the drama by taking a role for Teacher-in-role yourself. You will step into someone else’s shoes like learners do. We call that “teacher-in-role strategy”. You can join the drama for a short moment or you can be in from the beginning to the end. One good role for the teacher is to be someone with low status - someone who needs help, who has problem or difficulty. This kind of role provides more opportunities for the learners. They may find solutions and ideas to help that person in a difficult situation. The teacher can also be somebody with high status or an authority role like headmaster of the school or king. Sometimes the teacher can be in an opposition role, a person with oposition opinions, someone who lies or acts unfairly. The messenger’s role is also useful for the teacher. S/he can visit the drama situation and say something that is important for the situation. The messenger can communicate with everybody and s/he can take orders from others. Messengers can be, for example, a policeman or a journalist. The teacher needs some distinct/clear symbol to show to the learners when s/he is in-role. The symbol needs to be something that is easily seen and it’s helpful if the symbol gives some information about the role person. The teacher uses this symbol when s/he is in role and when s/he takes it off, s/he is the teacher again. The symbol could be a hat, 45 glasses, coat, bag or something else simple. A post bag for a postman, a white coat for a nurse or a doctor, or a tool for a carpenter. When you are in role, you need to remember the aim of the drama at all times. Everything you say or do should help the situation to move towards the aim. Otherwise it might end up that you all enjoy the experience, but do not learn anything about the issue. You can always stop the drama - you can take your hat or other symbol off and be the teacher again if needed. If you notice some discipline problems in your classroom, you need to stop the drama for a while and get the situation in order. There is no value in drama done in chaos! Or, if you see that learners do not know what to do, it is better to stop the situation for clarification. When you are ready, put your symbol on again and the drama will continue. Writing and drawing can be a part of drama. It is possible to draw Drama on paper pictures, maps, plans, write letters, diaries and scripts during drama. Some of the papers can be private and some of them can be kept on the wall. Sometimes drama on paper is an aid for the story or for the planning and plays a small role in the lesson. Sometimes lots of the story happens on paper. In this manual you will find one common way to do drama on paper. You will need a large sheet of paper where you can make a figure of a person. You can ask one learner to lie down on the paper and others to draw around her/him. This person on paper is somebody important. In this manual the person on the paper is HIV positive. If you want to learn something about what it’s like to be a blind person, fireman, monster or what ever, you can use the person on the paper for that role. 46 Your duty is to encourage the learners to create answers and provide ideas. You may relate some facts about the person or you may ask your learners to create all of them. You need to encourage the learners to think about the work and life of a fireman for example. Let your learners write the answers around the character on the paper. You can also let the learners write or draw something about the person on smaller papers and then you can stick them on the wall. Small Group Sometimes learners want to present something to others. Small group Playmaking playmaking is one way to do that, but the idea is also to learn something at the same time. This is a form of prepared improvisation. You do not write any scripts. Nobody needs to learn any lines. It’s important in small group playmaking to give a clear task to the group. Learners need to know what they are supposed to do, otherwise there might be problems. The idea is to make a short play, usually just one incident. When you are giving instructions say that it is good to decide two things: the starting point and roles for everybody. They can discuss the whole situation and make some plans for it, but those plans should not be too binding. It is important to leave opportunities for improvisation. With small group playmaking it is possible to study many kinds of every day things. They may try to react if something terrible / strange / funny / etc. happens. They may try to find quick solutions to a problem. Your duty is to give them background information, a problem that needs to be solved, or other needed information for the playmaking. It is possible to make still images in groups or individually. The idea is to tell something through one’s body, without movement and without words. A learner or a group will plan a pose and then hold it. They will physically represent some situation, idea, feeling, skill or whatever is needed to reach the objectives. It is better that learners try to imagine a situation and the image is a story about the situation. 47 A good still image includes different heights and directions. If you do still images in groups it is good practise for learners to work together and make decisions together. They need to agree on what kind of image they want to show. They need to agree on the best way to tell the message they are supposed to tell and sometimes they also need to decide on the message that they want to send. You can finish into the still image or you can develop them further. It is possible to give thoughts, words and movements to these images. Still images are often used before some other kind of drama form. You can go to the group, touch someone’s shoulder and ask them to express their thoughts as a character in the situation. “Why are you looking in the other direction from the others?” “Why are you holding her hand?” Or you can ask more general question: “What you are planning to say?” “To whom would you like to speak and what would you like to say?” In forum theatre the audience has a very important role, they are active participants. The audience can stop the drama, ask characters questions, give ideas to the character and even go and play the role themselves. The idea is that the audience is trying to help find a solution to the problematic situation in the drama. Forum theatre is most useful when you have a problem waiting to be solved. Try to make the audience feel free to disturb the drama. It is the most difficult part of forum theatre. It helps if they are physically rear. You can create your own scenarios and use all precious methods for those. You can teach many different subjects using these method. 48 PART V: Something extra ASSERTIVE, AGGRESSIVE OR PASSIVE You lent your book to a friend a month ago. S/he promised to give it back after three weeks. You will need the book yourself soon. What to do? You can be passive, aggressive or assertive, when asking for your book back. You want your book, but you don’t do anything or you just mention something briefly about the book and hope that s/he remembers to give it back to you. “Have you read my book already?” A passive person does not say what s/he wants. They put themselves down. They hesitate and often don’t get what they want. A passive person can become frustrated because s/he does not get what s/he wants. Others do not respect him/her or may feel pity for her/him. You want your book back now and you want to make that clear. You do not care about others’ opinions, questions or anything else they say. “ You there. I want my book back. You promised to give it back a week ago! Where is it? Go and get it! Are you trying to steal my book? I want it back now!” An aggressive person isn’t concerned about others if s/he wants something. S/he may shout to others. S/he may humiliate, ridicule and blame. An aggressive person is often disliked and feared. Conflicts often happen with an aggressive person. You want your book back and you are going to ask for it. You have good reasons. You know what you want and you can say it honestly. “Have you read my book already? I need it myself soon. Would you please give it back to me tomorrow. I’m sorry if you did not have time to finish 49 it, but I lent it for three weeks only. I need to get it back now, so that I can start reading it.” An assertive person is honest. S/he can stand up for her/himself. S/he is confident and says what s/he wants. S/he can do this while still respecting others. An assertive person is likely to be respected. Assertiveness leads to positive relationships. Saying “NO” assertively may be one of the best ways to protect yourself against HIV/AIDS and other risks in your life. 50 HOW TO MAKE A MIND-MAP? A mind-map may look something like this... The idea in mind map is to write the problem, the main idea or the keyword in the middle. Then move outwards writing sub-headings and adding details. Only important points need to be included. When you have finished mind-mapping you can easily see different aspects of the issue. From a mind-map you can see something about the thinking process of the person who made the map. 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY Davies, G.: Practical Primary Drama. Heinemann Educational Books LTD. Great Britain. 1983. Dixon, H.: Yes, AIDS Again. A Handbook for Teachers. LDA. Wisbech, Cambs. 1993. Grönholm, I. (edit.): Ilmaisun monet kielet. Opetushallitus. Painatuskeskus OY. Helsinki 1995. Line, A.: Drama Lessons in Action. A Resource Book. Dramatic Lines, Twickenham, England. 1997. Matjila, J.: The Gamsberg Macmillan AIDS Awareness Programme. Teacher’s Guide. Senior Primary Level. Namibian Edition Gambergs Macmillan and Macmillan Boleswa. Windhoek. 1995. McCaslin, N.: Creative Drama in the Classroom. Fifth Edition. Longman. New York. 1990. My Future is My Choice. “Protecting our Peers From HIV Infection”. Training Manual. The Youth Health and Development Programme. Goverment of the Republic of Namibia and UNICEF. March 1999. Namibians SPEAK OUT on HIV/AIDS. UN Bulletin. United Nations System in Namibia. December 1998. Neelands, J.: Making Sense of Drama. Heinemann. Oxford. 1989. Neelands, J.: Learning Through Imagined Experience. Hodder & Stoughton. London. 1992. Readman, G. & Lamount, G.: Drama. A handbook for primary teachers. BBC Education. London. 1994. Teaching About AIDS Made Easy. A Manual for Teachers of Grades 5, 6 and 7. National Institute for Educational Development. Florida State University. Windhoek. 1996. Somers, J.: Drama in the Curriculum. Cassell Educational Limited. London. 1994. Wessels, C.: Drama. Resource Books For Teachers. Oxford University Press. 1991. 52 Learning by doing. Learning by feeling. Learning through educational drama. This book is meant to be resource material for HIV/AIDS education in Namibian schools. From this book you will find different kinds of drama sessions and different ways to do educational drama in the classroom. The material is suitable for learners from Grades 4 – 12.
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