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					          Fortress America (Gilded Age/ Progressive Period)

                                     Created in 2010 by:

   Central Organizer:                            Document Based Question coordinator:
    Camille Henderson                              Christiaan Clark
   Unit I – V Multiple Choice coordinator:       Essay coordinator:
    Matthew Roarty                                 Mallory Marshall
   Unit VI – X Multiple Choice coordinator:
     Kelsey Hammond
                                        UNITED STATES HISTORY

                                                    SECTION I
                                                   Time – 55 minutes
                                                     80 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or
completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.

    1.   Which event led to the revision, and                        c.   received more in welfare payments, as a
           eventual overhaul, of the Articles of                          group, than they paid in taxes.
           Confederation?                                            d.   made Mexican-Americans the largest
         a. Whiskey Rebellion                                             American minority by 1995.
         b. Bacon’s Rebellion                                        e.   settled primarily on the East Coast.
         c. Olive Branch Petition
         d. Shays’s Rebellion                                   6.   A “bird of passage” was an immigrant who
         e. French Revolution                                        a. came to the United States to live
    2.   The 1889 Pan-American Conference                            b. only passed through America on his or
           resulted in                                                   her way to Canada.
         a. settlement of the Venezuela boundary                     c. was unmarried.
              dispute.                                               d. came to America to work for a short
         b. the lowering of tariff barriers between                      time and then returned to Europe.
              participating nations.                                 e. flew from job to job.
         c. arbitration of the Pribilof Island dispute.
         d. worsened relations between the United               7.   Judicial review was created in the case
              States and Latin American countries.                   a. Gibbons v. Ogden
         e. creation of the Organization of                          b. McCulloch v. Maryland
              American States.                                       c. Marbury v. Madison
                                                                     d. Korematsu v. United States
    3.   The Teller Amendment                                        e. Plessy v. Ferguson
         a. guaranteed the independence of Cuba.
         b. made Cuba an American possession.                   8.   Which area was most opposed to the War of
         c. directed President McKinley to order                       1812?
             American troops into Cuba.                              a. Southeast
         d. appropriated funds to combat yellow                      b. West
             fever in Cuba.                                          c. Northwest
         e. granted the U.S. a base at Guantanamo                    d. Northeast
             Bay.                                                    e. Mid-Atlantic

    4.   Who were the settlers at the Jamestown                 9.   The Zimmermann note involved a proposed
           colony?                                                     secret agreement between
         a. Religious refugees                                       a. Britain and France.
         b. Intellectuals                                            b. Russia and Germany.
         c. Spanish explorers                                        c. Germany and Mexico.
         d. Joint-stock company employees                            d. Mexico and France.
         e. Former slaves                                            e. Germany and Canada.

    5.   The New Immigrants of the 1980s and                    10. Which early American colony was most
           1990s                                                      prepared for life in the New World?
         a. came to America primarily in search of                  a. Massachusetts Bay Colony
             jobs and economic opportunity.                         b. Plymouth
         b. assimilated more quickly into the                       c. Roanoke
             American mainstream than earlier                       d. Jamestown
             waves of immigrants.                                   e. Fort San Juan
                                                       d.   Americans lived in the trans-Mississippi
11. New France’s most valuable resource                     West.
      was/were                                         e.   families had fewer than four children.
    a. Slaves
    b. Tobacco
    c. Lumber                                      17. Who wrote the influential pamphlet
    d. Silver                                            Common Sense?
    e. Fur                                             a. Thomas Paine
                                                       b. John Adams
12. The greatest increase in the national debt         c. John Locke
      occurred                                         d. Caesar Rodney
    a. during World War II.                            e. Thomas Jefferson
    b. under Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal.
    c. during Ronald Reagan’s eight years in
        office.                                    18. Which law was responsible for the
    d. under Lyndon Johnson.                             formation of the First Continental
    e. under George Bush.                                Congress?
                                                       a. Townshend Acts
                                                       b. Stamp Act
13. The Morrill Act of 1862                            c. Intolerable Acts
    a. established women’s colleges like               d. Quebec Act
        Vassar.                                        e. Quartering Act
    b. required compulsory school attendance
        through high school.
    c. established the modern American             19. Senator McCarthy’s anticommunist crusade
        research university.                             ended when he
    d. mandated racial integration in public           a. began to attack the personal integrity of
        schools.                                           his critics.
    e. granted public lands to states to support       b. alleged that there were communists in
        higher education.                                  Hollywood.
                                                       c. alleged that there were communists in
                                                           the Foreign Service.
14. Which agreement gave the United States             d. alleged that many college professors
      Texas and California?                                were communists.
    a. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo                     e. alleged that there were communists in
    b. Jay’s Treaty                                        the army.
    c. Treaty of Greenville
    d. Crittenden Compromise
    e. Missouri Compromise
                                                   20. The “Sagebrush Rebellion” was a fiercely
15. Arrange these events in chronological order:         anti-Washington movement that had
      (A) Munich Conference, (B) German                  sprung up to protest
      invasion of Poland,(C) Hitler-Stalin             a. James Watt’s appointment as secretary
      nonaggression treaty.                                 of the interior.
    a. A, C, B                                         b. oil drilling in scenic places in the
    b. B, C, A                                              western United States.
    c. C, B, A                                         c. federal control over scarce water
    d. C, A, B                                              resources in the West.
    e. A, B, C                                         d. federal control over rich mineral and
                                                            timber resources in the western states.
16. The 1920 census revealed that for the first        e. federal national parks and forests
      time most                                             throughout the West.
    a. men worked in manufacturing.
    b. adult women were employed outside the
    c. Americans lived in cities.                  21. The First Great Awakening was a reaction
      against                                            government activism.
    a. Calvinism
    b. The liberalization of religion
    c. A rapid spread of Roman Catholicism
    d. Native American religions                 27. The French and Indian War was instigated
    e. The Salem Witch Trials                          by what prominent American figure?
                                                     a. George Washington
                                                     b. Thomas Paine
22. Andrew Jackson was the first President           c. Benjamin Franklin
    a. Without a wife                                d. Benedict Arnold
    b. To employ patronage                           e. Nathan Hale
    c. From the West
    d. Who chose his Vice President
    e. Who lost the popular but won the          28. In the epochal 1954 decision in Brown v.
       electoral vote                                  Board of Education of Topeka, the
                                                       Supreme Court
                                                     a. declared that the concept of “separate
23. The British signed the Treaty of Ghent,               but equal” facilities for blacks and
      ending the War of 1812, because                     whites was unconstitutional.
    a. Of the Battle of New Orleans                  b. upheld its earlier decision in Plessy v.
    b. Of the Battle of Horshoe Bend                      Ferguson.
    c. Montreal was captured                         c. rejected desegregation.
    d. There was an uprising in London               d. supported the “Declaration of
    e. Tsar Alexander I mediated terms in                 Constitutional Principles” issued by
        order to focus on Napoleon                        Congress.
                                                     e. ordered immediate and total integration
                                                          of all American schools.
24. Which is not a part of the American System
      proposed by Henry Clay?
    a. A strong banking system                   29. At the wartime Teheran Conference,
    b. A protective tariff                           a. the Soviet Union agreed to declare war
    c. Construction of roads                              on Japan within three months.
    d. Construction of canals                        b. the Big Three allies agreed to divide
    e. Construction of schools                            postwar Germany into separate
                                                          occupied zones.
                                                     c. the Soviet Union agreed to allow free
25. The Homestead Act assumed that public                 elections in Eastern European nations
      land would be administered in such a way            that its armies occupied at the end of
      as to                                               war.
    a. raise government revenue.                     d. plans were made for the opening of a
    b. conserve natural resources.                        second front in Europe.
    c. favor large-scale “bonanza” farms.            e. it was agreed that five Big Powers
    d. guarantee shipments for the railroads.             would have veto power in the United
    e. promote frontier settlement.                       Nations

26. Teddy Roosevelt’s New Nationalism            30. President Kennedy’s alleged assassin was
    a. pinned its economic faith on                  a. Jack Ruby.
       competition.                                  b. Lee Harvey Oswald.
    b. opposed consolidation of labor unions.        c. Medgar Evers.
    c. favored the free functioning of               d. James Earl Ray.
       unregulated and unmonopolized                 e. an agent of Fidel Castro.
    d. supported a broad program of social
       welfare.                                  31. In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme
    e. favored state rather than federal               Court upheld a married couple’s right to
      use contraceptives based on                  B.John D. Rockefeller       2. oil
    a. the “necessary and proper” clause.          C.J. Pierpont Morgan        3. tobacco
    b. the First Amendment.                        D.James Duke                4. banking
    c. the right to privacy.
    d. Roe v. Wade.                                a.            A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
    e. the Fifth Amendment.                        b.            A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
                                                   c.            A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
                                                   d.            A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
32. The Corrupt Bargain of 1824 purportedly        e.            A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3
    a. Gave Andrew Jackson the Vice
    b. Made Henry Clay Secretary of State          37. The Roosevelt Corollary added a new
    c. Gave John Quincy Adams money in                   provision to the Monroe Doctrine that was
        exchange for withdrawing from the                specifically designed to
        Presidency                                     a. enable the U.S. to rule Puerto Rico and
    d. Gave the Oregon Territory over to                   the Canal Zone.
        British control                                b. stop European colonization in the
    e. John C. Calhoun the coveted South                   Western Hemisphere.
        Carolina governorship                          c. restore cordial relations between the
                                                           United States and Latin American
33. Most people who went to California during          d. establish a friendly partnership with
      the gold rush were                                   Britain so that it could join the United
    a. Freed slaves                                        States in policing Latin American
    b. Spanish missionaries                                affairs.
    c. Lawless men                                     e. justify U.S. intervention in the affairs of
    d. Mormons                                             Latin American countries.
    e. Anarchists

                                                   38. Napoleon gave away Louisiana so willingly
34. Which group was most opposed to the                  because
      power of the British Crown?                      a. He was about to be overthrown and
    a. Clergy                                              didn’t want his enemies to have an
    b. Whigs                                               empire
    c. Ministers                                       b. Uprisings in his Caribbean colonies and
    d. Barons                                              British control of the seas hampered his
    e. Tories                                              access
                                                       c. The United States surrounded New
                                                           Orleans and demanded land
35. After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of       d. Mental illnesses clouded his judgment
      unskilled labor in the United States             e. The colonists who lived there were in
    a. helped to build the nation into an                  open revolt
        industrial giant.
    b. was not a significant force, because
        industrialization required skilled         39. The Missouri Compromise was created to
        workers.                                       a. Balance the number of free and slave
    c. came almost exclusively from rural                  states
        America.                                       b. Allow Missouri to be admitted as a free
    d. increasingly found work in agriculture.             state
    e. was almost entirely native born.                c. Guarantee the right of all colonists to
                                                           own slaves in any state
                                                       d. Emancipate slaves
36. Match each entrepreneur below with the             e. Organize territories gained in the
     field of enterprise with which he is                  Louisiana Purchase
     historically identified.
A.Andrew Carnegie           1. steel
40. Which of the following did not impose                   vibrant force in American spiritual life.
      restrictions on American trade?
    a. Sugar Act
    b. Stamp Act                                    45. The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
    c. Quartering Act                                   a. formally ended World War I for the
    d. Townshend Acts                                       United States, which had refused to sign
    e. Navigation Laws                                      the Treaty of Versailles.
                                                        b. set a schedule for German payment of
                                                            war reparations.
41. Who is the Father of the American                   c. established a battleship ratio for the
      Constitution?                                         leading naval powers.
    a. John Jay                                         d. condemned Japan for its unprovoked
    b. James Madison                                        attack on Manchuria.
    c. Thomas Jefferson                                 e. outlawed war as a solution to
    d. George Washington                                    international rivalry.
    e. Alexander Hamilton

                                                    46. Public education was created
42. The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed that the              a. To educate freed slaves
      United States would                               b. To make voters more responsible
    a. honor its existing defense commitment,           c. To fight the influence of Communism
        but that in the future its allies would             in poor communities
        have to fight their own wars without            d. In accordance with Article V of the
        large numbers of American troops.                   Constitution
    b. supply only economic aid to its allies.          e. To empower women
    c. seek détente with the Soviet Union and
        the People’s Republic of China.
    d. intervene to help its allies fight           47. Which was not a side effect of the
        communism only if the United States               construction of the Erie Canal?
        was allowed to send American troops.            a. New York industry boomed
    e. maintain naval and air bases in East             b. The Old Northwest attracted thousands
        Asia but not put troops on the Asian                of immigrants
        mainland.                                       c. Great Lake adjacent cities became
                                                        d. Farmers moved farther west
43. The Supreme Court cases of Muller and               e. Slave labor in the north exploded
      Adkins centered on
    a. racial differences.
    b. affirmative action.                          48. Which Founding Father favored government
    c. “right to work” laws from several states.          most similar to the British system?
    d. the question of whether women merited            a. Thomas Jefferson
        special legal and social treatment.             b. John Adams
    e. antitrust legislation.                           c. James Madison
                                                        d. Alexander Hamilton
                                                        e. John Marshall
44. After the Scopes “Monkey Trial,”
    a. fundamentalism disappeared outside the
        rural South.
    b. John Scopes was sentenced to serve           49. Which document led to the theory of
        time in jail.                                     nullification?
    c. Christians found it increasingly difficult       a. Jay’s Treaty
        to reconcile the revelations of religion        b. Neutrality Proclamation
        with modern science.                            c. Kentucky Resolution
    d. the gap between theology and biology             d. Northwest Ordinance
        began to close.                                 e. Sedition Act
    e. fundamentalist religion remained a
                                                        trailblazing law that
50. Which group exemplified Nativist feelings         a.   gave labor the right to bargain
      in early America?                                    collectively.
    a. Know-Nothing Party                             b. established the NRA.
    b. Sons of Liberty                                c. established the Social Security system.
    c. Whigs                                          d. authorized the Public Works
    d. Federalists                                         Administration (PWA).
    e. The German Forty-Eighters                      e. guaranteed housing loans to workers.

51. Slaves in the Antebellum South were           56. The 1962 Trade Expansion Act
      mostly used                                     a. cut taxes to increase American
    a. To harvest cotton                                  purchasing power.
    b. To harvest tobacco                             b. provided incentives to American
    c. To harvest wheat                                   overseas investments.
    d. As house-servants                              c. made the United States a member of the
    e. By small farmers                                   Common Market.
                                                      d. raised the minimum-wage and Social
                                                          Security benefits of most working-class
52. At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson                 Americans.
      sought all of the following goals except        e. reduced American tariffs.
    a. preventing a seizure of territory by the
    b. an end to the European colonial empires    57. Jefferson’s election is called the “Revolution
         in Africa and Asia.                            of 1800” because
    c. a world parliament of nations to provide       a. It marked a peaceful transfer of power
         collective security.                              to an opposing party
    d. national self-determination for smaller        b. Aaron Burr attempted to secede several
         European nations.                                 states from the Union
    e. free trade and freedom of the seas.            c. The House of Representatives refused
                                                           to accept the original winner
                                                      d. Many Federalists returned to Britain
                                                      e. There were large scale riots throughout
53. As a result of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of              the colonies
    a. American industry grew more secure.
    b. duties on agricultural products            58. All of the following benefited from the
        decreased.                                      Second Great Awakening except
    c. American economic isolationism ended.          a. Women
    d. campaign promises to labor were                b. Methodists
        fulfilled.                                    c. Baptists
    e. the worldwide depression deepened.             d. Calvinism
                                                      e. Mormonism

54. Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom                  59. The Lecompton Constitution
    a. advocated social-welfare programs.             a. Split the Kansas Territory into Kansas
    b. opposed fragmentation of big industrial            and Nebraska
       combines.                                      b. Allowed voters to choose whether
    c. favored small enterprise and                       slavery would be legal or illegal in
       entrepreneurship.                                  Kansas
    d. supported minimum-wage laws.                   c. Protected the ownership of slaves by
    e. opposed banking and tariff reform.                 people who already had them
                                                      d. Was rejected by James Buchanan
                                                      e. Was very popular in Congress
55. The Wagner Act of 1935 proved to be a
                                                       a.   took the United States off the gold
60. Which decision nullified the idea of popular            standard.
      sovereignty?                                     b.   empowered President Roosevelt to
    a. Gibbons v. Ogden                                     close all banks temporarily.
    b. McCulloch v. Maryland                           c.   created the Securities and Exchange
    c. Ex Parte Merryman                                    Commission to regulate the stock
    d. Dred Scott v. Sanford                                exchange.
    e. Ex Parte Milligan                               d.   permitted commercial banks to engage
                                                            in Wall Street financial dealings.
                                                       e.   created the Federal Deposit Insurance
61. As a result of the Civil War,                           Corporation to insure individual bank
    a. the population of the United States                  deposits.
    b. political dishonesty grew while honesty
        in business rose.                          65. The 1955 Geneva Conference
    c. the North developed a strong sense of           a. unified the two Vietnams.
        moral superiority.                             b. made Ngo Dinh Diem president of
    d. the great majority of political and                 Vietnam.
        business leaders became corrupt.               c. called for the two Vietnams to hold
    e. waste, extravagance, speculation, and               national elections within two years.
        graft reduced the moral stature of the         d. created the Southeast Asia Treaty
        Republic.                                          Organization.
                                                       e. established a permanent division of
62. The case of Lochner v. New York
      represented a setback for progressives and
      labor advocates because the Supreme          66. Franklin Roosevelt’s sensational
      Court in its ruling                                “Quarantine Speech” resulted in
    a. declared a law limiting work to ten             a. immediate British support of U.S.
         hours a day unconstitutional.                     policy.
    b. declared unconstitutional a law                 b. a wave of protest by isolationists.
         providing special protection for women        c. support from both Democratic and
         and workers.                                      Republican leaders.
    c. declared that prohibiting child labor           d. Japanese aggression in China.
         would require a constitutional                e. a modification of the Neutrality Acts.
    d. upheld the constitutionality of a law
         enabling business to fire labor           67. Before the Civil War, most slaves earned
         organizers.                                     their freedom by
    e. ruled that fire and safety regulations          a. Running to the North
         were local and not state or federal           b. Slave revolts
         concerns.                                     c. Buying it
                                                       d. Being smuggled by abolitionists
                                                       e. Marrying into their master’s family
63. The Social Security Act of 1935 provided all
      of the following except
    a. unemployment insurance.                     68. Commodore Perry opened up trade with
    b. old-age pensions.                               a. China
    c. economic provisions for the blind and           b. Japan
         disabled.                                     c. The Philippines
    d. support for the blind and physically            d. Cuba
         handicapped.                                  e. Siberia
    e. health care for the poor.

                                                   69. The Crédit Mobilier scandal involved
64. The Glass-Steagall Act                             a. public utility company bribes.
    b.   Bureau of Indian Affairs payoffs.            b.   the major rail lines decreed the division
    c.   railroad construction kickbacks.                  of the continent into four time zones so
    d.   evasion of excise taxes on distilled              that they could keep schedules and
         liquor.                                           avoid wrecks.
    e.   manipulating the Wall Street stock           c.   factories demanded standard time
         market.                                           schedules.
                                                      d.   long-distance telephones required
                                                           standard time coordination.
70. The Potsdam conference                            e.   all of the above.
    a. determined the fate of Eastern Europe.
    b. brought France and China in as part of
        the “Big Five.                            75. Radical Republicans believed that
    c. concluded that the Soviet Union would            Construction
        enter the war in the Pacific.                 a. Should rapidly restore the South
    d. was Franklin Roosevelt’s last meeting          b. Should not use federal power
        with Churchill and Stalin.                    c. Should use policies to restrain states
    e. issued an ultimatum to Japan to                    from abridging citizens’ rights
        surrender or be destroyed.                    d. Should bring about drastic social and
                                                          economic transformation
                                                      e. Should not use Union soldiers
71. The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 led to the
    a. 13th amendment
    b. 14th amendment                             76. The monetary inflation needed to relieve the
    c. 15th amendment                                   social and economic hardships of the late
    d. 19th amendment                                   nineteenth century eventually came as a
    e. 24th amendment                                   result of
                                                      a. the Gold Standard Act.
                                                      b. McKinley’s adoption of the bimetallic
72. All of the following are reasons Europe did            standard.
      not interfere in the Civil War except           c. an increase in the international gold
    a. Many European workers were anti-                    supply.
         slavery                                      d. Populist fusion with the Democratic
    b. They had a surplus of cotton from the               party.
         pre-war years                                e. the creation of the Federal Reserve
    c. The Union sent over valuable foodstuffs             Board.
         for European workers
    d. Britain was involved in valuable arms
         trades with both sides                   77. The National Banking System did all of the
    e. Many European aristocrats were openly            following except
         sympathetic to the Confederacy               a. Establish a standard bank-note currency
                                                      b. Allow banks that joined it to buy
                                                           government bonds
73. Which battle led to Lincoln drafting the          c. Insure deposits
      Emancipation Proclamation?                      d. Issue sound paper money
    a. Seven Days’ Battles                            e. Become the first significant step
    b. Battle of Antietam                                  towards unified banking since 1836
    c. Battle of Gettysburg
    d. Battle of Cowpens
    e. Battle of the Merrimack and the            78. Who ensured the election of 1864 for
        Monitor                                         Lincoln?
                                                      a. Black men
                                                      b. Veterans
74. The United States changed to standard time        c. Ex-Confederates
      zones when                                      d. Business owners
    a. Congress passed a law establishing this        e. Women
                                                         moral equality of men and women.
79. By 1900, advocates of women’s suffrage
    a. argued that women’s biology gave them
        a fundamentally different character      80. Tyler used what event as justification for
        from men.                                      annexing Texas?
    b. temporarily abandoned the movement            a. The Caroline affair
        for the vote.                                b. The Aroostook War
    c. formed strong alliances with African-         c. “Oregon Fever”
        Americans seeking voting rights.             d. The XYZ affair
    d. argued that the vote would enable             e. Polk’s victory in the election of 1844
        women to extend their roles as mothers
        and homemakers to the public world.
    e. insisted on the inherent political and

                                       END OF SECTION I
                                       UNITED STATES HISTORY
                                             SECTION II
                                                     Part A
                                      (Suggested writing time – 45 minutes)
                                         Percent of Section II score – 45

Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of
Documents A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be
earned only by essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of
the period.

    1. Evaluate the effectiveness of muckraking in the 1900s Progressive Era.

                                                      Document A
    Up to the beginning of the 19th century no oil seems to have been obtained except from
    the surfaces of springs and streams. That it was to be found far below the surface of the
    earth was discovered independently at various points in Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio
    and Pennsylvania by persons drilling for salt-water to be used in manufacturing salt. Not
    infrequently the water they found was mixed with a dark-green, evil-smelling substance
    which was recognized as identical with the well-known "rock-oil." It was necessary to rid
    the water of this before it could be used for salt, and in many places cisterns were devised
    in which the brine was allowed to stand until the oil had risen to the surface. It was then
    run into the Creams or on the ground. This practice was soon discovered to be dangerous,
    so easily did the oil ignite.
                                    -Ida Tarbell, The History of the Standard Oil Company

                                                      Document B
    The Aldrich machine controls the legislature, the election boards, the courts − the entire
    machinery of the "republican form of government." In 1904, when Aldrich needed a
    legislature to reelect him for his fifth consecutive term, it is estimated that carrying the
    state cost about two hundred thousand dollars − a small sum, easily to be got back by a
    few minutes of industrious pocket-picking in Wall Street; but a very large sum for Rhode
    Island politics, and a happy augury of a future day, remote, perhaps, but inevitable, when
    the people shall rule in Rhode Island.
                                             -David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate

                                                      Document C
    “... you may recall the description of the Man with the Muck-rake, the man who could
    look no way but downward with the muck-rake in his hands; Who was offered a celestial
    crown for his muck-rake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was
    offered, but continued to rake to himself the filth of the floor.”
                                           -Theodore Roosevelt
                                          Document D
Ida Tarbell’s recent death recalls the era in which she found fame, the era of the
“muckrakers.” They were a scholarly and responsible group of writers who early in the
century exposed America’s social, economic and political evils and thereby stirred public
opinion so thoroughly that great reform followed.
                                       -Kirk Bates, Milwaukee Weekly

                                          Document E
This is no fairy story and no joke; the meat would be shoveled into carts, and the man
who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when he saw one—there
were things that went into the sausage in comparison with which a poisoned rat was a
tidbit. There was no place for the men to wash their hands before they ate their dinner,
and so they made a practice of washing them in the water that was to be ladled into the
sausage. There were the butt-ends of smoked meat, and the scraps of corned beef, and all
the odds and ends of the waste of the plants, that would be dumped into old barrels in the
cellar and left there. Under the system of rigid economy which the packers enforced,
there were some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the
cleaning out of the waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt
and rust and old nails and stale water—and cartload after cartload of it would be taken up
and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to the publics breakfast.
                                               -Upton Sinclair, The Jungle

                                          Document F
There are, in the body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and there is
urgent necessity for the sternest war upon them. There should be relentless exposure of
and attack upon every evil man whether politician or business man, every evil practice,
whether in politics, in business, or in social life. I hail as a benefactor every writer or
speaker, every man who, on the platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, with
merciless severity makes such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers that
the attack is of use only if it is absolutely truthful.
                                                  -Theodore Roosevelt

                                          Document G
"I have pointed out some of the negative wastes of competition," answered the other. "I
have hardly mentioned the positive economies of cooperation. Allowing five to a family,
there are fifteen million families in this country; and a least ten million of these live
separately, the domestic drudge being either the wife or a wage slave. Now set aside the
modern system of pneumatic house-cleaning and the economies of cooperative cooking;
and consider one single item, the washing of dishes.
                                                -Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
                                         Document H
Lincoln Steffens concerned himself with several continuing motifs of American
radicalism. He fits in quite well with the mood of a new radicalism that believes
American culture, as well as economic institutions, have to be changed. "He was always
the psychologist," Fred Howe said, and in this later years Steffens was particularly
interested in studying the potentialities of the human mind. The main thing wrong with
the world, he believed, was our way of thinking. He looked at New England and saw a
conflict between inherited ideals and modern economic realities; his conclusion was that
the ideal of individual success had to be replaced by an ethic of community achievement.
                        -Herbert Shapiro, Lincoln Steffens: the Muckraker Revisited

                                         Document I
The muckrakers had respectable allies when they bore down on the nation's"
bucketshops." The New York Stock Exchange and the Chicago Board of Trade were
anxious, like the reformers, to shut down these "shops," which drained off much business
they might otherwise obtain. In fact, the exchanges spearheaded the attack on the "shops"
in many states. By a careful monitoring of their stock quotation service, and later by an
agreement with Western Union, the markets were able to reduce the "bucket shops,"
because few could exist without a constant stream of prices to lure the customers.
                               -Cedric B. Cowing, Market Speculation in the Muckraker

                      END OF DOCUMENTS FOR QUESTION 1
                                      UNITED STATES HISTORY
                                            SECTION II
                                                Part B and Part C
                            (Suggested total planning and writing time – 70 minutes)
                                         Percent of Section II score – 55

                                                      Part B

Directions: Choose ONE question from this part. You are advised to spend 5 minutes planning and 30 minutes
writing your answer. Cite relevant historical evidence in support of your generalizations and present your arguments
clearly and logically.

1.   How did the Dred Scott Decision and John Brown’s raid further divide the nation?

2.   How did the ideas of Manifest Destiny dominate the president election of 1844?

                                                      Part C

Directions: Choose ONE question from this part. You are advised to spend 5 minutes planning and 30 minutes
writing your answer. Cite relevant historical evidence in support of your generalizations and present your arguments
clearly and logically.

3.   What role did African American play in the abolitionist movement?

4.   What advantages did each side have at the beginning of the Civil War?

                                           END OF EXAMINATION

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