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Biometrics

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					Biometrics

Presented by Ratna Sudha.R Reg No: Y1MC09035 Final MCA

CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. Security and authentication 3. Methods of verification a. Psychological verification i. Finger Print. ii. Hand Print. iii. Face Measurement. iv. Retinal Scanning. v. DNA Analysis. b.Behavioral verification i. Typing. ii. Signature. iii. Voice. 4. Identification. 5. Verification. 6. Advantages 7. Limitations 8. Conclusion. 9. References

Introduction
Biometrics is an advanced technology for superb security and authentication .The very term "biometric” it represent that "bio" means related to the biological study and "metric " means something, which is related to measurement. In network environment security is a crucial factor. Provide security to pages in the network is to difficulty. Password is not a good measurement for security. Good security mechanism is necessary on the Internet. Security in different levels applies to various documents. Security is depends how security assign to documents. Security depends on following categories. 1. 2. 3. 4. Confidential Secret Non-secret Public

Confidential pages over the network provide full security. No way to tamper data in the page by third party. In this case biometrics are more useful and no way to disturb the page contents. First of all store all data about biometrics in database after that tally with this data. If tally satisfies with backend then provide access to the user. Collecting information is too difficult and store in database also need more space. There are two security methodologies in Biometrics, they are 1.Token-based security: It relies on the users special item -token like card-id. 2.Secret based security: It relies on an individual secret id number like password. Neither of the two can accurately determine whether the password that posses a token nor knows some secret information of the individual it represents. Tokens can be stolen and information can be guessed or fraudulently obtained.

Biometric is a technology where the password for entry is you, which identifies your psychological and behavioral characteristics.

Security and Authentication
Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) supports a limited form of security for the Microsoft® Windows® 98 platform that involves validating a user's logon for the local machine and for remote access. A validated user is granted access to the entire Common Information Model (CIM) schema. WBEM does not secure system resources, such as individual classes, instances, and namespaces. Security is limited because Windows 98 is not a secure operating system and does not support file system or registry security. All security-related information is represented by instances of WBEM system classes located in the Root\Security namespace. These classes and instances can only appear in the Root\Security namespace and must remain there permanently. The WBEM Administrator application can be used to set permissions for WBEM users. It is similar to the User Manager application supplied with Microsoft® Windows NT®. In WBEM, all security accounts are referred to as subjects. There are two types of subjects: user and group. Users are represented by instances of the NTLMUser system class, which describes individual users. Groups are represented by instances of the NTLMGroup system class, which describes multiple users. Both the NTLMUser and NTLMGroup classes derive indirectly from the subject system class, an abstract class that is not intended to be used for instantiation. More directly, NTLMUser derives from the generic User class and NTLMGroup derives from the generic Group class.

Permissions: Microsoft SQL Server uses permissions to enforce database security. The SQL Server permissions system specifies which users are authorized to use which Transact-SQL statements, views, and stored procedures. The

ability to assign permissions is determined by each user's status (as SA, database owner, or database object owner). Permissions are set on database users or groups, not on login IDs. Permission Hierarchy: SQL Server's permissions system recognizes four types of users: the SA, database owners, database object owners, and other users of the database. The different types of users exist in a hierarchy (explained in the following sections and illustrated below).

System Administrator Database owners Database object owners Database users

Only the SA and database owners can grant statement permissions to other users.

Different Security Mechanisms:
To help you understand the information presented in this chapter, we begin by defining some security-related terms. This brief list of definitions is not intended to serve as a comprehensive SQL Server glossary. It is provided as a quick reference to help you understand some of the security elements discussed throughout this chapter. You may find it useful to refer back to this list of security definitions as you read through this chapter and through Chapter 9, "Managing Security." alias An alias is a database username that is shared by several login IDs. A database alias allows you to treat more than one person as the same user

inside a database, giving all of them the same permissions. Any username in a database can also serve as an alias. Aliases are often used so that several users can assume the role of database owner. Database object owner Database objects are tables, indexes, views, defaults, triggers, rules, and procedures. The user who creates a database object is the database object owner and is automatically granted all permissions on it. The database object owner can grant permission to other users to use that object. Database object ownership cannot be transferred. database owner The database owner (DBO) is the creator of a database. There is only one DBO. The DBO has full privileges inside the database that he or she owns, and determines the access and capabilities provided to other users. In his or her own database, the user is recognized as DBO; in other databases, the database owner is known by his or her database username. DBO status can be reassigned to a different user. Only one login ID can be DBO, although other login IDs can be aliased to DBO. domain In Windows NT security, a domain is a collection of computers that are grouped for viewing and administrative purposes, and that share a common security database. group In SQL Server, a database group is a collection of database users. The users receive the database permissions granted to the group. Using groups simplifies management of a large number of database users, because groups provide a convenient way to grant and revoke permissions to more than one user at the same time. In Windows NT, a group is a collection of Windows NT users. The users received the Windows NT rights and permissions granted to the group. Groups provide a convenient way to manage the capabilities of a large

number of users with similar needs, within the security scope of a domain or a computer.

integrated security Integrated security allows a SQL Server to use Windows NT authentication mechanisms to validate logins for all connections. Only trusted (multi-protocol or named pipes) connections are allowed. login ID A login ID is a name by which a user is known to SQL Server. Login IDs are also referred to as logins. To log in to a SQL Server that is running standard security, a user must provide a valid login ID and password.

login security mode The login security mode determines the manner in which a SQL Server validates a login request. There are three types of login security: integrated, standard, and mixed. mixed security Mixed security allows login requests to be validated using either integrated or standard security. Trusted connections (as used by integrated security) and nontrusted connections (as used by standard security) can be established. object permissions Object permissions regulate the use of certain statements on certain database objects. They are granted and revoked by the owner of the object. permissions Microsoft SQL Server uses permissions to enforce database security. The SQL Server permissions system specifies which users are authorized to use which Transact-SQL statements, views, and stored procedures. The

ability to assign permissions is determined by each user's status (as SA, database owner, or database object owner). There are two types: object permissions and statement permissions. standard security Standard security uses SQL Server's own login validation process for all connections. To log in to a SQL Server, each user must provide a valid login ID and password. statement permissions Statement permissions provide the privilege to issue certain TransactSQL statements. Statement permissions are not object-specific. They can be granted only by the SA or the database owner. Statement permissions apply to these statements: CREATE DATABASE, CREATE DEFAULT, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE RULE, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, DUMP DATABASE, and DUMP TRANSACTION. Statement permissions are also called command permissions. system administrator The system administrator (SA) is the person responsible for the administrative and operational functions that are independent of any particular application, and is likely to be a person with a comprehensive overview of SQL Server and all its applications. Administering SQL Server typically includes such tasks as installing SQL Server; configuring servers and clients; managing and monitoring the use of disk space, memory, and connections; creating devices and databases; authorizing SQL Server users and granting them permissions; transferring data in and out of SQL Server databases; backing up and restoring databases; implementing and maintaining replication; scheduling unattended operations; monitoring and tuning SQL Server performance; and diagnosing system problems. The system administrator may also advise application designers about the data that already exists on SQL Server, make recommendations about standardizing data definitions across applications, and so on.

The system administrator operates outside the protection system, which means that SQL Server does no permission checking for the system administrator. The system administrator is also treated as the owner of whatever database he or she is using. Anyone who knows the SA password can log in and act as system administrator (unless the server is running in Integrated login security mode).

trusted connections Integrated security requires network protocols that support authenticated connections between clients and servers. These are referred to as trusted connections. The multi-protocol and named pipe protocols provide trusted connections.

Note that nontrusted connections (connections over other network protocols that do not support authenticated connections) must be handled by using SQL Server standard security.

username In SQL Server, a database username is a name assigned to a login ID for the purpose of allowing a user to have access to a database. The abilities a user has within a database depend on the permissions granted to the username (and to any groups the username is a member of).

In Windows NT, a username is the name by which the user is known to the domain, or to an individual Windows NT computer. A user logs on to a domain or computer by providing a valid username and password. The abilities of the user depend on the Windows NT rights and permissions granted to that username and to any Windows NT groups the username is a member of.

Method of Verification
1.PSYCHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION Psychological Verification involves in the verification of the organs of the human being, which will have unique identification and does not match with others. There are five types of verifications. These are: I. II. III. IV. V. Fingerprint. Handprint. Face measurement. Retinal scans. DNA analysis.

I. Finger print: It involves the user placing his finger over a glass-plate, which resides over a high-resolution camera, which uses optical or electromagnetic means to take its snapshot. The software analysis your finger for pattern such as loops, worls and arches. Advantages: a. This technology is neither too expensive nor does it require extensive user training. b. It also simple to implement. c. Finger print system has FAR<0.5% d. It is oldest known technique that is still used in criminal records and forensic. Imagine the number if unique finger prints that might need to be stored and then accessed in a database. This necessities the use of easier indexing and matching.

In US super market, customers give their credit card information and other personal details to store and tie it with their fingerprint data. The next time, he can pay for purchases without a fingerprint. Disadvantages: 1.Any injures of fingers effect more. II. Hand print: It compares a 3D image of the users hand to that present in the system database. It is somewhat similar to finger print verification. Advantage: a. Accuracy is better than fingerprint. b. Cheap and easy to deploy. Disadvantage: a. Complex in usage. b. Implementation is expensive. c. Any damages to hand effect more.

III. Face measurement: Measuring this is as simple as taking a picture and analyzing the image from a security video capture. This technique enables the computer to use your face as your password and matching these to an existing database. Advantage: a. Most continents at public places. b. Less expensive. Disadvantage: a. Inaccurate is affected by changes in lighting, age, and movement, glass. b. Face creams also effect the measurements.

IV. Retinal scans: It involves imaging of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye when infrared light of a certain frequency and wavelength is incident upon it.this energy is absorbed by the blood vessels is different in different individuals. The retinal iris patterns are unique to individuals than any biometric yet devised. The retina is an internal part of the eye located at the back of the eye and is get of thin nerve which sense the light coming through a camera, pupil, eye lenses. The pattern of blood vessels which makeup retina are unique to each individual i.e., <1.2 inch. Advantage: a. Accurate with no false match in 2 million people. b. It s sophisticated process. Disadvantages: c. Expensive, difficult to deploy and use. d. Focus of light effect measurements.

V. DNA Analysis: It involves in checking the DNA pattern of a human used when physical characteristics are unrecognizable. It is used to identify people, who are died, to find out the relationship like identifying Childs natural parents. This is one Biometric that is judicially accepted. No human have identified DNA patterns except in twins. Advantages: a. DNA samples can be collected from toothbrush, clothes. Disadvantages: e. DNA testing takes longer time than other methods. f. Twins have same DNA. g. Researchers produce same DNA.

2.BEHAVOURAL VERIFICATION This involves in oral thing done by the individual. There are 3 types of behavioral verifications, 1. Typing 2. Signature 3. Voice 1. Typing: Some systems measure things you do in addition to the things you are, you will notice that your typing has a certain pattern. Some letters follow others in quick succession, while others take longer. Software called Bio password is available for less than $100.It integrates with Windows 2000.Windows NT.Login to provide this authentication without the need for any additional software. This measure is a behavioral characteristic of a person. 2. Signature: Some qualities looked into include acceleration rates, direction, and pressure and stroke length. Here mainly concentrate on pressures. This pressures stored in back end for future significations. Disadvantages: a. The disadvantage with the technology lies in the randomness or the consistency with which a user makes his signature. If pressures are not tally with stored pressure in the database. 3. Voice: It involves in the recognition of the voice of the individual. Advantages: 1) It is inexpensive. 2) It also works through telephone. 3) Some person mimicry with other person voices.

Disadvantages: a. One can mimic the voice of the individual. Biometric does not guarantee security. It simply offers ore convenient and reliable means of identification and authentication.

Mixed form Biometrics
Some times use more than one form biometrics. This mixed form provide more security. Here combine more than one type. Even 80% equals with database then access provide to user.

Identification
It is a process of recognition and involves taking the biometric data and searching for the match in the database asking it a slow process that it is more prone to errors.

Authentication:
It involves confirming your identity and the biometric systems have to match your data with only one, single record. Depending on the technique used, Biometric have varying levels of accuracy .The system might let you pass in one attempt on Monday and require five on Tuesday. The accuracy of any biometric system is measured in terms of FAR and FRR. FAR (False Acceptance Rates): Where an imposer is accepted as a match. It is a probability of falsely accepting a metric as a match. FRR (False Rejection Rates): Where a legal match is denied. Where the system sails to recognize an authentic Bio-signature. As FRR increases, the FAR goes down and vice versa. Almost all biometric systems can be adjusted to varying levels of strictness to create a variation in FAR and FRR. For a system to be successful, both have to be with in acceptable low limits.

Advantages
 It provide good security mechanism than all other security methods  It never fails in security constraints.  In public locations such as banks and airports a large number of people transit every day including known criminals. Face recognition systems attached to video surveillance systems are supposed to help catch them.  A professor recently published his techniques for fooling finger print scanners. He found that Optical finger print scanners can be fooled by silicon rubber. However electro magnetic scanners would reject those, because electrical characteristics are different from that of a live finger.

Limitations
      It needs high memory space in the back end. Collect data for security is difficult Some times fails the security with right users Any time data loose in database high effect for security mechanism. So many equipments are needed for provide this technology. It highly expensive

Conclusion
Security is not just about putting big locks on the front door; it also involves making sure all the windows are shut. Each one can be individually fooled, but the comparison makes the system more secure as a whole. Biometrics are have its own advantages and disadvantages. It high expensive but it provide good security. Money is not important than security. It is more useful for confidential maters.

References
http://Biometrics.com http://whitepapers.com http://www.milesresearch.com http://microsoft/biometrics.com IT Magazines


				
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