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   Module 16
           Edward Thorndike
Law of Effect:
  behaviors with favorable
   consequences will occur
   more frequently

  behaviors with unfavorable
   consequences will occur
   less frequently
   Operant Conditioning
 type of learning in which the
 frequency of a behavior depends on
 the consequence that follows that
               B.F. Skinner

 developed principles &
 techniques of operant
 conditioning; found
 ways to apply them in
 the real world
      Consequences of Behavior
 Reinforcement -
 consequence that increases
 the likelihood of the
 behavior it follows

 Punishment - consequence
 that decreases the
 likelihood of the behavior
 it follows
         Think about this . . .
The subject determines if a consequence is
 reinforcing or punishing so…

What things are reinforces for you that might
 not be for other people?

What things are punishments for you that
 might not be for other people?
        Types of Punishment
 positive punishment - an undesirable
 event occurs following a behavior

 negative punishment - a desirable state
 or event ends following a behavior
positive punishment   negative punishment
      Positive Reinforcement
 increases the likelihood of a behavior by
 following it with a desirable event or state

 you receive something you want

 will strengthen the behavior
Positive Reinforcement
      Negative Reinforcement
 increases the likelihood of a behavior by
 following it with the removal of an
 undesirable event or state

 something you don’t like is removed

 will strengthen the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
         Video Clip Questions
1. What is operant conditioning?
2. Operant conditioning is based on the works
     of which two people?
3.   What does the law of effect say?
4.   Does the video clip show reinforcement or
5.   What was the consequence for behavior in
     the video clip?
6.   How did that consequence affect behavior?
Analyzing Operant Conditioning Examples:
1.   Who is the main focus of the example?

2.   What is their behavior?

3.    Is that behavior more likely or less likely to happen
      again in the future?
      more likely – reinforcement
      less likely – punishment

4.    Why is that behavior more or less likely to happen?
      Was something desirable or undesirable added?
      Was something desirable or undesirable taken away?
 Operant Conditioning Examples
 The puppy pees on the rug and is punished with a
  swat of the newspaper.
               positive punishment
 The toddler gets picked up and comforted for
               positive reinforcement

 You hit the snooze button on your annoying alarm
               negative reinforcement
 The window looking into the other monkey's
  enclosure is shut when the first monkey bites the
                negative punishment
  Operant Conditioning Examples
 "I'm not talking to you after what you did!"
              negative punishment
 Walking straight through low doorways
  causes you to bonk your head.
              positive punishment
 You fake a stomach ache to avoid school.
             negative reinforcement
 A child wakes up in the middle of the night
  crying. The parents let the child sleep in bed
  with them.
             positive reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Your father gives you a credit
  card at the end of your first
 year in college because you
 did so well. As a result, your
 grades continue to get better
     in your second year.
Positive Reinforcement
 A lion in a circus learns to
stand up on a chair and jump
 through a hoop to receive a
           food treat.
Negative Reinforcement
 A professor has a policy of
exempting students from the
  final exam if they maintain
perfect attendance during the
     quarter. His students’
     attendance increases
  Negative Punishment
The child has his crayons taken
   away for fighting with his
Positive Reinforcement
You check the coin return slot
on a pay telephone and find a
   quarter. You find yourself
  checking other telephones
    over the next few days.
 Negative Reinforcement
Your hands are cold so you put
 your gloves on. In the future,
   you are more likely to put
   gloves on when it’s cold.
    Positive Punishment
Billy likes to campout in the backyard.
  He camped-out every Friday during
  the month of June. The last time he
  camped out, some older kids snuck
  up to his tent while he was sleeping
  and threw a bucket of cold water on
    him. Billy has not camped-out for
                three weeks.
   Negative Punishment
"This car isn't getting any closer
  to Disneyland while you kids
           are fighting!"
Positive Reinforcement
Every time Madge raises her
hand in class she is called on.
 She raised her hand 3 times
 during the first class, 3 times
  in the second and 4 times
     during the last class.
Negative Reinforcement
John does not go to the dentist
 every 6-months for a checkup.
 Instead, he waits until a tooth
  really hurts, then goes to the
  dentist. After two emergency
  trips to the dentist, John now
      goes every 6-months.
Negative & Positive Punishment
  Robert gets a ticket for driving
     under the influence that
    results in a $500 fine and
    suspension of his driving
 Positive Reinforcement
Shelly is in the grocery store with her
 dad. As they near the checkout lane,
 Shelly starts whining for a candy bar
 but her dad says no. Shelly begins to
  cry and cries louder when her dad
      continues to refuse. Her dad
  responds by grabbing a candy bar
and giving it to her. She quickly quiets
     down and eats her candy bar.
Positive Reinforcement
  Your cat has learned that he can
    encourage your presence in the
   kitchen on Saturday mornings by
standing on your chest and meowing
   (when you are obviously trying to
sleep). You decide to get up and feed
 the cat to shut it up, but the problem
    only gets worse on subsequent
Immediate & Delayed
  Immediate/Delayed Reinforcement
immediate is more effective
 than delayed
   examples: smoking

ability to delay gratification
 predicts higher achievement
  example: school
Primary & Secondary
      Primary Reinforcement
 something that is naturally reinforcing -
 item is reinforcing in and of itself

 examples: food, warmth, water, clothes
     Secondary Reinforcement
 something that a person has learned to
 value or finds rewarding because it is
 paired with a primary reinforcer

 examples: money
   Problems With Punishment

   Read pages 309 – 310. As you read, list
 negative and positive effects of punishment.

      Answer the following questions:
     Why is punishment used so often?
What do most psychologists recommend as an
   effective alternative to punishment ?
 Negative Effects of Punishment
 doesn’t prevent undesirable behavior when
  away from the punisher

 can lead to fear, anxiety, and lower self-esteem

 children who are punished physically may learn
  to use aggression to solve problems
 Positive Effects of Punishment
 can effectively control certain behaviors:
 especially useful if teaching a child not
 to do a dangerous behavior

 (most psychologists still suggest
 reinforcing an incompatible behavior
 rather than using punishment)

 How can you use operant
conditioning to teach a new
 reinforcement of behaviors
  that are more similar to the
  one you want to occur

 used to establish a new

 example: learning to ride a

How do we learn to behave
 differently in response to
      similar stimuli?
 ability to distinguish between two similar

respond to one stimuli but not a similar
  example: end of class bell v. fire alarm blares
  How do we ever manage to get
rid of behaviors we have learned?
 loss of a conditioned behavior occurs
 when consequences no longer follow it

 examples: repeating the same
 unsuccessful move on a video game,
 stop flirting with someone who doesn’t
 Schedules of
    Continuous Reinforcement
 a reward follows every correct response

 most useful way to establish a behavior;
 behavior will extinguish quickly once
 reinforcement stops

 example: vending machines
        Partial Reinforcement
 reward follows only some correct responses

includes the following types:
  fixed-interval & variable interval
  fixed-ratio & variable-ratio
      Fixed-Interval Schedule
 rewards only the first correct response
 after some defined period of time

 example: weekly quiz in a class
    Variable-Interval Schedule
 rewards the first correct response after
 an unpredictable amount of time

 example: “pop” quiz in a class
       Fixed-Ratio Schedule
 rewards a response only after some
 defined number of correct responses

 example: video rental stores “Rent 10,
 Get 1 free” promotions
      Variable-Ratio Schedule
 rewards an unpredictable number of
 correct responses

 very resistant to extinction

 examples: slot machines, lottery tickets
The Role of
           Latent Learning
 learning that takes place in absence of
 an apparent reward

 shows that our thinking – not just
 whether we are reinforced – affects our
            Cognitive Map
 mental representation of a place

 experiments showed rats could learn a
 maze without any reinforcements
      Overjustification Effect
 promising a reward for doing what
 someone already likes to do

 reward may lessen & replace the original,
 natural motivation, so the behavior stops
 if the reward is eliminated

 examples: reading, grades
The Role of Biology
     Biological Predisposition
 research suggests some species are
 biologically predisposed to learn specific

  pigeons – flapping wings to avoid shock,
   pecking for food: difficult to reverse

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