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Lesson 5-4 Example 1 State the Assumption for Starting an Indirect Proof State the assumption you would make to start an indirect proof of each statement. a. mABC = mDBG mABC mDBG b. AB FG AB is not perpendicular to FG c. ABC is a right triangle ABC is not a right triangle Example 2 Write an Indirect Algebraic Proof Write an indirect proof to show that if 3x + 6 < 15 then x < 3. Given: 3x + 6 < 15 Prove: x<3 Step 1 Indirect Proof: The negation of x < 3 is x 3. That is, assume that x > 3 or x = 3 is true. Step 2 Make a table with several possibilities for x given that x > 3 or x = 3. x 3x + 6 3 15 4 18 5 21 6 24 7 27 When x > 3, 3x 6 15 and when x = 3, 3x + 6 = 15. Step 3 In both cases, the assumption leads to the contradiction of a known fact. Therefore, the assumption that x 3 must be false, which means that x < 3 must be true. Real-World Example 3 Indirect Algebraic Proof SALES Frankie bought two shirts for just over $54, before tax. A few weeks later, her friend, Tanya asked her how much each shirt cost. Frankie could not remember the individual prices. Use inductive reasoning to show that at least one of the shirts cost more than $27. Given: The two shirts cost more than $54. Prove: At least one of the shirts cost more than $27. That is, if 2x > 54 then x > 27. Step 1 Assume that neither shirt cost more than $27. That is, x 27 and y 27. Step 2 If x 27 and y 27, then x + y 54. That is a contradiction because we know that the two shirts cost more than $54. Step 3 The assumption leads to the contradiction of a known fact. Therefore, the assumption that x 27 and y 27 must be false. Thus, at least one of the shirts had to have cost more than $27. Example 4 Indirect Proofs in Number Theory Write an indirect proof to show that if x an odd integer, then x 2 is an odd integer. Step 1 Given: x is an odd integer. Prove: x 2 is an odd integer. Indirect Proof: Assume that x 2 is an even integer. Step 2 x is an odd integer, this means that x = 2k +1 for some integer k. x2 = (2k + 1)2 Substitution. = (2k + 1) (2k + 1) Multiply. = 4k2 + 4k + 1 Simplify. = 2(2k2 + 2k) + 1 Distributive Property Step 3 2(k 2 2k) 1 is an odd number. This contradicts the assumption, so it must be false. So, x 2 is an odd integer. Example 5 Geometry Proof Given: ABC is not a right angle. Prove: mABC 90 Indirect Proof: Step 1 Assume mABC = 90. Step 2 If mABC = 90, then by definition of a right angle, ABC is a right angle. However, this contradicts the given statement. Step 3 Since the assumption leads to a contradiction, the assumption must be false. Therefore, mABC 90.

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posted: | 5/30/2012 |

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