Revival of the Northern
European Monarchies &
The Northern Renaissance
The Development of Politically
(Revival of Monarchy for short!)
• Key General Factors
– A Decline in the nobility & The Clergy.
• WHY WERE THEY IN DECLINE?
– The 100 Years War & The Great Schism
– They were less able to control expanding monarchies.
– Important Towns began to ally with the King.
• WHAT DID THIS ENTAIL?
– Loyal & business-wise townspeople staffed the royal offices and
became the king’s “cabinet”. Jobs?
» Lawyers, bookkeepers, military tacticians, foreign diplomats.
Revival of Monarchy continued
• More Key Factors:
– Taxation, war making, and law enforcement come
under control of monarchs and their chosen agents.
• These issues become national rather than regional
– Monarch’s started to establish standing national
• What were some consequences of this?
– Forced to pay them. If you didn’t you could have mutiny.
– Needed more income! How did they raise it?
» Collect rents, taxes on basic items (gabelle tax in France),
sales tax (alcabala in Spain), direct tax on peasants (taille in
France), sell public offices, & borrow from rich bankers!
France Spain England
Circumstance/ Ripe for a strong
condition of the Monarch to take over! Castile & Aragon
•Turmoil an internal
country before 100 Years War…Joan of were separate chaos.
Arc. Charles VII & his Kingdoms. •Wars of Roses (York &
centralization cabinet Lancaster)
Political leader(s) •Edward IV (York)—
during revival of the Charles VII •Ferdinand of Aragon increased $$ and power.
monarchy & Louis XI & Isabella of Castile. •Henry VII (Lancaster-
Banker Jacques Coeur Tudor Dynasty)
Event's that led to • Marriage. • Henry married
centralization of the collapsed in France •Gained loyalty of Elizabeth of York.
monarchy •Collapse of Burgandy cities • Ended Wars of Roses
under Charles the Bold and Q of succession.
•Secured borders, • Equitable court
Achievements/ •Expanded trade and military campaigns, system.
Actions of the industry. (Silk) exploration (C.C.), •Laws established to
•Kingdom expanded! Christianized the land. support monarchy.
monarchy •Inquisition and exile of •Took lands, made $, no
Jews. need for Parliament for $
Court and/or tax
created during the •Court of Star Chamber:
Alcabala-10% used to control nobles!
revival of the Taille & gabelle sales tax. •Privy Council
The exceptions to the trend…
• Italy and The Holy Roman Empire
(Germany) did not develop into
– H.R.E: German cities and territories
resisted all efforts to centralize.
• The Golden Bull: 7 member electoral college
that administered and elected the Emperor.
• Efforts to control feuding (Reichstag) were
noble in the attempt, but could not bring unity to
the 300+ political entities.
The Northern Renaissance
• Influenced by Italian / Southern
• Much more diverse backgrounds.
• More devoted to religious reforms.
• More willing to write for “the masses”
There comes a time in every era
of history when an invention
ROCKS THE WORLD…
This is one of those times!
1468---Gutenberg is the MAN!
Scherrman’s Favorite Invention of ALL TIME!!!
(well at least up to this point in history…)
And Van Halen ROCKS!!!
• Most famous and
“prince of the
• “where their is
smoke, there is fire”
• “leave no stone
• Wanted the bible and
into the vernacular:
• English friend of Erasmus.
• In Utopia…Moore presses for social
reform by describing the perfect setting.
– What does Utopian mean?
• Society based on tolerance,
and reason. Everyone works
for the common good.
Albrecht Dürer –The German
• Was a painter and an
worked with engravings:
• Artists etched a design on a
metal plate with acid, and
uses the plate to make prints.
• Traveled to Italy to learn
• He spread the renaissance
through his works and
Albrecht Dürer’s Work
• Jan & Hubert van Eyck
– Focused on using OIL paints.
– Paintings were of townspeople, religious
scenes, very realistic and detailed.
The Arnolfini Wedding
Jan Van Eyck
Jan Van Eyck
The Three Mary’s at the Tomb-Hubert Van Eyck (14-10-20)
• Used vibrant colors to portray peasant
life. (As opposed to religious themes.)
• Peasant wedding 1568 by Pieter Bruegel
Hit play stupid
It’s Going your way
WHO IS THE ARTIST?
Renaissance & Rock & Roll
Doesn’t get any better!
Lenny Kravitz tends to rock