Docstoc

Revival of the Northern European Monarchies

Document Sample
Revival of the Northern European Monarchies Powered By Docstoc
					Revival of the Northern
European Monarchies &
The Northern Renaissance
     The Development of Politically
          Centralized lands.
    (Revival of Monarchy for short!)

• Key General Factors
  – A Decline in the nobility & The Clergy.
     • WHY WERE THEY IN DECLINE?
        – The 100 Years War & The Great Schism
        – They were less able to control expanding monarchies.
  – Important Towns began to ally with the King.
     • WHAT DID THIS ENTAIL?
        – Loyal & business-wise townspeople staffed the royal offices and
          became the king’s “cabinet”. Jobs?
            » Lawyers, bookkeepers, military tacticians, foreign diplomats.
     Revival of Monarchy continued
• More Key Factors:
 – Taxation, war making, and law enforcement come
   under control of monarchs and their chosen agents.
   • These issues become national rather than regional
     matters.
 – Monarch’s started to establish standing national
   armies.
   • What were some consequences of this?
      – Forced to pay them. If you didn’t you could have mutiny.
      – Needed more income! How did they raise it?
          » Collect rents, taxes on basic items (gabelle tax in France),
            sales tax (alcabala in Spain), direct tax on peasants (taille in
            France), sell public offices, & borrow from rich bankers!
                        France                    Spain                       England
Circumstance/              Ripe for a strong
condition of the         Monarch to take over!    Castile & Aragon
                                                                                 •Turmoil an internal
country before          100 Years War…Joan of     were separate                        chaos.
                         Arc. Charles VII & his   Kingdoms.                    •Wars of Roses (York &
centralization                  cabinet                                              Lancaster)

Political leader(s)                                                              •Edward IV (York)—
during revival of the        Charles VII          •Ferdinand of Aragon        increased $$ and power.
monarchy                    & Louis XI            & Isabella of Castile.        •Henry VII (Lancaster-
                        Banker Jacques Coeur                                       Tudor Dynasty)

Event's that led to                               • Marriage.                 • Henry married
                        •English Empire
centralization of the   collapsed in France       •Gained loyalty of          Elizabeth of York.
monarchy                •Collapse of Burgandy     cities                      • Ended Wars of Roses
                        under Charles the Bold                                and Q of succession.
                                                  •Secured borders,           • Equitable court
Achievements/           •Expanded trade and       military campaigns,         system.
Actions of the          industry. (Silk)          exploration (C.C.),         •Laws established to
                        •Kingdom expanded!        Christianized the land.     support monarchy.
monarchy                                          •Inquisition and exile of   •Took lands, made $, no
                        •Postal System
                                                  Jews.                       need for Parliament for $
Court and/or tax
created during the                                                            •Court of Star Chamber:
                                                     Alcabala-10%             used to control nobles!
revival of the            Taille & gabelle             sales tax.             •Privy Council
monarchy
The exceptions to the trend…

• Italy and The Holy Roman Empire
  (Germany) did not develop into
  centralized states!
  – H.R.E: German cities and territories
    resisted all efforts to centralize.
    • The Golden Bull: 7 member electoral college
      that administered and elected the Emperor.
    • Efforts to control feuding (Reichstag) were
      noble in the attempt, but could not bring unity to
      the 300+ political entities.
The Northern Renaissance

• Influenced by Italian / Southern
  Renaissance.
• Much more diverse backgrounds.
• More devoted to religious reforms.
• More willing to write for “the masses”
There comes a time in every era
  of history when an invention
      ROCKS THE WORLD…




This is one of those times!
1468---Gutenberg is the MAN!
    THE PRINTING
      PRESS!!!!!!!
Scherrman’s Favorite Invention of ALL TIME!!!
           (well at least up to this point in history…)



                   And Van Halen ROCKS!!!
Desiderius Erasmus

• Most famous and
  “prince of the
  humanists”
• “where their is
  smoke, there is fire”
• “leave no stone
  unturned”
• Wanted the bible and
  other Christian
  sources translated
  into the vernacular:
Thomas Moore

• English friend of Erasmus.
• In Utopia…Moore presses for social
  reform by describing the perfect setting.
  – What does Utopian mean?
     • Society based on tolerance,
        and reason. Everyone works
        for the common good.
Albrecht Dürer –The German
Leonardo
         • Was a painter and an
           worked with engravings:
             • Artists etched a design on a
               metal plate with acid, and
               uses the plate to make prints.
         • Traveled to Italy to learn
           techniques.
         • He spread the renaissance
           through his works and
           writings.
Albrecht Dürer’s Work
Flemish Painters

• Jan & Hubert van Eyck
  – Focused on using OIL paints.

  – Paintings were of townspeople, religious
    scenes, very realistic and detailed.
The Arnolfini Wedding
(1434)
Jan Van Eyck
Annunciation-
Jan Van Eyck
(1436-38)
The Three Mary’s at the Tomb-Hubert Van Eyck (14-10-20)
Pieter Bruegel


• Used vibrant colors to portray peasant
  life. (As opposed to religious themes.)
• Peasant wedding 1568 by Pieter Bruegel
Hit play stupid
   European History




It’s Going your way
WHO IS THE ARTIST?
Renaissance & Rock & Roll

   Doesn’t get any better!

Lenny Kravitz tends to rock
         as well!!

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:12
posted:5/30/2012
language:English
pages:34